Enseigner les faits religieux : Quels enjeux ? (Débats décole) (French Edition)
Is the short story, so emblematic of this region of story-tellers, part of the biblical tradition? Does the South write its way into the world of religion or does it, through its literature, fully assume its Original Sin? The aim of this panel will be to provide a place where religion and writing may speak freely to each other.
It is a heap of nouns and verbs enclosing an intuition or two. In American culture, religion is intimately linked to a concern for literalness. According to Protestant principles—whose impact on the American tradition has been considerable—theological thought and religious practice are inseparable from specific modes of reading and require a keen attention to the letter of the Biblical text.
This hermeneutic approach to spirituality raises several crucial questions. What is the best way to read? What interpretive tools or strategies are to be preferred? What other texts may be read alongside Scripture? Is it possible, let alone advisable, to interpret it literally?
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These familiar issues have lost none of their relevance today, and it might be interesting to examine them again in the light of the most recent developments in American writing. In the final analysis, even more pressing problems come to the fore, calling into question not just religion, but the fundamentals of all literate culture. What does reading entail? What is a text? What counts as text? What is, or counts as, a letter? Can interpretation exhaust the possibilities of the letter, and is it necessary for it to be interpreted at all?
While these questions are crucial to literature, it should be borne in mind that they are no less important to philosophy and literary theory. For a native English speaker, to read the Bible is to be reminded that it originated in a cultural setting where the Roman alphabet did not occupy a dominant position, if indeed it was present at all.
This is a matter of some importance since the Hebrew alphabet, for instance, is traditionally associated with a wholly different conception of the letter and of its spiritual, not to say mystical or magical, aura. However, this issue is no less important to a number of authors raised in the Christian tradition, e. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last, but we cannot spend the day in explanation. Thus formulated, the question of literalness has an impact in return on the religious thinking out of which it arose.
More broadly speaking, the existence of rival writing systems and, in particular, the interest many American authors e. Pound take in logogrammatic scripts call into question the validity of theological discourses that aspire to universal validity even as they rely on alphabetic writing, which is tied to a specific cultural or linguistic environment. With what types of spiritual quest is logogrammatic writing associated, and how does it interact with the traditions indigenous to the English-speaking world, where the Roman alphabet predominates?
If so, then what is the status of the empirical mark, of the letter as the eye sees it, as distinguished from its manifestations in the mind? Is it possible to imagine—and to locate in American literature or theory—a poetics of inscription based on the hypothesis that the latter question can be answered in the affirmative? Propositions should be sent to Mathieu Duplay by December 15, American literature is filled with attempts at understanding the world by resorting to supreme entities.
Yet the twentieth and twenty-first centuries saw a diversification of the sources from which a religious feeling could emanate. Steve Tomasula, in parodic and ironic modes, tells the experience of the sublime hosted in a contemporary world in which space and time coordinates have changed radically. Especially in his novel VAS, An Opera in Flatland , he examines the existence of a supreme being that could rule over this ever-changing world that most are inclined to call posthuman.
Turn-of-the-century American fiction portrays or suggests the existence of parallel worlds that duplicate or originate the world we live in, infusing it with mystery. These groups compel us to define the religious anew by reconsidering what binds a community together. The modes of existence of these secret communities seem to be worth analyzing: Among readers too, especially readers of electronic literature, or of heroic fantasy, groups are formed sometimes, united by an almost religious fervor, itself fueled by computerized communication means.
Electronic literature promises to broaden the scope of our research by focusing on the power of the reader to take command of the book like a God-like figure, or conversely, like a prophet or a messianic figure, to obey and trust a superior machine-like God. Works including messianic characters could provide interesting material. Children seem most apt to endorse such a role and open onto other worlds—or otherworldliness—or again to supersede godly figures. The fictions conveying a sense of the religious, outside of any known religion, are characterized by the invention of languages, to say the mystery of the world or worlds and to rule over the relationships between the members of the sects or cults.
