Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: With Pearl and Sir Orfeo
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Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Pearl are two poems by an unknown author written in about Sir Gawain is a romance, a fairy-tale for adults, full of life and colour; but it is also much more than this, being at the same time a powerful moral tale which examines religious and social values.
Pearl is apparently an elegy on the death of a child, a poem pervaded with a Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Pearl are two poems by an unknown author written in about Pearl is apparently an elegy on the death of a child, a poem pervaded with a sense of great personal loss: Sir Orfeo is a slighter romance, belonging to an earlier and different tradition. It was a special favourite of Tolkien's. The three translations represent the complete rhyme and alliterative schemes of the originals. Paperback , pages. Published by HarperCollins Publishers first published To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
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Lists with This Book. Sep 24, David Sarkies rated it really liked it Shelves: The Struggle Against Nature 28 September This middle English poem is said by some to be the greatest poem of Middle English literature, however it does have to compete with The Canterbury Tales for that title, something that I am not going to go into since I have not have the chance to read Chaucer's work at this stage. However while the earliest copy of this poem exists on a manuscript dating back to AD, it was probably circulating much earlier than than.
We don't actually know who the The Struggle Against Nature 28 September This middle English poem is said by some to be the greatest poem of Middle English literature, however it does have to compete with The Canterbury Tales for that title, something that I am not going to go into since I have not have the chance to read Chaucer's work at this stage.
We don't actually know who the author of this poem is and my suspicion is that it is like The Odyssey - it was an oral poem what was written down at a later date, and copied, and the version that we have is the earliest version of this copied text. The manuscript also contains two other poems, the Pearl and Sir Orfeo both of which Tolkien translates as well.
While the poem begins in King Arthur's court, during a feast, the opening stanza goes back to the founding of England - Troy. It appears and I noted that Holinshed, the English Chronicler from whom Shakespeare used as a source for some of his plays also puts the origin of the British people to Troy. The story is that after Troy fell, Aeneas fled to Italy where he founded a colony and from that colony Romulus and Remus arose and went on to found the city of Rome or at least Romulus, since since he killed Remus.
However, one of Aeneas' general's, Brutus, was not happy with the location, so he left with some followers, sailed to Britain, defeated the Giants, and founded a colony that eventually, after millennia, went on to rule the world. This of course is all legend and there is no historical or archeological evidence to support this ever actually happening though it does make a ripping yarn. Anyway, that is beside the point.
The poem itself was quite popular and tells the story of Sir Gawain who, at the feast, decides to take the Green Knight's challenge, which is that if somebody where to strike him then they must meet him at the Green Chapel in a year and a day and also be struck. Sir Gawain decides that sounds like a bit of fun and proceeds to lop off his head. However the Green Knight simply picks it up his head that is and walks out, telling him that he will see him in a year and a day.
So Sir Gawain travels the land and arrives at the castle of Sir Bertilak. Bertilak then heads out out on a hunting trip but before he goes he tells Sir Gawain that if he gives Gawain the proceeds of the hunt, Sir Gawain must give him whatever he got that day. So, while Bertilak is out his wife attempts to seduce Gawain, who resists the temptations, and the first two times he is given a kiss, and the last time he is given a girdle which will protect him from harm.
Gawain honours his agreement to Bertilak with the exception of the Girdle and then goes out to meet the Green Knight. After the battle, it turns out that the Green Knight is Bertilak. This poem carries a lot of symbolism which will simply take way too long to explore the subtleties and for those who are interested, I'll simply refer you to Wikipedia. However, one of the major themes in this poem is chivalry, which is a medieval code of honour for knights. One of the major aspects is honesty and keeping one's words.
Gawain does demonstrate his honour by keeping his word to Bertilak and the Green Knight however he does fail with handing over the girdle. This is interesting because he keeps the girdle for protection when he meets the Green Knight without actually knowing that he has already met the Green Knight. We also notice that he honours the marriage vows by resisting Bertilak's wifes advances, even though each advance becomes progressively stronger. Some have suggested that the advances of Bertilak's wife reflects Bertilak's hunting trips, as the animals Bertilak hunts become progressively more aggressive.
