El país del Licancaur (Spanish Edition)
We must impress upon these European leaders, who include seven prime ministers, that not all British people are ideologically blinded Brexiters who hate Europe. Indeed, only a small percentage of those who even voted to leave in are anything close to being Europhobic — the type of people who wants a Brexit at any cost to the UK.
But the tide in the UK is very much turning against Brexit.
Poll after poll shows that people are dismayed by the way the British government has mishandled Brexit — a divided team of one that is being out-negotiated by a united bloc of In the aftermath of the referendum, the idea that the British public should be given the final say on Brexit, with the option to stay in the EU, was not popular. People had Brexit fatigue, they thought it was inevitable and just wanted secession to be rubber-stamped quickly. But Brexit dragged on and it became clear that there was to be no easy, clean break. It was the biggest political march since the Iraq War and its significance must not be underplayed in the UK or ignored in the EU.
European leaders need to know that not only is there more than a fighting chance that we can secure this vote, but also that we can win it. Part of that will involve holding a much fairer referendum, in which, for example, 16 and year-olds will be allowed to vote. This is vital, given they will have to live with the folly of Brexit far longer than any of the politicians who are trying to impose it on them. Moreover, young people overwhelmingly want to stay in the EU, enthused and energised as they are by a pan-national bloc that allows them freedom to travel, enjoy different cultures, scenery, food, drink, and adventures.
Another major demand will be for the UK to scrap the rule that prevented British migrants who have lived abroad for longer than 15 years from voting in the referendum. Many members of Bremain in Spain , for example, are understandably furious that they were effectively excluded over an issue that will have a huge impact on their futures.
It is within the vast extent of this valley that the principal centers of population are found, this section being the most favorable to agriculture and stock raising, by reason of the fertility -of the soil. The following table shows the declivity of the valley from. Salto del Soldado Soldier's Leap Bridge. Transandine Railway, at an elevation of 4, feet above sea level. The bridge is of masonry and spans one of the deepest gorges on the line. Its entire course measures kilometers miles , part of which is navigable. Its volume is increased by numerous affluents in the form of large creeks and streams.
A number of long bridges have therefore had to be built, the one shown in this picture being one of the oldest. On the northern or Peruvian boundary is the Sama River, formed by the junction of the Chaspaya River and several small Andean streams, which traverses the Republic emptying into the Pacific between Points Quiaca and Sama. Tarapaca Province is irrigated by the. The Loa River, forming the northern boundary of the Province of Antofagasta, rises in the Mifio volcano, whence it takes a southerly course, then turns to the west and is joined by the Salvador and Salado rivers, finally emptying into the Pacific kilometers miles from.
Atacama are the Huasco River, kilometers miles in length, the Salado and Copiapo, each of which measures, In the Province of with its affluents, kilometers 95 miles. Coquimbo are the following streams the Coquimbo or Elqui River, kilometers miles the Limari, kilometers miles , and the Choapa, kilometers 90 miles , besides several minor water courses.
The Petorca, kilometers 70 miles the Ligua, kilometers 60 miles , and part of the Aconcagua River, with their respective affluents, form the hydrographic system of the Province of In the Province of. The Aconcagua River is the principal river in the Province of Valparaiso, which it traverses for a distance of 60 kilometers 38 miles , the total extent of the river being kilometers miles from its headwaters to its mouth.
The Province of Colchagua is irrigated by the rivers Cachapoal, kilometers miles ; Tinguiririca, kilometers 90 miles , and others of lesser importance. The Province of Curico is traversed by the Teno River, 84 kilometers 52 miles in length, and by the Lontue and Mataquito, the two latter being also part of the water system of Talca Province. The Mataquito is navigable for about 18 kilometers 10 miles from its mouth.
In the Province of Talca are also the Maule River, one of the longest in the Republic, having an extent of kilometers miles , and the Claro, kilometers long miles. The principal river ble , the Itata, Purapel and the Perquilauquen. Bio-Bio Province is watered by a river of the same name, above referred to, and by the Laja, Rucul, Cariloro and other rivers.
In Cautin are the Imperial, navigable for more than 30 kilometers 18 miles , formed by the union of the Cautin and Cholchol rivers the Dama, Mocul, Tolten and Tirua and their affluents. In the province of Valdivia the principal rivers are the Dognuil,. Queule and the Valdivia or Calle-calle, the latter navigable for a conThe rivers of the. Rio Bueno, the Rahue, Pilmaiquen, Petrohue, Peulla, Blanco and Maullin, with their numerous tributaries, and the Palena river, which This river is is perhaps the largest body of water in the province. The only streams worthy of mention in the province of Chiloe are the Chepu, the Pudeto and the Colu rivers.
The territory of Magellan has only some small streams, among others the San Jose and San Juan, but its area is crossed in every direction by innumerable channels. All streams south of the Limari and the Periodical Floods. Choapa rivers are subject to two annual floods, the first, which is most The second irregular, occurring during the rainy season or winter.
When the waters of these streams reach the Central Valley they are of a dark muddy color and leave on the soil a deposit or thick sediment, thus performing for the Chilean plains the same service that the Nile performs for lower These floods last for several months, the volume of water Egypt. Here the floods only occur during the rainy season, that is, in the months of June and July, when the waters become turbid and the overflows are frequent, flooding the country, destroying landmarks and bridges, and frequently changing the entire course of the stream, thus causing The same occurs with the smaller great damage to agriculture.
