As Western industrial cities rapidly expanded during the first part of the 20th century, factories encroached upon residential areas, tenements crowded in among small houses, and skyscrapers overshadowed other buildings. To preserve property values and achieve economy and efficiency in the…. Tax rates elsewhere must then be higher.
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The existence of such enclaves adds to the fiscal imbalance of neighbouring localities and can exacerbate…. Most familiar is zoning, the division of a given area into districts with limitations on the types of land use such as residential, commercial, or industrial. Extensive regulation of types of building such as height or density and of materials and methods of construction building codes is also….
More About Zoning 7 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References contribution to urban sprawl In urban sprawl: Economic effects development of property law In property In property law: Zoning and planning skyscrapers In skyscraper urban planning In urban planning: Zoning and subdivision controls.
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Fascism, political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern…. Slavery, condition in which one human being was owned by another. Organizing and planning are an intrinsic part of human activities and their histories are inter-linked.
In relation to the various concepts defining the term planning, Santos argues that they can be encapsulated as a continuous process involving the gathering, organizing and the systemized analysis of information through methods which result in the best possible use of available resources.
To make effective planning possible it is important to know the quantity and the quality of available resources, as well as the reasons for which they will be used. In this context, it is common to resort to zoning to evaluate an area, given that this process is thought to bring together environmental information Silva; Santos, In the last decades different zoning approaches have been employed in Brazil.
According to Millikan and Del Prette zoning strategies are associated to two traditions: The former is based on defining specific zones for different activities, so as to maintain residential areas away from potential inconveniences and disturbances. This gave rise to the "Zoning Law" which has normative characteristics. It does not impose land use regulations, but it is an aid to the decision-making process Ranieri et al. Within this context, Environmental Zoning EZ is understood as an instrument for spatial planning, despite different views of its role which take into account the context in which it is discussed and applied.
Therefore, as an instrument, EZ should incorporate environmental aspects within spatial planning so that human activities developed in the future within a particular space are viable, taking into account not only the economic and social, but also the environmental point of view. The aim of this work is to further the discussion on the concept of Environmental Zoning. It seeks to analyze the differences and similarities between outcomes obtained, and understand how this concept is drawn up and used, as well as how it is integrated to other instruments, thus contributing towards identifying the most successful practices and further consolidating the notion of Environmental Zoning.
Therefore, the main objective of this study is to identify criteria to assess whether Environmental Zoning studies are meeting their goals and are effective tools for reaching the objectives of the Brazilian National Environmental Policy NEP. In order to achieve this, the following specific objectives were drawn up: Environmental Zoning and Ecological-Economic Zoning. However, the delay in regulating Environmental Zoning left some crucial factors relating to its drafting unresolved. When observing the outcomes of Environmental Zoning in Brazil during the last decades, and its variants of different names for example, ecological-economic, ecological, geo-environmental zoning , Souza and Ranieri et al.
A common feature of these studies is that they seek to incorporate environmental aspects when dividing territories into zones. It promotes a clear understanding of areas susceptible to natural processes and it also allows us to assess the level of suitability of particular areas in view of specific activities.
Considering that there is a number of different laws at the various national political-administrative levels Federal, State and Municipal government , they tend to use Environmental Zoning as little as possible. Many academics see the end of the s as a watershed in relation to Environmental Zoning Millikan; Del Prette ; Lima, It is also when territorial planning for the Amazon region starts to integrate environmental elements, incorporating ecological concepts in land planning for the region Acselrad, The main purpose of Ecological-Economic Zoning is to support economic development, whilst accounting for environmental issues thus its name.
This way, land use planning can take better advantage of spaces and public policies. Regulations were based on assessments of the zoning experiences undertaken in the previous decades and took into account the various criticisms made by different sectors of society.
Thus, Environmental Zoning was ratified as a land planning instrument, upholding the need for its compliance within public and private plans, works and activities, setting out environmental quality measures and standards Art. It is important to note that EEZ is not just an instrument for indicating the suitability of a territory. Rather, it is similar to land use regulations "establishing bans, restrictions and alternative land usage" Art.
Integration with other instruments in the National Environmental Policy. The NEP establishes 12 other instruments, in addition to Environmental Zoning whose use should be integrated. Examples of some of these instruments are Environmental Impact Assessments, the licensing of actual or potential polluting activities and the establishment of specially protected areas. According to Ranieri et al. It may then be used as the basis for simplified environmental licenses, as long as the damage potential is low.
Ranieri states that the importance of Environmental Zoning in relation to the establishment of specially protected areas lies in the fact that it systematizes knowledge of an area, thus assisting in the identification of sites to be defined as Conservation Units. In this article we understand Environmental Zoning to be an environmental policy instrument capable of introducing environmental variables to land use planning.