Another aspect is nature verses civilisation with the Green Knight and in turn Bertilak representing nature and Camelot representing civilisation.
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The Green Knight's entrance to the feast is a reflection of the chaos of nature bursting into the order of civilisation, and Sir Gawain takes the challenge in an attempt to tame nature. However, considering the time this poem was written the Dark Ages it is also looking back to a more civilised time despite doubts as to the actual existence of King Arthur's court.
The time in which this poem was composesd was a time of lack of law and there is, in a way the hearers were no doubt longing for the better times. In this particular work, there are two other poems which I will briefly mention. The first is The Pearl, which is an allegorical dialogue between a knight and a woman about the kingdom of heaven. This poem has a lot of biblical images which includes the Pearl, a symbol that Christ uses in one of his parables to describe the beauty and value of the kingdom of heaven. The Knight had the pearl, but lost it, and is worried that in losing the pearl he has also lost access to the kingdom of heaven.
Some have suggested that the Pearl is probably representing a loved one, such as a child, but I think the allegory in this poem is deeper than that. The final poem, Sir Orfeo, is a retelling of the Greek story of Orpheus in the underworld and this is very clear in that Sir Orfeo is a form of Orpheus. The poem is set in Winchester, however in the poem it is also called Thrace the location in Greece of the original Orpheus myth. In this poem, though, instead of travelling to the underworld to rescue is beloved, he travels to the Faerie world where his beloved has disappeared.
However, in all forms, this poem is the same as the Greek legend. Sep 01, Meghan rated it really liked it. Sir Gawain was one of the books I studied in college that only received the perfunctory attention of desperate, late-night skimming before the class in which it was to be covered.
Once I actually sat down to read it, I enjoyed it as the best chivalric romance I have yet to read. Sir Gawain's uncomplicated approach to his knightly duty, and his calm preparations for his certain death - green girdle aside - is beautiful. The translated poetry is pretty, and the adventure part is fun.
The poem is a Sir Gawain was one of the books I studied in college that only received the perfunctory attention of desperate, late-night skimming before the class in which it was to be covered. The poem is also a gem in terms of revealing medieval Catholic spirituality; great importance is placed on holy days every significant event happens to fall on a holy day: All Souls' Day, Christmas, the Solemnity of Mary , the severity of failing to avoid the near occasion of sin, Mass and confession play an essential role in Gawain's preparations for his quest and, later, prep for his death, and Mary's role as Mother and intercessor is clearly laid out.
I am still slightly confused about just what the Green Knight is running around trying to accomplish so he is under the power of King Arthur's enemy Morgan la Fey to bring chaos and destruction to Such a lovely collection of fourteenth century gems! Sir Gawain is a delight, of course, as is this version of the Orpheus and Eurydice myth, but it is Pearl that has swept me away.
I've heard about the Pearl Poet since high school, but for some strange reason had never read the Pearl Poet's Pearl. I'm reading it as a father's or mother's consolatory thoughts after losing a toddler daughter to death. The narrator runs his mind through the Scriptures, starting in Matthew and then going back to G Such a lovely collection of fourteenth century gems! The narrator runs his mind through the Scriptures, starting in Matthew and then going back to Genesis and on to Isaiah and Revelation, gaining knowledge and comfort along the way.
The little allegories within are beautiful, especially the little girl as the Pearl of Great Price. In the background always seems to be King David's consolation that though his dead son can not come back to him, he will go to the son. I like all the Anglo-Saxon-based words that Tolkien uses, with the addition of a scattering of Latin and French.
Now I plan to read John Steinbeck's The Pearl, which was inspired by his studies of the fourteenth-century manuscript. Dec 16, Genni rated it it was amazing. It has all the qualities of a good story. The plot is good in and of itself. It takes a minute to get used to the constant alliteration, I think, but it is so worth the effort. Sir Gawain is eating dinner with King Arthur, when in marches a green knight. The knight challenges everyone in the hall, but only Gawain, the smallest, most witless of knights, answers the challenge. I could not have been more wrong, though.
