Concerto Grosso Op. 3 No. 1 - Solo Violin 1
The first movement, in the style of a French overture with dotted rhythms and scale passages, for dramatic effect has the novel feature of being prefaced by a two bar passage for the first concertino violin. The allegro , a vigorous and high-spirited fugue, differs very little from that in the Ode , except for three additional bars at the close. The composition, divided into easily discernible sections, relies more on harmony than counterpoint. A busy semiquaver figure runs through the dance-like piece, interrupted only by the cadences. The concertino parts dominate the movement, with the two solo violins in expressive counterpoint.
Each episode for soloists is followed by a tutti response. The delightful fifth allegro is written for full orchestra. The rollicking first subject is derived from the twenty third sonata in Domenico Scarlatti 's Essercizi Gravicembalo of The subsequent repeated semiquaver passage-work over a walking bass recalls the style of Georg Philipp Telemann. Handel, however, treats the material in a wholly original way: The final menuet , marked un poco larghetto , is a more direct reworking of the minuet in the overture to the Ode.
The first statement of the theme is melodically pruned down, so that the quaver figure in the response gives the impression of a variation. This warm-hearted and solid movement was added at a later stage by Handel, perhaps because it provided a more effective way to end the concerto than the brilliant fifth movement. The sixth concerto in G minor was originally intended to have four movements. The autograph manuscript contains the sketch for a gavotte in two parts, which, possibly in order to restore an imbalance created by the length of the musette and its different key E flat major , Handel abandoned in favour of two new shorter allegro movements.
The musette thus became the central movement, with a return to the minor tonality in the concluding movements. The first movement, marked Larghetto e affetuoso , is one of the darkest that Handel wrote, with a tragic pathos that easily equals that of the finest dramatic arias in his opera seria. Although inspired by the model of Corelli, it is far more developed and innovative in rhythm, harmony and musical texture.
There are brief passages for solo strings which make expressive unembellished responses to the full orchestra. Despite momentary suggestions of modulations to the relative major key, the music sinks back towards the prevailing melancholic mood of G minor; at the sombre close, the strings descend to the lowest part of their register. The second movement is a concise chromatic fugue, severe, angular and unrelenting, showing none of Handel's usual tendency to depart from orthodoxy.
List of compositions by Antonio Vivaldi - Wikipedia
The elegiac musette in E flat major is the crowning glory of the concerto, praised by the contemporary commentator Charles Burney , who described how Handel would often perform it as a separate piece during oratorios. In this highly original larghetto , Handel conjures up a long dreamy pastoral of some bars.
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Handel creates a unique dark texture of lower register strings over a drone bass, the traditional accompaniment for this dance, derived from the drone of the bagpipes. This sombre theme alternates with contrasting spirited episodes on the higher strings. The movement divides into four parts: The following allegro is an energetic Italianate movement in the style of Vivaldi, with ritornello passages alternating with the virtuoso violin solo. It departs from its model in freely intermingling the solo and tutti passages after a central orchestral episode in D minor. The seventh concerto is the only one for full orchestra: The first movement is a largo , ten bars long, which like an overture leads into the allegro fugue on a single note, that only a composer of Handel's stature would have dared to attempt.
The theme of the fugue consists of the same note for three bars two minims, four crotchets, eight quavers followed by a bar of quaver figures, which with slight variants are used as thematic material for the entire movement, a work relying primarily on rhythm. The two final movements are a steady andante with recurring ritornellos and a lively hornpipe replete with unexpected syncopation. The eighth concerto in C minor draws heavily on Handel's earlier compositions.
12 Concertos, Op.3 (Manfredini, Francesco Onofrio)
Its form, partly experimental. There are six movements of great diversity. The opening allemande for full orchestra is a reworking of the first movement of Handel's second harpsichord suite from his third set No. The short grave in F minor, with unexpected modulations in the second section, is sombre and dramatic.