As an instance of this feature the following rivers can be mentioned The Aconcagua has an inclination of about 4 per cent at its mouth, increasing up stream from 12 per cent to 52 per cent at its headwaters. The River Limari has in the province of Coquimbo as much as 60 per cent declivity, and the Choapa has about 13 per cent inclination towards its middle course. The large streams lying towards the south are navigable for small craft because of the smoothness of their current. The Imperial is accessible from the sea up to the port of Carahue, its depth varying from 3 to. The Bueno is navigable city of the same name.
In the Territory of Magellan there are some rivers navigable for small craft only. The same applies to many of the rivers whose head waters are in River to the. The lacustrine system of the country has been divided into five groups or classes, according to the causes leading to the formation of the respective lakes. The first class embraces such lakes or lagoons as are found near the coast or littoral, having a sandy bed and brackish water.
The most important among these are the Puchuncavi lagoon, near the bay of QuinSanto Domingo and Bucalemu, in the teros, province of Valparaiso Province of Santiago; and the Vichuquen in the Province of Curico. This is the largest Lake of this group and empties into the ocean by means of a rather shallow channel, which could be improved by ;. There are also several small lagoons further south, on dredging.
The second group is represented by lakes formed of rain waters, which on account of the peculiarities of the soil, do not find an outlet. These lakes are as a general rule shallow and during the summer months their body of water decreases, due to evaporation. Sometimes the bed of these lakes is formed by a creek and at times they are enclosed among a series of hillocks, in which latter case they are deep and do not evaporate, even during the most severe heat.
The Aculeo, the largest and most important of this class, is situated in the Province of O'Higgins, about 40 kilometers 25 miles south of Santiago. The lakes found in the Cordillera of the Andes, formed by washouts caused by the melting snow, belong to the fourth class. The principal among this numerous class of lakes are the Yuca, in the province of Aconcagua, at 2, meters 9, feet , and the Teno, which is the source of the river of the same name, in the Province of Curico, at an elevation of over 3, meters 9, feet.
The fifth and last division is composed of such lakes as have nO' outlet to the sea. As a general rule these lakes are formed in the depressions and crevices of the ground, and evaporate in the summer months. These lagoons abound in the tablelands in the north, and are known as salares, by reason of the salt deposit that remains in the In the interior of the Antofagasta and Tarasoil after evaporation.
Along the coast estuaries are found which, during high tide, are flooded by the -water from the Pacific, and after evaporation become valuable salt deposits. Numerous species of animal the country,. The peculiar climatic conditions of the country are also greatly accentuated by the configuration of the land, as it rises gradually from the coast eastward to the Andes, a variety of climates being frequently found along the same latitude. The territory can be divided intothree climatic belts, that of the coast, the valley or center region, and the mountain region.
Abrupt transitions in temperature are more marked toward the interior though it is still healthy and pleasant,, while in the Andean region and on the northern plateau the difference in temperature of the days and the nights is considerable. The seasons are well defined throughout the territory, winters being very prolonged in the antarctic region. The following table shows the variations in temperature according to latitude Mean:. The gradual decrease noticeable in the altitude of the region of perpetual snows, from north to south, also indicates a corresponding decrease in the mean temperature.
In the northern section of the country the region of perpetual snow lies at an altitude of about 5, meters, the decrease in this altitude being ually. The variations of temperature on the coast is shown by the following thermometric readings: In the country lying between the maritime range and the Andes the mean temperature is somewhat lower than on the coast, variations being due to the configuration of the land, and whether or not localities are exposed to the influence of nocturnal radiation and the currents of In Santiago, the alticold air sweeping in from the Andean valleys.
The infrequent snows rarely lie on the ground over 12 hours, even at altitudes as great as meters 2, feet , as the first rays of the sun cause them to melt. These variations depend upon the proximity of the Andean range, -which during the winter remains covered with snow at an altitude of 1, or 1, meters 4, to 4, feet , thus considerably modifying the conditions of the atmosphere.
During the night a light mist falls over the valley, disappearing with the first rays of the. As has been stated, these variations are not so marked in the south of Chile, as the humidity of the atmosphere tempers the actions of the sun by day and radiation by night, as is the case in the Provinces of Valdivia and Llanquihue. The greatest variations between day and night are features of the Andean Valley. The observations taken at the National Observatory at Santiago give the following averages. Igneous and Glacial Phenomena. There are a large number of volcanoes in Chile, most of them extinct or long quiescent.
They In the northern are principally found in the Cordillera of the Andes. Further south are the Mercedario, estimated at 22, feet elevation, the Aconcagua and the Tupungato, all extinct volcanoes. Tinguiririca, Petorca, and several others, all apparently extinct. Then follow the Nevado de Chilian, Antuco, Villarica and Osorno, all of which occasionally emit vapors, and lastly the Tronador "Thunderer" near the southern extremity of the country. In the Andean range mineral springs are found at all altitudes, from the level of the sea to upwards of 1, metersAs a general rule, the temperature of these 3, feet elevation.
The are found sometimes near a volcano or among volcanic rocks. The classification of these mineral springs shows that they contain sulphur, chlorides, sulphurets, chloro-sulphates, carbonates, sulphocarbonates, lime, iron and sulphuric acid. The best known hot springs in the country are those of Chilian, in' the Andes, about 75 kilometers 47 miles from the city of Chilian,, situated at an altitude of 1, meters 6, feet above the sea level.
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Cauquenes, in the province of Colchagua and at Apoquindo, east of Santiago. The most striking feature of the Chilean flora, accordingH. Keane believes that parts of this region were formerly less arid than at present, but that this appears to have been largely due to the development of irrigation works under the Incas and the whole region must have long formed as effective a barrier against the migration of species as the The same authority states that among the numerous Cordillera itself.