What happens when Goliath simply picks up his head and strides out of the camp? It strikes at the heart of what it meant to be a knight, what it means to go on a quest, what it means to be flawed, and what it means to be sought and found.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo by J.R.R. Tolkien
I was not as enthralled with either of these. In particular, I was looking forward to an English rendering of the Orpheus myth. However, the author changed the ending. In my opinion, this caused it to lack the punch of the original tale. So, 5 stars for Sir Gawain, and not as many for the other two. View all 4 comments. Cleo Truly one of my favourites! Dec 16, I will definitely be rereading it. Tolkien translated three poems from I'm guessing Old English, keeping their original meters and rhyming schemes.
The introduction gives some examples from the original text, which was basically Greek to me, and I'm always amazed when someone is able to translate poetry and still make it sound good. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is the story of one of King Arthur's knights who has to go on a quest because of an idiotic decision he made at a feast at Camelot. I realize these are Tolkien translated three poems from I'm guessing Old English, keeping their original meters and rhyming schemes. I realize these are different times and the point of the poem is the epic quest, not the premise behind it, but it still had me rolling my eyes.
Basically the Green Knight shows up at a New Year's day feast with a giant axe. He tells King Arthur he's heard of his awesome knights and wants to make a deal: One of them can swing this axe at him killing him! Even if it wasn't a trap, why would you agree to kill some random dude to prove you're a valiant Knight? Anyways, before Arthur swings, Gawain feels ashamed for not volunteering to kill someone in cold blood, and he offers to do it instead.
He swings the axe, decapitates the Green Knight, and goes back to the feast. The Green Knight stands up, grabs his head, says "Now I get to swing at you! But I'll give you a year, so find me next New Year's. There's no reason why the Green Knight does what he does, there's no reason why Gawain agreed to it, and I guess that's just the way it is.
Anyways, that's just the beginning. It's the longest of the three poems. It has an easy rhythm to read and good alliteration, but clearly medieval epic poetry is not my thing. I liked Pearl and Sir Orfeo better. Pearl is told from the point of view of a father or husband, not sure who loses his daughter or wife?
She's in heaven, and he wants to cross the river and join her but he can't, because he's not dead yet. He thinks it's cruel to see her again only to be separated yet again,and then they have a long conversation about the mercy and justice of God. It reminds me a bit of the book of Job. He starts off mad at God for taking his daughter and not letting him die to join her, but as the conversation progresses, he ends up more at peace. It's a good conversation with some Gospel sprinkled in.
I can see why Tolkien liked it! Orfeo was the shortest and easiest to read, as this one actually had rhyming lines. It's a cute adventure story about a king whose wife is taken by fairies, and he has to go to the fairy realm to rescue her. I was so excited to learn that I could study the Middle Ages and read Tolkien at the same time! It really is amazing how so many different works of literature are tied together somehow. I had been studying Arthur and his knights, and had read Tolkien's biography separately, to prepare myself to read the Lord of the Rings trilogy.
In that biography I learned about Tolkien's interest in Middle-English as one of his favorite languages, and also of his enduring commitment to the Catholic faith and a I was so excited to learn that I could study the Middle Ages and read Tolkien at the same time! In that biography I learned about Tolkien's interest in Middle-English as one of his favorite languages, and also of his enduring commitment to the Catholic faith and all its doctrines. I believe those two things are both explanations for why he chose to focus on these three poems by an anonymous 14th century author, whose work can be compared to that of Chaucer.
Of these poems, Sir Gawain follows the Arthurian tradition in many aspects, except that of courtly love which, let's face it, the Round Table would have been better off without. As evidenced in each of the three poems, this author's morality bound him to promote only that which he believed was honorable in the sight of God. That said, Sir Gawain a very different Gawain than the one I encountered in The Once and Future King , by the way still managed to be imperfect by making one "not-so-exalted" judgment, which benefited the story greatly.
The "twist" at the end was very clever, and the alliterative style of the poetry itself was enjoyable. I understand, having read about Tolkien's insatiable perfectionism, why this translation must have been so difficult to submit to a publisher, and why his son Christopher ultimately had to finish editing it so it could be shared with the world.