Do those languages recycle stylistic features borrowed from acknowledged religious discourses, be they lexical, syntactical or more largely structural? Attention will be paid to the means resorted to so as to deviate religious discourse towards fields and objects which will need to be defined. How does religious discourse address readers, be it the individual expression of a religious sense, or a collective discourse reflecting and reinforcing the existence of a religious or at least spiritual community?
More precisely, do readers feel welcome or called upon, as though in a seduction enterprise, or on the contrary do they perceive this language as hermetic and aimed at excluding them? The reception and aesthetics proper to such progeny of the religious in contemporary fiction will also be given attention.
The question will be raised whether language itself is not the very object of worship in those works animated by a mystique of language. In some of the works, does not the quest for some superior force meant as total otherness go through the elaboration of an excessively innovative language tentatively pointing at its other? The curious testimony offered by the grid is that at this juncture he tried to decide for both. Although this condition could be discussed openly in the late nineteenth century, it is something that is inadmissible in the twentieth, so that by now we find it indescribably embarrassing to mention art and spirit in the same sentence.
The peculiar power of the grid, its extraordinarily long life in the specialized space of modern art, arises from its potential to preside over this shame: Many are the examples of writers whose work is fraught with just such a tension or who dip into a reservoir of themes, images, or artistic attitudes partaking of a spiritual nature.
All these examples, selective as they might be, would tend to reinforce, while underlying its problematic nature at the outset of an open dialogue, the connection between literature and spirituality. Our panel will focus on examining the ways religion is in turns voiced and hushed, praised and denounced as intrinsically violent. We will also analyze how different aesthetic choices highlight a tension between the absence of transcendence and the clinging presence of religion. We would like to suggest that religion always returns, in spite of texts that not only overtly dismiss it but also ignore it, consciously or not.
This leads to an opposition between, on the one hand, the inability to ward off the impact of religion however vital the need to reject it and, on the other, its almighty presence that pervades writing, if only because of its absence acting like a kind of blank in language insidiously surfacing, a remainder of the grip it has on writers and readers alike.
How is this presence of absence inscribed in the very texture of contemporary American works? We will interrogate the way writing succeeds in exhibiting the rupture between the subject and a god whose absence is made so vividly palpable. Ranging from the subversive representation of religious rituals Evenson, Gass, Gaddis to a denunciation of religion as alienation Ducornet, Evenson, Everett , through the total absence of explicit reference to religious matters Abish, Whitehead, Bartheleme , even though they sometimes create systems that recall its alienating power, those texts display a metaphysical crisis, on both thematic and stylistic levels, embodied, so to say, by a sense of gaping emptiness.
Our purpose will be to probe the paradoxes of an absence that always returns with the force of an obsession, of an unutterable void that nonetheless pervades writing, the incarnation perhaps, of the very nature of both religion and writing. The Reinvention of Nature [New York: The cyborg opposes the idea of a Creation, and by extension the myth of a return to an original unity at the end of the world while being haunted by the ghost of a transcendental soul incarnated into its hybrid body, half-human, half-machine.
The Deconstruction of Christianity , The question of transcendence has shifted onto other grounds and now bears upon the existence and possibility of the advent of a common world in its a-signifiying materiality while religious discourse took charge of the production of meaning as the promise of a revelation.
Hollywood as well as American independent cinema have often represented systems of belief on screen whether they be clearly identified as part of the official dogmas Episcopalian, AME: Lastly, spirituality pervades a number of films in relation, for example, with landscape sublimity. In this workshop, we will try to analyze the diverse ways in which directors capture the forms, meanings and functions of religion and inscribe them on screen. According to Bataille, transgression and its erotic dynamics cannot be separated from a religious, even mystical internal experience.
While Bataille famously stood up in defense of Henry Miller in , it is obvious that American literature and visual arts had already been exploring for many decades some potentialities of the unholy alliance between mysticism and transgression. As far as cinema is concerned, filmmakers such as Martin Scorcese Mean Streets or Abel Ferrara Bad Lieutenant have for some time imbued their urban ultra-violence with a profound sense of religiosity. Contemporary photography has also explored this path, with artists like Andres Serrano or Joel Peter Witkins leading the way.