Peculiar to the same region are highly characteristic Vivianece and Francoacece, which are by many botanists regarded as distinct orders not known elsewhere. Of the latter, which is a stemless herbaceous growth yielding a black dye and a drug with sedative properties, as many as two genera and dull.
The species have been enumerated all exclusively from Chile. Altogether, of about two hundred genera belonging to the temperate zone of South America, the great. It is in the Coquimbo district that the peculiar Chilean types begin to make their appearance, and they would seem to range thence southwards no farther than the Bio-Bio basin, in the province of Concepcion, so that this local flora like that of the Cape was originally confinedIn this connection Keane makes to the narrow limits of the territory. Here was a solitary palm of peculiar type, and it is remarkable that in Chile also only one member of the widelyYet nearly all the arboresdififused palm family has been discovered.
European pine or Fuegian lands, where the forest growths comprise very distinct forms, besides the widespread Winter's bark and a so-called ''oak," which is really a beech Fagus drimys. Many exotics have been successfully introduced from Europe and other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere. Such are the chestnut, poplar and oak, which thrive even more vigorously than in Europe the apple, which runs wild in Araucania the willow, the vine, wheat, and several other economic plants.
The trees attain a great height and are intertwined with parasitic vines and creepers, one of these parasites, known as ''angels hair," hanging from the trees like threads of lace. Throughout the forests there is an undergrowth of ferns, bamboos, shrubs and canes, the latter attaining a height sufficient to interlace with the tree tops and form roofs of green over the forest avenues. This tree attains a height of more than a districts,. Tropical plants grow well in the northern regions, and among the plants suitable for. Grasses, sedges, reeds and rushes abound, and in different parts of the country may be found cherries, oranges and white cinnamon in a wild state.
The Cactus Coquimbanus has thorns eight inches in length, which are used ;. The Palma Chilensis is a species of cocoa nut palm indigenous to the northern provinces. Willows are found in different parts of the territory. It thrives in groves and produces an The sap or liguid extracted from edible fruit, which contains a valuable oil. Keane is of the opinion that except in the class of birds In this connecthe Chilean fauna is less independent than the flora.
But the pudu, smallest of the deer tribe, -does not seem to be known elsewhere. The ape family is unrepreCharsented, and there are no jaguars, venomous snakes, or turtles. The vicuna is seldom met, being mostly replaced by the allied guanaco, which has not been domesticated, but. A large spider, whose bite is much dreaded, appears to be confined to Chile, where it. There are no turtles and scarcely any fish in the lakes and rivers, although the marine waters abound in animal life a peculiar species of cod, a gigantic crayfish, and enormous banks of mussels, sea otters, and: Some of these forms range to the Juan Fernandez group, where two species of humming bird are also found, one confined to these islands and the other occurring also in the mainland, together with a third species peculiar to Chile.
Conspicuous among the marine birds are the albatross, both the white and the black species; the giant petrel, closely resembling the black albatross; the so-called "Cape pigeon" daption Capense , which has an immense range in the southern hemisphere, and the Colomba, with plumage like that of a turtle-dove, but nearly as large as the Cape pigeon.
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There are also 7 species of cheiroptera, mostly bats; 12 carnivora, embracing 4 felines, 3 foxes and 1 weasel, 2 polecats, the nutria and the otter; 6 species of phocidae, 1 marsupial Didelphys elegans 12 rodents, embracing 25 species, 12 being mice; 2'edentata dasypus and pichiciego , the latter rare and peculiar to Chile 3 ruminants 4 cetacse, and numerous species of incessores, grallatores and natatores. The general movement American continent early. Chile in the year On the 18th of September of that year Chile declared its independence, but it was not until the year , the war with Spain having lasted for eight years, that Chile finally achieved her aim.
On the 12th day of February, , an independent government was established, but it was not until the 25th day of May, , that the Constitution was adopted. This Constitution is still in force, and has. The principal features of this Constitution are as follows 1. The Government of Chile is popular and representative. The Chilean Republic is centralized and indivisible. The sovereign power resides in the people who entrust the:. Equality before the law there are no privileged classes in Chile. The freedom of persons and property, and the safety and protection of both, is guaranteed by the Constitution.
Liberty to dwell in any place whatsoever in Chile, observing only police regulations, and no one shall be arrested without a warrant, or imprisoned or expelled without legal process. The right of association without preliminary authorization. Liberty of publishing one's opinion through the press, and abso4.
The inviolability of domicile is guaranteed to all residents of Chile, as also the inviolability of correspondence. The sovereignty of the nation is vested in threepowers, the Legislative, the Executive, and the Judiciary, each inde-. The legislative power is vested in the National Congress, which is composed of two Houses, the Chamber of Deputies House of Representatives and the Chamber of Senators Senate , The Senate is composed of thirty-two members elected by direct accumulative vote, by the provinces, in the proportion of one senator for every three deputies.
Their term of office is six years, and the Senate is partly renewed every three years. Senators, as well as Deputies, may be re-elected indefinitely. They receive no salary. Only citizens over 36 years of age, with an income of at least 2, pesos per year, and of good moral standing, are eligible for election to the Senate. Deputies are elected by direct vote in the various departments into is politically divided, at the rate of one deputy for every 30, inhabitants or fraction thereof exceeding 15, The Chamber of Deputies is at the present time composed of ninety-four members and is totally renewed every three years.
To be eligible for election as Deputy it is necessary to be a citizen entitled to vote, with an income of pesos or more per year. Naturalized citizens are not eligible unless they have been in possession of their naturalization. Priests, curates or assistant curates, as well as justices and all public officials, are not eligible for Deputy or Senator; also all persons having entered into or given security for the construction of public works.