It represents what must have been a tremendous amount of work, but it turned out marvelously. Pearl was also quite interesting, but in a different style and over very different subject matter. A man who loses his 2-year-old daughter has a "revelatory" dream where his daughter, now a "queen" in Heaven, explains many of the mysteries of life in Christ to her father. The doctrine is very blatantly Catholic in areas, with large portions reflecting a belief in Transubstantiation and the perpetual sacrifice of Christ, as well as the exaltation of Mary.
However, much of the poem is directly based on Scripture Revelation and the gospels, mostly and offers some truly insightful thoughts that border on exposition. Someone might posit that this poem is really just a theological treatise "dressed up," but, even if it is, I really did find it stimulating and enjoyable, and even edifying. The style was different from "Sir Gawain," which did not rhyme except for a couplet now and then.
I actually think I enjoyed the purely alliterative style of "Sir Gawain" better than "Pearl"'s alliteration-plus-rhyming. All the same, I'm sure this poem was a dream-come-true for Tolkien, since it would have had both academic and spiritual importance for him. Sir Orfeo was short and sweet--its rhyming style was again different from the other two, but with the common thread of attention to alliteration, which was enjoyable.
The tale was simpler than the others, with less development, but it was still a worthwhile read, emphasizing loyalty both within marriage and also to those in authority. I think these poems are an excellent choice for a logic-stage student studying the middle-ages; there is much to be learned about the period, about its morality and our own , and also about the art of poetry.
Tolkien has become synonymous with fantasy literature in the last twenty years. His fame and reputation in that regard are well deserved. His fantasy work has been badly copied and misinterpreted by authors and artists and game designers nearly since its inception. For many years before he wrote The Hobbit and the subsequent works of fantasy Tolkien was one of the foremost scholars on medieval literature and philology.
Philology is the study of the structure, historical development and relationsh Tolkien has become synonymous with fantasy literature in the last twenty years.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Pearl, and Sir Orfeo
Philology is the study of the structure, historical development and relationships of languages and Tolkien was the best English language philologist. Much of his work can be seen in the Oxford English Dictionary, which is so extensive it takes up multiple volumes.
Slightly more accessible to the average reader is his work of translation. Translating poetry is a monumental undertaking that requires vast skill and understanding of words. Not only must the original intent of the poetry be maintained but the rhyming scheme and alliterative style of the verses and lines also must be consistent with the original. When people read, even silently they affect a certain rhythm. The mind takes a breath pause after a certain number of syllables and certain sounds connect together better than others.
All of these things are part of writing poetry so that the person reading it will read it the way the poet intended. What I can say is that the stories told in each of these poems is spectacular. Gawain heads out on an epic quest expecting to find the test of his bravery and characters and finds instead that it is his morals being challenged. Pearl is either about a man who has lost a young daughter and grieves for her, a man who has lost his new wife, or a man who is writing metaphorically about his religious feelings. Sir Orfeo is a fourteenth century retelling of the King Orpheus myth and told brilliantly.
Sir Gawain refers to England as Middle Earth several times throughout the poem and there is much of this tragic hero in Aragorn. Dec 25, Peter B. In Britain all these lays are writ, there issued first in rhyming fit, concerning adventures in those days whereof the Britons made their lays; for when they heard men anywhere tell of adventures that there were, they took their harps in their delight and made a lay and named it right.
At whiles with worms he wars, and with wolves also, at whiles with wood-trolls that wandered in the crags, and with bulls and with bears and boars, too, at times; and with ogres that hounded him from the heights of the fells. Had he not been stalwart and staunch and steadfast in God, he doubtless would have died and death had met often; for though war wearied him much, the winter was worse, when the cold clear water from the clouds spilling froze ere it had fallen upon the faded earth. Aug 01, Brian rated it it was amazing.