It should be used in conjunction with other environmental policy instruments in order to highlight environmental issues as well as economic and social issues which are usually prioritized during planning. Input material and method. This research is mainly exploratory-descriptive and followed the stages detailed below. First, a literature review was conducted which was fundamental to provide the theoretical basis for Environmental Zoning as an instrument of the National Environmental Policy and to identify other studies on this subject, thus underpinning this research appropriately.
The selection and proposal of a set of criteria was grounded on the literature review. It focused on the specialized literature on this topic, taking into account the following key publications as reference: The literature pointed to aspects which should to be considered when planning and producing land use and environmental planning policies, in particular in relation to the stages to be followed and factors to be taken into account.
Criteria for analyzing environmental zoning as an instrument in land use and spatial planning
This background literature was used to establish a set of criteria for analyzing the development and use of Environmental Zoning studies. A set of basic minimum criteria was used to trigger a discussion on environmental aspects linked to the physical and biological natural and man-made environments, without venturing into the social and economic aspects of planning. Once criteria were identified, an adapted procedure of Faria's work was adopted. This author works with effectiveness indicators in the management of conservation units. He proposes the development of optimum management scenarios for each of the criteria analyzed, setting up a classification scale from 0 worst situation to 4 best situation.
In this paper, a scale from 0 to 2 was originally devised to classify each criteria analyzed in the different zoning initiatives being studied. Subsequently, research specialists were consulted academics working in the area of environmental and land use planning in order to validate the criteria selected and the classification method used.
Of the 6 specialists consulted via email, 4 replied positively to our request and individual meetings were set up. After meeting each specialist, considerations and recommendations were made. The most frequent suggestion related to the organization of the criteria.
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This led to a sub-division into groups reflecting zoning procedures: In addition, it was suggested that initially a single idealized optimum scenario should be used, given the subjectivity of some concepts and expectations relating to Environmental Zoning and the difficulty and perhaps even non-applicability of classifying the criteria proposed on a scale from 0 to 2.
Thus, the criteria in this study were conceived based on the literature and the knowledge gained by the researcher and complemented by discussions during the consultation phase. Subsequently, the zoning case studies were selected for analysis. Data-gathering of the zoning case studies selected was conducted by consulting maps, legal documents and technical reports, as well as interviews with technicians and managers involved in the planning, development and use of the Environmental Zoning exercises.
Once the preliminary proposal of criteria and the consultation and validation process with specialists were conducted, three charts were compiled which included the pre-planning, planning and post-planning stages. The first two stages relate to the development stage of zoning exercises and the third to their usage.
Charts 1 , 2 and 3 below present the criteria proposed, followed by explanations about each criteria and how each optimum scenario suggested is set up within the context of this work.
Once the criteria had been established and organized, they were applied to three selected test cases which are succinctly presented, outlining the sources consulted during the data-collection process for each case: This zoning is suggestive and its objectives are to identify areas which are propitious for urban expansion; areas which are suitable for conserving and recovering native vegetation; and areas which are adequate for the disposal of domestic solid waste.
It was regulated by Decree n. Its objectives are to identify units of land that deserve special attention and to establish which activities will require prior environmental licensing.
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This instrument has state-wide reach and is part of the Green Ethanol Strategic Environmental Project. It provides the basis for environmental licensing. Applying the criteria case by case - results. The grey color is used to show whether the optimum scenario is met in relation to each criterion, dark grey shows that criteria are met and light grey that they are not.
A lack of color means that it was not possible to obtain enough information in relation to a particular criterion in order to classify it. Chart 4 shows, in a simplified way, results of criteria application to the cases. This is followed by a discussion on the positive and negative aspects highlighted for each case and a general analysis of results. It is closer to the optimum scenario during its development stage Pre-Planning and Planning than in the deployment stage Post-planning. Among the positive points highlighted for this case are: In addition, a high quality report was produced criterion 2.
Amongst the negative aspects observed, the most significant was the lack of practical application of zoning outcomes, resulting in the non-compliance with established objectives criterion 3. With regard to the positive points identified in this case, institutional cooperation criteria 1. According to the answers obtained, the tripartite organization which involved state and municipal government representatives and members of organized civil society in a balanced way resulted in an agreement that the various sectors would present their concerns, opinions and experiences during the development stages of the zoning study.
This served as an example to be followed by other zoning experiences. The fact that there is no occupation which contravenes its recommendations or that restrictions are taken into account in environmental licensing processes demonstrated the effectiveness of its application to land use planning. It also reinforces its relationship with other NEP instruments.
However, it is important to find out how committed the licensing body is to this process. Among the negative aspects there is a lack of planning in terms of financial resources criterion 2. This is a disadvantage for the responsible institution and for those which could make use of this information as reference. Another negative point is the lack of clarity criterion 2.
Despite having reached clear outcomes which included classification, recommendations and detailed restrictions for particular zones, ZEE-LN objectives are very wide, making it difficult to clearly assess whether they have been complied with.