All laws require the approval of both Chambers of Congress and must be sanctioned and promulgated by the President of the Republic. Congress exercises its fiscal powers over the Executive by giving or refusing its confidence to the Ministers or Secretaries of State apIt fixes, every year, the sea pointed by the President of the Republic.
Congress has the sole power to declare war, to permit foreign troops to land on Chilean territory or to grant permission to Chilean troops to leave the National territory. Congress may impeach and disqualify the President or other public officers to hold office, and may enact laws suspending or restricting the liberty of the press or of individuals, whenever the defense of the State, the preservation of the Constitutional system or of the internal peace may demand such extraordinary measures.
Congress may not, however, enact laws suspending the constitutional rights of citizens except in It is also the prerogative of Congress to create the cases cited above. Each Chamber has the exckisive right to determine the vaHdity ot the election of its members, and to accept or dechne the resignation of such members. The Chamber of Deputies is vested with exclusive authority to impeach before the Senate any member of the Cabinet or of the State council, Generals, Judges of the higher courts, members of the standing congressional committee or Intendentes of the Provinces.
Before Congress adjourns a standing committee is chosen, consisting of fourteen members, seven from the Chamber of Deputies and seven from the Senate. This committee acts as the representative of Congress during the time of its recess and must see to it that the Constitution is carefully observed and that the laws passed by Congress. The President of the Republic must consult matters of importance, which would otherwise "be referred to Congress, and the committee may request the. President to call a special session of Congress whenever, in its judgment, such action is necessary.
The functions of this committee cease on the 31st day of May of the following year and it must report to Congress at its first meeting. The President is chosen by Electors, who are elected by is the. The number of Electors is equal to three times the total number of Deputies. The President is elected for a term of five years, and cannot be re-elected for the next consecutive term. During his term of office and for one year after the expiration of his term, the President may not leave the country, except with the consent of Congress.
Should the office of President become vacant through resignation, inability or death, or should the President assume the command of the troops, leave the country or otherwise be prevented to discharge the duties of his office, the Minister of the Interior, under the title of "Vice-President of the Republic" shall act as President until such. In the case of death, resignation or permanent disability of the President, the Vice-President shall at once issue orders for a new election.
If, for any reason, the Minister of the Interior should be unable toassume the Presidency, then the oldest member of the Cabinet succeeds him, and if all the Cabinet officers should be incapacitated or. The Council of State acts as a board of advisers to the President and is consulted by him on all matters of importance.
It consists of eleven members, six of whom are appointed by Congress and five by The Council intervenes in a number of appointments,, the President. There are eight executive departments in Chile, which are, however, only under six Ministers or Secretaries of State, as. Each one of these departments is, however, in charge of an Assistant Secretary,. The former has charge of all matters pertaining to the Legations and Consulates, at home and abroad, as well as all boundary questions, etc. To the latter belong all matters related to the maintenance of the church, as well as.
The first-named section has charge of all the schools for primary education, normal schools and some industrial schools; the other section has charge of the University of Chile, the Institute of Pedagogy, the National Institute, the Commercial Institute, the Conservatory of Music, the School of Fine Arts, the School for the Blind and Deaf and Dumb, the Astronomical Observatory, the Public Libraries, the Botanical Garden and the Museums.
The Department of the Treasury attends to the administration of the public revenues, the custom house service, the public debt, etc. The valuable guano and nitrate deposits are also under the control of tions. The active army in time of peace consists of sixteen battalions of infantry, six regiments of cavalry, and seven regiments of artillery, with auxiliaries. All able-bodied citizens of Chile are obliged to serve, liability for which extends from the eighteenth to the forty-fifth vear. The army is composed of 6 regiments of artillery, 10 of infantry, 8 of cavalry and 1 of engineers.
Chile has compulsory military service, and some 15, men are instructed annually, while about , citizens are enrolled in the National Guard. There are 10 Generals, 18 Colonels, Commanders, and officers for the regular army. The Academy of War, the Military School and the School for Sergeants and Corporals are the principal schools for military infive military zones,. The Department oe the Navy. The Navy and everything pertaining thereto is under the control of this department, as also the military administration of the ports, the coast defense and lighthouses and the hydrographic service.
The Chilean fleet is composed of 40 vessels, among which are 9 iron-clads and protected cruisers, 5 gunboats and torpedo cruisers, 1 training ship, 4 destroyers and 13 torpedo boats, etc. The Department of Industries and Public Works has charge of all public works, as also of the State railways, all industrial institutions, and the granting of patents and trade-marks. The Ministers or Secretaries of the Different Departments are directly responsible to the President, but may be called upon to report to Congress at any time.
All orders issued by the President must be countersigned by one of the Ministers, and cannot be enforced unless so countersigned. The Ministers are responsible for all of their official acts, and may be impeached and tried by the Senate. Ministers may, and very often are, chosen from the Senate or Chamber of Deputies, and when so chosen they may hold both offices at the same time.
Ministers may attend the sessions of Congress and may participate in the debates, but may not vote unless they are. Chile has no Department of Agriculture, but a division of Agriculture is incorporated in the Department of Industries and Public Works, in which department a division of Labor has also recently been created. A Supreme Court consisting of seven members, sitting in One of capital and having jurisdiction all over the country. The Court of Appeals of Santiago consists of twelve members, that of Concepcion of eight, and the rest of five members each.
The necessary qualifications, mode of appointment, and duties of these different judges and courts are set forth in the law bearing on. The Government of Chile is a popular and representative one and the Republic is one and indivisible. Chile is divided into 23 Provinces and 1 territory. The Provinces are divided into Departments, the Departments into Sub-delegations, and the latter into Districts.