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The works of Cindy Sherman or Jeff Walls are further examples of the transgressive potential of photography. Secularization, the historical process in which societies move away from religious dependence Marx, Weber , is a well-recognized step in the evolution of the Western world and has become one of the main paradigms of interpretation for its modernity.
The United States, however, is one notable exception in this regard. Historically, the nation fought for both freedom of religion—its founding value—and the separation of Church and State.
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Since the s, a revival of different forms of religiousness in American society has led some commentators to question the idea of a growing secularization throughout the United States. Promey sheds new light on this argument by highlighting the specificity of the American case: A secularist and often pejorative view of icons and, more generally, of the image as simulacrum. Between these two opposing views, one may imagine other definitions or uses of the icon in the wide-ranging field of American studies political science, cultural studies, art history, semiotics, literary criticism.
The Iconoclast Spirit I: Here is the problem: How and why does US popular culture use religious and spiritual motifs, themes, and narratives in an altogether iconoclastic way, in a wide range of genres, media, communicative languages and levels? The key issue of this debate is the continuity of the incongruous. US popular culture is not stingy when it comes to the presence and presentation of religious elements, which, in turn, mirror its importance in the everyday life of the nation at large.
Consider the current and familiar cornucopia of US popular culture where an embarrassment of riches awaits us. Amid many medias the dynamic theme of religious belief and religious iconoclasm looms large: One has here an enormous buffet of religious narratives which extends from Cecile B. One determinant element amid the issues of the debate which we seek to explore is the frontier of US popular culture, the need of this socio-cultural force to break boundaries for better or worse.
Physical places and area, a sense of the US locale, interplay with spiritual representations. The example of the trading card-game Magic: Cambridge University Press, Patrick Eben, "Iconoclasm without Icons? University of Pennsylvania Press, The Use-Value of Iconoclasm" in: Proposals no longer than words should be sent to the organizers Nicolas Labarre and John Dean by December 15, The Iconoclast Spirit II: Though American popular music is more celebrated for its iconoclastic tendencies than its spiritual leanings, it welcomes the profane as much as the religious, the mundane as much as the transcendental, the flesh as much as the spirit.
While heavy metal, rock, and gangsta rap have been famously accused by over-eager media of Satanism and immorality, other genres such as gospel, folk, and more recently Christian rock, New Age, or taqwacore have glorified God, and allowed their followers to access new forms of spirituality. The whole family of popular music, which includes the Carter Family, Madonna, Mahalia Jackson, Marilyn Manson, Little Richard, or Bob Dylan, reflects—sometimes magnifies—the relationship we may entertain with the divine. Some celebrate the Gospel, others tell us of their struggles with their inner demons.
Even when it explicitly celebrates rebellion and transgression—or playfully and ironically conjures up some satanic majesty - popular music remains connected to the spiritual. Institutional religion has been the target of many protest singers, but conversely, many rock bands have been targeted by religious groups for their lyrics and attitudes, perceived as pernicious and demoralizing. Some relished the criticism, though, and played with it, such as Marilyn Manson with his Antichrist Superstar , a variation on violence and the sacred.
In addition to being symbolic systems that artists either tap into or try to topple, religion and spirituality may be used as a prism through which one can analyze and understand popular music. Researchers have underlined the proximity between religious rituals and rock concerts, and explored the tensions between communitarianism and individualism that the latter reveal.
They read interviewers as confessors, critics as exegetes, fans as worshippers. Beyond the celebration of specific creeds and faiths, religiosity in popular music has been understood as providing shelter to bewildered postmodern crowds, puzzled by the loss of meaning and the fragmentation of contemporary societies. It would be appropriate to describe in details the current situation, and make a historical assessment of the connections between popular music and spirituality, beyond mere intuitions and truisms.
More modestly, this panel will focus on the American specificity of this relationship. We will pay particular attention to how its religious significance can help distinguish American music from others, but also at how the religious presence in popular music can be articulated within the larger framework of North American art and culture. Music may provide new insights on the conflicts between religious traditions and the profane, which might be more tense in America than in other Western countries. We will address the question the true function of religiosity in the music, as what first appears like a true expression of belief might in the end only be a mere aesthetic sheen.