It is a true concerto movement, with exchanges between soloists and orchestra. The third andante allegro is original and experimental, taking a short four-note figure from Handel's opera Agrippina as a central motif. This phrase and a repeated quaver figure are passed freely between soloists and ripieno in a movement that relies on musical texture. The siciliana is similar in style to those Handel wrote for his operas, always marking moments of tragic pathos; one celebrated example is the soprano-alto duet Son nata a lagrimar for Sesto and Cornelia at the end of Act I of Giulio Cesare.
Its theme was already used in the aria "Love from such a parent born" for Michal from his oratorio Saul eventually discarded by Handel and recurs in the aria Se d'amore amanti siete for soprano and two alto recorders from Imeneo , each time in the same key of C minor. Some parts of the later thematic material seem like precursors of what Handel later used in Messiah in the pastoral symphony and in "He shall feed his flock".
At the close, following a passage where the two solo violins play in elaborate counterpoint over a statement of the main theme in the full orchestra, Handel, in a stroke of inspiration, suddenly has a simple piano restatement of the theme in the concertino leading into two bars of bare and halting muted tutti chords, before a concluding reprise of the theme by the full orchestra. The final allegro is a sort of polonaise in binary form for full orchestra.
Its transparency and crispness result partly from the amalgamation of the second violin and viola parts into a single independent voice. The ninth concerto grosso is the only one that is undated in the original manuscript, probably because the last movement was discarded for one of the previously composed concertos. Apart from the first and last movements, it contains the least quantity of freshly composed material of all the concertos.
The opening largo consists of 28 bars of bare chords for full orchestra, with the interest provided by the harmonic progression and changes in the dynamic markings. Stanley Sadie has declared the movement an unsuccessful experiment, although others have pointed out that the music nevertheless holds the listener's attention, despite its starkness.
Previous commentators have suggested that perhaps an extra improvised voice was intended by Handel, but such a demand on a soloist would have been beyond usual baroque performing practices. The second and third movements are reworkings of the first two movements Handel's organ concerto in F major, HWV , often referred to as "The cuckoo and the nightingale", because of the imitation of birdsong.
Concerti grossi, Op. 6 (Handel)
The allegro is skillfully transformed into a more disciplined and broader movement than the original, while retaining its innovative spirit. The solo and orchestral parts of the original are intermingled and redistributed in an imaginative and novel way between concertino and ripieno. The "cuckoo" effects are transformed into repeated notes, sometimes supplemented by extra phrases, exploiting the different sonorities of solo and tutti players. The "nightingale" effects are replaced by reprises of the ritornello and the modified cuckoo.
The final organ solo, partly ad libitum , is replaced by virtuoso semiquaver passages and an extra section of repeated notes precedes the final tutti. The larghetto , a gentle siciliana , is similarly transformed. The first forty bars use the same material, but Handel makes a stronger conclusion with a brief return to the opening theme. For the fourth and fifth movements, Handel used the second and third parts of the second version of the overture to his still unfinished opera Imeneo.
Both movements were transposed from G to F: The final gigue in binary form was left over from Op. The tenth Grand Concerto in D minor has the form a baroque dance suite , introduced by a French overture: The first movement, marked ouverture - allegro - lentement , has the form a French overture. The dotted rhythms in the slow first part are similar to those Handel used in his operatic overtures.
The fugue leads into a short concluding lentement passage, a variant of the material from the start. The Air, lentement is a sarabande -like dance movement of noble and monumental simplicity, its antique style enhanced by hints of modal harmonies. The following two allegros are loosely based on the allemande and the courante.
The scoring in the first allegro , in binary form , is similar in style to that of allemandes in baroque keyboard suites. The second allegro is a longer, ingeniously composed movement in the Italian concerto style. There is no ritornello; instead the rhythmic material in the opening bars and the first entry in the bass line is used in counterpoint throughout the piece to create a feeling of rhythmic direction, full of merriment and surprises.