The Provinces are governed by an "Intendente," who is appointed by the President and holds office for a term of three years. The Departments are governed by ''Governors," who are subordinate to the respective 'Tntendente," and are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the 'Tntendente. The Sub-Delegations are governed by a Sub-Delegate, holding office for a term of two years, and the Districts by an 'Inspector. These Municipal Districts or "Communes" are governed by a board, composed of nine members, three of whom are magistrates alcaldes , and the remaining six are "aldermen" regimember of the "Municipal Board" may not hold any other dores.
The only exceptions to this rule are in the Department of Tacna and in the Departments forming the Territory of Magellan, where special Boards are appointed every three years by the President, composed of three magistrates, who exercise municipal functions conjointly with the "Jcie Politico" appointed by the President for those Departments. Persons born within the territory of Chile. Persons born of Chilean parentage in foreign territory, in the event of becoming domiciled in Chile.
Children of Chileans born in foreign territory, while the father is in the actual service of the Republic, are Chileans for all intents and purposes for which the fundamental laws, or any others, require nativity in Chilean territory. Persons of foreign birth who, having resided one year in the Republic, declare before the proper authorities their desire to become:. Upon the registration of a "4. Male Chileans over twenty-one years of age who are able to read and write, and have been duly inscribed in the electoral register of their respective department, are entitled to exercise the right of sufThe right of vote is suspended in the frage, as provided by law.
Physical or mental incapacity, which prevents free and conscientious action.
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For being a servant. For being prosecuted for a crime calling for corporal punishment. Education in Chile, though not compulsory, is absolutely free, and within the last few years the Chilean Government has given considerable attention to Public Instruction, and has been gradually extending the school system all over the country, until now there are 2, Secondary instruction is provided in the National Institute at Santiago and in the various lycees, of which there is one in every provincial capital and in every city or town of any importance.
In there were 39 of these institutions for men and 30 for women, having an attendance of 7, and 3, scholars, respectively. Higher education is provided in the National University at Santiago and at the various Normal Schools, of which there are 15 in Chile, 6 for men and 9 for women.
Industrial, commercial and agricultural instruction is provided by the Government in special schools, also gratuitously, and by the various societies, as the Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura National Society of Agriculture , the Sociedad de Fomento Fabril Society for the Improvement of Industries , and the Sociedad Nacional de Mineria National Society for Mining , all of which maintain schools in various Provinces and receive subsidies from the Government for that purpose.
At these schools there were 1, pupils during the year There are 17 industrial schools in Chile under the direction of the Sociedad de Fomento Fabril, which cover all lines of industry, and in which there are also divisions for the preparation of engineers, electricians, architects, gasfitters, plumbers, carpenters, masons, etc.
These schools are under the supervision of the Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura and the Government contributes liberally towards the maintenance of the same. The Agricultural Institute and the Industrial Agricultural School at Chilian are other establishments for practical agricultural instruction, and besides the Government maintains a number of model farms and contributes largely towards the expenses of maintaining the Quinta Normal at Santiago, in which are situated a Museum, a zoological garden and a number of experimental stations for the cultivation of trees, vines, etc.
At Copiapo there is a practical school for mining, and at Santiago and La Serena are schools for practical instruction to mining engineers. Military instruction is obtained at the Military Academy and four military schools, while the Naval Academy and four schools provide instruction for those wishing to join the Navy. Besides the National University, which has faculties for law and political science, medicine, dentistry, physics and mathematics, there is the Catholic University, which has faculties for law, civil engineer-.
Among the museums, the National Museum at Santiago is the most important. The sociedades de Fomento Fabril, de Agricultura and de Minera,. To the left is a statue of Don Andres Bello, first president of the National University of Chile, who, although born in Venezuela, spent most of his life in Chile working for the intellectual uplift of its. These societies are formed by a large number of the most prominent Chileans, who devote considerable time and energy to the development and improvement of the manufacturing industries, agriculture and mining, and who assist the Government in its endeavor to bring about a better develop-.
These Societies, in addition, of the natural resources of Chile. In Chile there are published some papers and periodicals, dailv. There are also some forty literary and scientific societies in Chile,, which from time to time give public lectures on different subjects. Although religious freedom exists in Chile, the Roman CatholicChurch is under the protection and support of the Government.
The territory of the Republic, from a religious standpoint, is divided' The into one Archbishopric, three bishoprics and two vicarages. The jurisdiction of the Archbishopric is estimated to cover an area of 67, kilometers, and is divided into parishes, containing about is. Santiago Cathedral, an imposing structure and one of the oldest churches in South America, is situated on the Plaza de la Independencia, or Plaza de Armas, Santiago's favorite "paseo. Santiago Santiago de Chile , capital of Chile, is the third largest America and one of the most beautifully situated capitals It lies on a level plain, 1, feet above the sea, with the line of the Andes 10 miles distant, showing a succession of curving magnificent snow-covered peaks.
The city covers an area of about. The streets of Santiago are well paved with Belgian blocks and. The principal avenue, the Alameda de las Delicias, is two miles long and feet wide. Facing this avenue are the majority of the handsome private residences of the city. The Santa Lucia Hill, with its world-renowned gardens, in the center of the city.
Santiago was founded in by Pedro Valdivia, when he reached the banks of the River Mapocho, after his march across the desert It is said that he had made a vow to name the first of Atacama. Jago, out of which grew the name Santiago. Santiago is naturally divided into five sections. The old or central section lying between the Mapocha River, the Alameda de las Delicias and the Santa Lucia Hill, is the business quarter and contains also most of the governmental buildings. The southern section, embracing all that part south of the Alameda, is the principal residence section, while the Yungai, or western section, extends north of the Alameda and contains the Normal and Agricultural Schools as well as the Museum of Natural History.