Are religious displays complementary to, or contradictory with a spiritual dimension? Lastly, an analysis of religion and popular music would not be complete without a study of the role that the various institutions and Churches have played in conjunction with musical forms. Papers, preferably in English, can be either case studies on specific genres or artists, from contemporary scenes, or past eras. They can also be more theoretical questioning of the issues mentioned above. As Western Europe is distancing itself from its Judeo-Christian traditions and practices, religion and spirituality remain central to American culture, as illustrated by popular culture in general, and TV series in particular.
The way TV series are watched by the audience may also be seen as a ritual following a regular schedule that mirrors the way Americans practice their religion. The well-known phenomena of strong identification and intimate knowledge of TV series, akin to addiction, is comparable to the study and knowledge of religious texts and their discussion, both being meant to raise and solve everyday life issues. Televangelism, in that respect, is similar to TV series with narratives supported by a charismatic pastor returning every week.
We also talked about who we thought had the best season at forward, in goalie… There might be some beeps here and there, because of maturity. You can give us money for our trip to New York here. They talked about where Gary Bettman would like to have his next team, whether Patrick Laine scored in his own goal on purpose and much more. In this podcast, Jessica , a child from Mont-Libre and Marc, one of the facilitators talk about their favorite cartoon characters.
They may or may not have had a significant disagreement at the end. Effectivement, comme un accident de voiture…. In this podcast, Jessica, a child from Mont-Libre, and Marc talked about our favorite movies, although Marc only managed to talk about his favorite action movies This is Mr. Mark writing right now! We will be talking about new stuff in our Murp series.
Also available on Itunes. Je ne vivais que pour les notes. During the interview, they shared where the concept of agile learning came from, what it borrowed from agile software development, what it implies day to day and what it means for democratic schools. Lors de cette entrevue sur les ondes de CKUT Both students shared their first reactions to these events, what they did at Brooklyn Free School as well as their thoughts about racism, protest, media coverage, relation with the police and affinity groups.
In the interview, she talked about why she decided to unschool her son. She also described what a typical day would look like for her and her son and she answered many questions from texters about regular schools and about what unschoolers become. In this interview, Tammy Mackenzie talks about our project to legalize and start democratic schools in Quebec as well as about other forms of self-directed learning such as unschooling.
Available in the Itunes Store. Because there is more than one way to learn at every level, in this podcast, we talked about alternative colleges. Kumari Patricia Younce ansewred our questions about her experience as a professor at Goddard College and Peter berg told us about what it was like to study in another alternative college, Antioch University. What are alternative colleges? In this minute interview, Nikhil Goyal, a 19 year-old journalist and author, told us about how his opinions on education have evolved since publishing his first book on the topic, One Size Does Not Fit All , at the age of We also talked about bullying, the school-prison comparison and the subject of his upcoming book.
In this podcast, we interviewed Dorna Lange. She told us about what motivated her as a teacher to visit over 50 alternative schools, including many democratic schools, Montessori schools, Waldorf schools, Reggio Emilia schools, over the past three years on two different continents.
She told us about what she learned along the way and about what it was like to apply for a teaching position in a school where students vote to decide on every new hire. You can follow her adventure on her blog. He also told about what we should keep in mind when we hear about studies in education in general and about unschooling, homeschooling and democratic schooling. He also talked about how conventional schools are co-opting some of the concepts traditionally used in self-directed learning environments and how to deal with this issue.
Jerry shared some stories that illustrate how democratic assemblies can be beneficial in a learning setting and we talked about the unfortunate and too-frequent school shootings that took place in Can an education based on self-directed learning help teens to improve their relationship with their parents, their desire to learn and their level of happiness? Can frustration experienced in conventional schools lead to drug addiction?
These are examples of topics addressed by Willow Johnson and Caleb Gray, two teens that go to Compass , a centre for self-directed learning, after having spent most of their life in conventional schools. In our latest podcast, we asked the people of Parts and Crafts , a homeschooling resource centre and vacation camp in the Boston area, about taking things apart, about the different cool projects that arise from their woodwork such as a bicycle blender and about how other teachers can give rise to such awesome projects by being curious around students.