The final allegro moderato in D major had originally been intended for the twelfth concerto, when Handel had experimented with the keys of D major and B minor. A cheerful gavotte -like movement, it is in binary form , with a variation or double featuring repeated semiquavers and quavers in the upper and lower strings. Charles Burney , . The eleventh concerto was probably the last to be completed according to the date in the autograph manuscript. Handel chose to make this concerto an adaptation of his recently composed but still unpublished organ concerto HWV in A major: The ad libitum sections for organ are replaced by accompanied passages for solo violin.
The order of the third and fourth movements was reversed so that the long andante became the central movement in the concerto grosso. The first two movements together have the form of a French overture. In the andante larghetto, e staccato the orchestral ritornellos with their dotted rhythms alternate with the virtuoso passages for upper strings and solo first violin. The following allegro is a short four-part fugue which concludes with the fugal subject replaced by an elaborated semiquaver version of the first two bars of the original subject.
In the autograph score of the first of his organ concertos Op. An introductory six bar largo precedes the fourth movement, a long andante in Italian concerto form which forms the centre of the concerto. The ritornello theme, of deceptive simplicity and quintessentially Handelian, alternates with virtuosic gigue-like passages for solo strings, in each reprise the ritornello subtly transformed but still recognizable.
The final allegro is an ingenious instrumental version of a da capo aria , with a middle section in the relative minor key, F sharp minor. It incorporates the features of a Venetian conerto: Basil Lam , writing of the third movement in the last Grand Concerto . The arresting dotted rhythms of the opening largo recall the dramatic style of the French overture, although the movement also serves to contrast the full orchestra with the quieter ripieno strings. The following highly inventive movement is a brilliant and animated allegro , a moto perpetuo. The busy semiquaver figure in the theme, passed constantly between different parts of the orchestra and the soloists, only adds to the overall sense of rhythmic and harmonic direction.
Although superficially in concerto form, this movement's success is probably more a result of Handel's departure from convention. The central third movement, marked Larghetto e piano , contains one of the most beautiful melodies written by Handel. With its quiet gravity, it is similar to the andante larghetto , sometimes referred to as the "minuet", in the overture to the opera Berenice , which Charles Burney described as "one of the most graceful and pleasing movements that has ever been composed". After its statement, it is varied twice, the first time with a quaver walking bass , then with the melody itself played in quavers.
The fourth movement is a brief largo, like an accompanied recitative , which leads into the final allegro fugue.
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Its gigue-like theme is derived from a fugue of Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow , Handel's boyhood teacher in Halle , to whom the movement is perhaps some form of homage. Handel's twelve grand concertos were already available to the public through Walsh's solo organ arrangements of four of them and through the various editions of the full Opus 6 produced during Handel's lifetime. These concerts, repeated over the next few years and establishing an English tradition for Handel festivals in the nineteenth century and beyond, were on a grand scale, with huge choruses and instrumental forces, far beyond what Handel had at his disposal: Nevertheless, excerpts from four of his grand concertos Nos.
They were described in detail by the contemporary musicologist and commentator Charles Burney in Like Handel's organ concertos, in the nineteenth century his concerti grossi Op. Schubert — and Ludwig Stark — There also arrangements of several for piano solo by various composers, including Gustav Friedrich Kogel — , Giuseppe Martucci — , Otto Singer — and August Stradel — , who arranged the whole set.
In the twentieth century, Arnold Schoenberg , a composer openly antipathetic to Handel but at a turning point in his musical career, "freely arranged" the concerto grosso Op. Estienne Roger Genre Categories Concertos ; For 4 violins, cello, strings, continuo ; Scores featuring the violin ; Scores featuring the cello ; Scores featuring string ensemble ; Scores with basso continuo ; For strings with soloists and continuo ; For 2 violins, strings, continuo ; For 2 violins, cello, strings, continuo ; For violin, strings, continuo ; For 4 violins, strings, continuo.