Santa Lucia, or the eastern section, extends from the Santa Lucia eastward, and Chimba or the northern In section is all that part of the city north of the Mapocho River. The city of Santiago is well provided with parks, the largest of which is the Parque Cousino, which has an area of acres and conThe Quinta Normal de tains a lake of seven and one-half acres. Agricultura Agricultural School Farm covers acres.
It contains zoological and botanical gardens and an experimental station, as well as a museum and observatory. Santiago has twelve large clubs, seven hospitals and seven theaters, including the Municipal Theater. The climate of the city is mild and good sanitary conditions prevail throughout the city. The mean annual temperature is estimated by the National Observatory at Santiago as The highest temperature experienced during the year was The mean annual humidity for the same year was Educational interests are represented by a national university and two other universities, a mining school, manual training school, commercial school, agricultural school, professional school for.
One of the most important educational institutions is the School of Arts and Trades, founded in , where free industrial instruction. A number of electricians, iron masters, typographers, carpenters and boilermakers, etc. The Government also maintained by the state railway corporation. Sixty-one newspapers and periodicals are published in the city of Santiago.
Eighteen of these are published daily, one three times a week, one twice a week, eleven weekly, seven fortnightly and twentythree monthly. There are two telephone companies in Santiago, and the city has telephone connection with Valparaiso and other nearby towns. The state telegraph lines and four private companies provide telegraph facilities with all parts of the country. There are also two submarine cable companies located at Santiago. Santiago is also connected with the Transandine Railway, which, when finished, will afford direct railway communication with Buenos Aires and the Argentine Republic.
Some of the principal public buildings in Santiago are: There are a number of well stocked libraries in Santiago, among which the "Biblioteca Nacional" National Library is the most imThis library contains some , bound volumes, and some portant. The Congressional Library, which was established in , contains some 14, volumes, and the Library of the Bureau of Statistics, which contains all the official publications of Chile as well as foreign official and statistical works.
Besides these there are a number of libraries pertaining to the different colleges and schools. The National Museum at Santiago is one of the most complete of its kind in South America, and is especially important for the student of natural history and ethnology. The general aspect of Santiago is a curious one to the average American or European because of the fact that the majority of houses are built in the old Spanish style, that is, of one story only, with rooms surrounding a central courtyard or "patio," which is usually ornamented with fountains and flowers.
Although there are a number of palatial structures, both public buildings and private residences, built of marble and brick, the material generally used is adobe, or sun-dried brick, covered with plaster of mud, and tinted in different colors. The top is in. The industrial census of the Department of Santiago, taken in the year , gives the following figures:. Alcohols, beverages and their preparations Pottery, ceramic and glassware Alimentaries and their preparations Illumination, heating and com-. Calle de Estado, Santiago. Estado is one of the busiest thoroughfares in Santiago, running from the "Alameda de las Delicias" to the principal square, the "Plaza de Armas.
Considered in their alphabetical order, we have first the Province of. The Province of Aconcagua is bounded on the north by the Leiva and Choapa Rivers, by the Andean mountains on the east, by the Province of Santiago, as also the Province of Valparaiso on the south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. Aconcagua has a population of ,,.
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San Felipe, Putaendo, Los It is divided into five departments, viz. Andes, Ligua and Petorca. The territory of the Province is composed of numerous low hills and many fertile valleys, which extend along the rivers, crossing the Province from east to west. In this Province there are, however, a number of high peaks, and the Aconcagua, 6, meters 22, feet high, is situated close to the border The Cuzcuc, 3, meters 12, feet ; on Argentine territory.
Nacimiento, 3, meters 12, feet Alto de Laguna, 4, meters 13, feet Cerro Azul, 3, meters 11, feet , and the Juncal, 5, meters 19, feet , are some of the higher mountains of this Province. Communication with the Argentine Republic is had by means of the Uspallata pass, which reaches an altitude of 3, meters 12, feet. The railway, which is to connect Santiago with Buenos Aires, will cross the Cordillera at this point, at an altitude of 12, feet.
Considerable traffic is maintained over this pass at the present time, both passenger and freight, it being the shortest route. The principal streams in the Province are the Choapa and the Leiva, the latter a tributary of the former the Petorca, the Ligua, the Putaendo and the Aconcagua, which latter is the largest:. Agriculture and mining are the prinThe soil is cipal sources of wealth of the Province of Aconcagua. Cereals of all kinds, as well as different kinds fertilizing substances.
The peaches and figs raised in this Province are noted for their excellency, as is also the grape, of which a good quality of wine is made. A considerable quantity of fruits are exported to the other Provinces, some of which are used for canning. Copper and silver mines are located throughout the Province, and some gold mines and gold-bearing sands exist in the northern part. Stock raising and the dairy industry, as well as apiculture are other industries of considerable importance.
In the year there were 9, hectares of wheat under cultivation in the Province, which yielded , metric quintales; 5, hectares of barley yielding 87, metric quintales; hectares of corn giving 8, metric quintales; 1, hectares of beans frejoles with 15, metric quintales; 1, hectares of potatoes with 62, metric quintales 10, hectares of alfalfa yielding , metric quintales of hay. At Putaendo there are two copper smelting works, having a yearly output of one hundred and twenty-five and five hundred tons, respectively, of regulus.
The copper smelting plant at Ligua has an output of about tons per annum of regulus, there being two mines at this place with a depth of from 75 to meters to feet. The mines at Petorca are worked to a depth of from 57 to 75 meters to feet and yield from to tons of copper annually. Two railways, owned by the Government, traverse the Province of Aconcagua, one, a branch of the Valparaiso-Santiago line, runs from Las Vegas to Los Andes, a distance of 45 kflometers 28 miles , and the other from ;.