I had a difficult time falling into a book so concerned with feasts and hunts and December merriment, but tinged with a constant temptation hanging over the whole book. The final scene is a real relief and makes me want to read it again without the tension. Not only did I like the Catholic morality put as close as possible next to the best of chivalry, but Gawain is an easily likeable protagonist. He strikes all the right human notes. Far be it from me to criticize Tolkien Absolutely wonderful: Far be it from me to criticize Tolkien in any way, but I felt the translation too much at times, but he quickly redeems himself with Pearl and Orfeo.
Poetry and I have had a tenuous relationship, but Pearl is one of the easiest to say poems I have read in a long time. I read nearly all of it out loud. Lovely in every way. Orfeo, though short, is memorable. A lovely story striking all the right notes. I read this a second time and enjoyed knowing in advance what would not happen. Very jolly atmosphere maintained throughout, which I enjoyed. A great representation of medieval life as we commonly stereotype it, but with real depth that grapples with the demands of medieval courtesy. Sep 02, Charley Robson rated it liked it Shelves: This Gawain story is one of my favourites, and is a lot of fun to read regardless of your familiarity with either the legends or the sort of academic study that really brought it to life for me.
Gawain's journey is unorthodox, the lessons learned complex, and all in all it's a worthy, intelligent story with lots to say and a damned good way of saying it. Sir Orfeo, my brain finds it more difficult to place. While the story itself - of a king gone to rescue his queen from a conniving fairy - is cl This Gawain story is one of my favourites, and is a lot of fun to read regardless of your familiarity with either the legends or the sort of academic study that really brought it to life for me. While the story itself - of a king gone to rescue his queen from a conniving fairy - is clearly based in the legend of Orpheus and Eurydice, the poem is very much of its time, and it's message can feel a little ham-fisted.
However, the ballad form and the light, enjoyable language keep it all engaging enough to make a decent casual read. The less I say about Pearl, the better. There might be children reading. Every time I took up the poems to read, it was like jumping into a stream of song.
The alliteration and rhyme constructed melodies that carried me along an adventurous, ponderous current from beginning to end. The content composing each story was rich and enjoyable, and though ancient, was like a breath of fresh air. Nov 04, Liam rated it liked it. As good as a re-read of Arthurian legend ever gets, made better by Tolkien's translation. Jan 23, Abby Moreland rated it it was amazing.
Tolkien, obviously, has a way with words, and the way he kept the alliteration and the beautiful word dynamic in these translated texts was superb. I enjoy this poems a great deal,. SGGK is an interestingly formatted poem with a LOT of alliteration; read Pearl if you are interested in a medieval view of heaven; Sir Orfeo is a classic, fairy-tale-style poem.
Apr 19, Gary rated it it was amazing. I listened to the audio book read by Terry Jones, and the audio book had the same cover. Hearing it read is special in the way that hearing great poetry is. When I was younger, once, I tried reading the original text of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, untranslated, and soon despaired of the incomprehensible language, though to ears it was as lovely as poetry from another world. Distraught and humiliated, Gawain returns to the Arthurian Court; when he is arrived, much to his surprise, he is received with mercy and forgiveness.
Pearl is a shorter poem. It is something of an allegory and theological treatise. In the poem, Pearl, the not-two-year old child of Pearl's father has died and her father is deeply grieved at his loss. In the poem he has a vision of Pearl in Paradise and has an extended conversation with her. In the conversation he learns that God has made Pearl a queen, which Pearl's father considers deeply unjust, as Pearl had not merited such grace from God given that her life was so short. Pearl then gives an extended argument that no one merits a particular amount of grace and that God can shower his grace on anyone.
Ultimately Pearl's father relents and is delighted to find not only that Pearl is to be a citizen of the New Jerusalem but that she has earned God's favor regardless of what she has done. Orfeo is the shortest piece and tells the story of King Orfeo of Tracience, a famous harp player, who loses his queen, lady Heurodis, to the Faerie King.
He places a steward in his stead and leaves on a ten year journey to win her back.
Eventually he enters the Faerie King's palace and wins Heurodis by impressing the Faerie King with his harp-playing. When they return, King Orfeo is joyously restored to the throne. Read more from the Study Guide. Browse all BookRags Study Guides. View the Study Pack. View the Lesson Plans. This section contains words approx. View a FREE sample.