Parts and Crafts 3. In this interview, Sally Haughey, an experienced public school teacher at the kindergarten level, tells us about what it is like for teachers these years in public schools in the US and what it means for children. Then, she talks about the importance of creativity and the many resources that she shares on her blog, Fairydustteaching. Thanks to Davie West for the song. Sally Haughey, on being a public school teacher, creativity and fairydustteaching. In the second part of the interview, Brooke Newman told us about the school that she wants to start in Boston through the Project for Humane Schooling.
The Project for Humane Schooling. In the first part of our interview, Brooke Newman, a former Sudbury Valley School student, told us about her time in this democratic school, about what she has become since graduating from the school and whether she would send her kids to this school. Interview with a former democratic school student. What does a democratic school look like when it is part of a public school board?
Song by Shipley Hollow. The two co-founders of Compass: Centre for Self-directed Learning. Entretien avec Vincent Deslauriers. Entretien avec Colin Perreault Partie2. English follows below Bonjour. Merci de nous contacter si vous pouvez nous aider a traduire ce post. Dear Minister Proulx, I am an unschooling parent, who is trying to give my child the best education that I possibly can, as I believe most parents strive to do.
Sincerely, An anonymous unschooling parent, who will now shudder every time I have to engage with an institution hospitals, etc. Les professeurs inspirent et instruisent.
Le Réseau des écoles démocratiques au Québec
Selon le Protecteur du citoyen: Well organized public schools are a great benefit to our society: Young people learn to live with others. Teachers inspire and instruct. Young people experience a variety of activities and social situations. Control of health and public safety and social statistics collection is simplified. The measuring of theoretical knowledge between individuals is simplified. They are centers of exploration and cultural developments. Well-organized family education is of great benefit for children: They are motivated by interest and learn quickly, concepts are clearer, and retention more successful.
They develop more effective and personalized learning methods. The main factors underlying this choice are a desire to pursue a family educational project, an objection to the current school system, a desire to offer an enriched experience and and the social and emotional development of their children. These children are able to enter or reenter school if they choose to do so.
According to the Quebec Ombudsmen: Adressing Some Common Unschooling Concerns As adults, homeschooled kids are generally more engaged in society, more satisfied with their long term choices, and life-long learners.
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Psychology Today , After Summerhill, H. Protecteur du Citoyen There is a concern that children in school not become too isolated, too much indoctrinated to the beliefs of their parents, and that their talents be recognized and supported. Brabant , HSLDA 2 The Role of Learning Centers Among other solutions permitted by law, learning centers provide a synthesis of the benefits of homeschooling and the benefits of public schooling.
In local schools Adapted services, public and private Thanks to the educators and the families who run these centers, our young people have access to options that our good universities and some years of the practice of educational alternatives offer. The Situation in Quebec: Gray Areas and the Protecteur du Citoyen In Quebec, it is more difficult than elsewhere in Canada, the United States, or Europe to provide a rich social life for our children in homeschooling.
Conclusion Today we have a great opportunity to involve people who are interested in the educational experiences of our young people.
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Here are some paths to actions and discussions of the Quebec community in Education, home education, and reform. Ungerleider, whom I quote hereon from the NP article: Abstract This article takes a look at the social functions of history in school, in France, to describe the main purposes of history teaching, regularly stated since the second half of the nineteenth century. The author recalls the question of teaching sensitive issues of history, which emerges in public and political debates about schooling. Accompanying in that the debates around questions of memory, classroom activities are subject to the interrogation of an entire society, invited to examine the interior of school and its content of history teaching, ready to find concealments, insufficiencies, or national amnesia.
Then the author analyzes the memorial turn that dates from the s, which is seen in school requirements, to discuss the problem of the place that have in classroom the traumas of national history, how history is called to talk about the victimization and the horrors of history, as, for example, the issue of the Holocaust or colonization, and the reaction of students faced with such sensitive issues.
Teaching the dramas of the past or controversial topics of national history can be considered a disruption with a school tradition, but also with an academic tradition in French: Henri Barbusse, Erich Maria Remarque en sont les expressions les plus connus.