Antofagasta, Antofagasta, the capital of the Province of Antofagasta, lies on the eastern side It is one of the nitrate ports of Chile and is of the entrance to Moreno Bay. Other cities of Felipe, with a population of 12, Ligua with 2,, and Petorca with 1, inhabitants. San Felipe lies in a fertile valley, north of the Aconcagua River, kilometers 78 miles distant from Santiago and approximately the same distance from Valparaiso. In San Felipe there is a large flour mill, a brewery, a cordage factory, three banks, and two newspapers.
San Felipe is distant, by rail, 78 miles from Santiago and Valparaiso. It has an area of , kilometers 46, square miles , with a population of , It is divided into The capital three departments: Tocopilla, Antofagasta and Taltal. It is is the city of Antofagasta, with a population of about 20, The city is built on the slope Six of a mountain, is well laid out, has wide streets lighted by gas.
There are two hotels, two hospitals, two daily railway connects newspapers, and several clubs at Antofagasta. One of the city with Oruro in Bolivia, a distance of miles. Next in importance to Antofagasta is the port of TocoIt is situated on the Bay of pilla with a population of about 10, Algodon, extending to the foot of the hills. There are four moles, two for loading copper ore and two for loading nitrate of soda.
One of these, the railway mole, is a large iron structure. Vessels are loaded and discharged by means of lighters. Tocopilla is connected by rail with the mining district of Toco, 55 miles distant. The port of Taltal is about two miles distant from Taltal It has a populapoint and possesses one of the best harbors in Chile.
The steamers of the West Coast Line call at Taltal about once a month. There are several small hotels, clubs, a church, and three primary schools. The famous "El Guanaco" gold district is near this city. Province from the Pacific Ocean to the Cordillera, rising gradually until the Andean region is reached. The Andean region in this Province reaches some high altitudes, amongst which are the volcanoes of Antofalla, Llullaillaco, Cachi, Pular,. There are no lakes in this Province, but there are a number of so-called "salares" or ''salinas," containing different kinds of salts, nitrates and borax, which constitute the The principal borax bed is that of "Ascotan," principal resources.
Other important deposits are the "Gran Salar de Atacama," the area of which is estimated at , hectares , acres , and the "Punta Negra," some 50, hectares , acres in extent. The principal salt deposits are located in the territory known as the "Puna de Atacama," and are the "Caurchari," "Rincon," "Arizaro," "Ratones" and "Antofalla.
Silver, gold, copper, nitrate of soda, iodine, borax and a few minor mineral products constitute the mineral wealth of the province. Agriculture and stock-breeding are practiced to a small extent along the river Loa, especially near Calama. The exploitation of the mineral wealth of the Provincegives Hfe to a number of smelting works and "oficinas," or establishments for working nitrate of soda and its by-products, iodine, sulphate of soda and salt.
Two metallurgical establishments are located in the city of Antofagasta for the working of copper and silver ores, the principal one being "Playa Blanca," which is leased to an Americancompany. Other silver and copper smelting works are located at number of nitrate "oficinas" are established at AntoTocopilla. The exports of minerals for the year is given by the Statistical Department of Chile as follows.
The movement of vessels and tonnage arriving and departing. There are 34 highways in the Province extending and connecting the several departments and cities with each other and with the neighboring Provinces. There are three railway lines: The extent of road on Chilean territory, from Antofagasta to Ollague, is A branch line, to the nitrate fields of Aguas kilometers miles. From Tocopilla to Toco,. Blancas, is in course of construction.
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The Province of Atacama is situated in the northern part of Chile, and is bounded on the north by the Province of Antofagasta, on the east by the Andean range, by the Province of Coquimbo on the south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The area of the Province is 78, kiloIt meters 30, square miles , the population being 63, The city of Copiapo, with 12, inhabitants, is the capital of the Province.
Copiapo lies on the northern bank of the Copiap6 River, at the head of the narrow Copiapo Valley, which marks the northern limit of successful agriculture. It is 1, feet above sea level. Its streets are wide, but irregular. There is a school of mining situated at Copiapo, as also a number of other schools two churches, one hospital and four newspapers. Copiapo has a street car line, telegraph and telephones, and is connected by rail with Caldera, 50 miles distant.
The Copiapo-Caldera Railway was the first railway ever built in South America it was commenced in the year and was opened to the public in It is a fact worth noticing that the first locomotive of United States manufacture ever exported was for use on this road. Gold, silver, lead and copper are mined in the surrounding district, and several smelting works are located in Copiapo.
Other cities of importance are Vallenar with The principal port is 9,, and Freirina with 5, inhabitants. Caldera, with 2, inhabitants, which lies on Ingles Bay, and has harbor. The port is provided with a number of wharves, the largest of which is the Railway Wharf, feet long and 36 feet wide. Silver and copper smelting works are also located at Caldera, Tonnage at this port during the year was as follows: Entered, ships with a total tonnage of ,; cleared, ships with , tons, foreign trade; and vessels with , tons.
Other ports of minor importance are Chaiiaral, Huasco and Carrizal Bajo, with a population of 2,, 5, and 1,, respectively. There Chaiiaral is connected by rail with Hundido, 34 miles distant. The tonnage of the are three copper smelting works in Chaharal. Coasting trade entered, 89 vessels with , tons, and cleared, vessels with , tons. Huasco is a small port, principally for the coasting trade. Large vessels anchor in the ocean off shore and the cargo must be handled by means of lighters.
There are a number of large copper smelting works at Huasco, copper forming the bulk of the exports. The disHuasco trict is the northern limit of successful vine culture in Chile. The topographical features of the Province are: The Cordillera of the Andes in this Province attains considerable altitude, the principal peaks being San Francisco, 5, meters 19, feet Dona Ines, 5, meters 18, feet Azufre or Copiapo, 4, meters 14, feet Ternera, 4, 13, feet , and several others.
The Come-Caballos pass, 4, meters high 14, feet , is also located in this Province. There are no rivers of importance in this Province, owing to the scarcity of rain. The only rivers worth mentioning are Likewise there are no lakes, but the Salado, Copiapo and Huasco. Minerals are the principal resources and means of wealth of this Province, there being large and valuable gold, silver and copper mines in exploitation.
Nitrate of soda, borates, sulphur, lime and common salt are found in the "salares" and are extensively exOwing to the lack of rain, agriculture cannot thrive and is ported. In these valleys fruits and cereals are produced, also an excellent quality of grape, which is used for raisins and rich wines. The exploitation of the mines is carried on by about twenty smelting works, and a number of nitrate "oficinas," etc.
Algarobilla, the fruit of the Algoraba tree, is an excellent material:. The Province of Arauco is situated in the central portion of the Chilean territory, and is bounded on the north by the Province of Concepcion and the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the Nahuelbuta Mountains, which separates Arauco from the Provinces of Cautin, Malleco and Concepcion; on the south by the Province of Cautin, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Arauco has 5, kilometers 2, square It is divided into the departments miles , and a population of 61, The capital is the port of Lebu, with a population of 3,, situated at the mouth of the River Lebu. Other cities of importance are Arauco with 3,, and Caiiete with 2, inhabitants. The territory of the Province of. Arauco is broken up considerably, containing some heavily wooded patches and several small valleys. The Nahuelbuta mountain range, which runs through this Province from north to south, almost parallel with the Pacific coast, has a few high peaks, amongst which the Pichinahuelbuta is the highest, reaching an altitude of 1, meters 4, feet.
The principal rivers are the Laraquete, Carampangue and Tubul, the course of these rivers being, however, very short, due to the fact that they originate in the Nahuelbuta Mountains and empty into the ocean. The principal lagoons are the Lanalhue and the LleuLleu. There are some mineral springs in the Department of Arauco. Agriculture, cattle breeding and mining are the principal resources of this Province. There are 13 public highways, as well as a number of private roads and paths and a railway, which connects Arauco with Concepcion, having a total length of 91 kilometers 57 miles.
Another railway connects the coal mines of Huenapiden with the port of Yanez. Four telegraph lines extend over the Province, and telephone service is established in nearly all the cities of any importance. Lebu, the capital of the Province of Arauco, lies on the southern bank of the River Lebu, near its mouth, and is 26 feet above sea level. Two newspapers are published in Lebu. Coasting steamers place Lebu in regular communication with the other ports of Chile, but it is not a regular port of call for the transatlantic liners.
Bio-Bio is situated in the central portion of Chile. It an inland province, bounded on the north by the Province of Concepcion, the rivers Laja and Bio-Bio forming the boundary line; on the east by the Andean Mountains, on the south by the Province of Cautin, and on the west by the Nahuelbuta Mountain range. The Province of Bio-Bio has an area of 12, square kilometers 4, square miles , and a population of 97, inhabitants. It is divided into the departments of Laja, Nacimiento and Mulchen. The capital of the Province is Los Angeles, with a populaCities.
Los Angeles lies on a plain between the Bio-Bio and Laja rivers, feet above the level of the sea. A woodworking plant, a, is. Three newspapers are published. Other important cities are Mulchen with 4,' inhabitants and Nacimiento with 2, The central portion of the Province is formed by small plains and flat lands, while towards the east and' west it becomes mountainous, extending into the Andean and the.
Some of the high peaks of the Andean Cordillera in this ProvincesThe Antuco, an active volcano, 2, meters high 9, feet ; are: The principal river in the Province, and one of the largest in Chile, is the Bio-Bio, which is kilometers miles in length and is navigable to a considerable extent. The second largest river in the Province is the Laja, which is 96 kilometers long 60 miles from its source to its confluence with the Bio-Bio. Other rivers are the Guenco, Duqueco, Bureo and Vergara,.
There are a number of lakes and lagoons in this Province, the principal one being the Laja Lake, situated in a valley surrounded by tall mountains, at an altitude of 1, meters 4, feet above the This lake is about 5 miles long and one-half mile level of the sea. There are also a number of thermal springs in the Province.
This is the Tnost southern province in which the vine is cultivated. Postal, telegraph and telephone service are established throughout the Province. In Mulchen there are a number of saw and flour mills, distilleries, tanneries and other factories. The area of the Province covers 15, is. The capital of the Province is the city of Temuco, situated on the northern bank of the River Cautin, with a population of Temuco is an important commercial center, and a number of 9, The territory of this Province is mountainous, the slopes being covered with thick forests, with fertile valleys and plains between which are suitable for agriculture and ;.
The Andean mountain range on the east of this Province shows a number of volcanoes and high mountains, among which the volcano Llaima is the most conspicuous. The Llaima is 3, meters 9, feet. Other rivers of some importance are the Tolten, having its source in the Lake Villarica and emptying into the Pacific Ocean after a course of about kilometers 62 miles , and the Tirua, which is partly navigable. There are a number of lakes and lagoons in the Province, among others the Villarica Lake, which has an area of square kilometers square miles , and is situate at the foot of a volcano of the same name, 1, In the center of this lake is a small but thickly feet above sea level.