Solstices dAfrique (French Edition)
The application of the silver polyabsorbent dressing resulted in a significant decrease of the biofilm population by a log reduction of 4. Moreover, the antibiofilm activity was maintained for 7 days with reduction values up to 4 log reduction of biofilm superior to The application of the neutral dressing also induced a significant reduction of the concentration of sessile cells after 1 day about 0. The results obtained with this neutral form of the dressing showed that the polyacrylate fibres were able to exert a mechanical disruption of the biofilm architecture.
These in vitro experiments demonstrated that silver polyabsorbent dressing was able to strongly reduce the biofilm of MRSA. This study was supported by Laboratoires Urgo Dijon. Janod is an employee of Laboratoires Urgo. The company had no influence on the experimental design and the interpretation of the results. The comparison of the results issued from both computations shows an agreement within ps 1 sigma. The data collected show that a modulation with an amplitude of 50 ps and a period of ps affects the equipment of the NPL.
This result is in good agreement with the expected stability of H-masers. It demonstrates that the noise brought by the GPS carrier phase measurements can be averaged out at this level. The three new features stimulated emission, coherence and saturation are emphasized. Paragraphes 2 and 3 outline the special behaviour of monomode optical pumping velocity selection and of timeresolved saturated absorption.
For dynamical consistency, i. Here new equation sets combining consistently a simplified shallow-fluid geometry with a complete Coriolis force is presented. The derivation invokes Hamilton's principle of least action with an approximate Lagrangian capturing the small increase with height of the solid-body entrainment velocity due to planetary rotation. A three-dimensional compressible model and a one-layer shallow-water model are obtained.
Preliminary numerical results confirm the accuracy of the 3D model within the range of parameters for which the equations are relevant. These new models could be useful to incorporate a full Coriolis force into existing numerical models and to disentangle the effects of the shallow-atmosphere approximation from those of the traditional approximation.
Consistent shallow-water equations on the rotating sphere with complete Coriolis force and topography. Dynamically consistent shallow-atmosphere equations with a complete Coriolis force. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists.
Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17, reported cases in Further, on January 12, , a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination.
Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting.
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First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting.
Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. This is the latest in this successful and popular series of conferences, which previously took place in Toronto , London , Amsterdam , Heidelberg , Athens , New Orleans , Geneva , Edinburgh , Hamburg and Ann Arbor Grenoble is one of the major research centres in Europe, with a very large number of researchers in various fields, especially Physics and Chemistry, Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Biology and Medicine, and Earth and Universe Sciences.
There are two internationally recognized scientific Universities: These two volumes contain papers presented both in oral and poster sessions. The papers are not organised in order of presentation, but according to the alphabetical order of the family name of the first author of each paper. It is our pleasure to thank the authors for the excellent level of their submissions.
We would like to take this opportunity to. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera. OCam and its CCD detector, developed by the British manufacturer e2v technologies, solve this dilemma, by being not only the fastest available, but also very sensitive, making a significant jump in performance for such cameras.
Because of imperfect operation of any physical electronic devices, a CCD camera suffers from so-called readout noise. OCam has a readout noise ten times smaller than the detectors currently used on the VLT, making it much more sensitive and able to take pictures of the faintest of sources. Using sensitive detectors developed in the UK, with a control system developed in France, with German and Spanish participation, OCam is truly an outcome of a European collaboration that will be widely used and commercially produced.
This sedimentary sequence, unaffected by regional metamorphism, preserves a large diversity of well-preserved acritarchs organic-walled microfossils , evidencing the diversification of complex life early eukaryotes for the first time in mid-Proterozoic redox stratified oceans of Central Africa Baludikay et al.
This Supergroup is composed of two distinct lithostratigraphic successions i BI Group: Basaltic lavas including pillow lavas overlying the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup were dated around Myr Cahen et al. To better constraint the age of this Supergroup in the Meso-Neoproterozoic limit, we combine different geochronological methods, in particular on diagenetic minerals such as monazite Montel et al. New results of in situ U-Th-Pb dating of well-crystallized monazites and xenotimes with Electron MicroProbe Camparis, UPMC, Paris , highlight that some crystals display zonations with an inherited core older than Myr and diagenetic rims around Myr.
After difficult beginnings as a farm boy in Brittany, and then as a dish-washer at a chemist's in Paris, Pierre Famel obtained his grammar certificate in and then his 2nd class chemist diploma from the Ecole de pharmacie de Paris in He was employed by the Laboratoire municipal de la Ville de Paris as an expert chemist. In he created the Laboratoires Famel for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with sales representation in several European, North and South American as well as Canadian cities.
The Famel firm obtained several awards at Exhibitions in France and elsewhere. On the death of Pierre Famel, the dispensary was sold, while his daughter and his granddaughter formed a partnership to manage the Laboratories. They still exist today as a finance company, the main activity of which is the management of its heritage.
He was a sponsor of several youth clubs and charitable organizations, as well as a member of several Breton associations. He was the President of the Society of the Friends of the Pharmacology Faculty in Paris as well as the founder of the Museum devoted to Henri Moissan, the first French winner of the Nobel Price in Chemistry, who was for him a guide and a teacher in his early life and studies.
He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour and was awarded the Gold Medal of foreign trade Also briefly mentioned are his wife, Marie Famel, an enamel painter, his daughter Yvonne Famel, and his son-in-law, Sylvain Rosengart, with whom. Profil anatomopathologique du cancer du sein dans le cap bon tunisien. Optical properties of randomly distributed soot: The intensity curve exhibits a strong increase at small scattering angles. These reference curves will be used in the near future for the detection of stratospheric soot by remote-sensing measurement techniques. Important technological aspects were tackled during the construction phase, as, for example, beam purity issues, electrodes alignment, and vacuum sealing.
This paper describes the characteristics of the SPES-CB, with particular emphasis on the results obtained during the qualification tests: It is an integrated instrument suite located on a single optical bench and sharing a unique aperture on the satellite heat shield. The scheme is based on an inverted external-occulter IEO. A spherical mirror rejects back the disk-light through the IEO.
The experience built on all the previous space coronagraphs forces designers to dedicate a particular attention to the occulter optimization. Two breadboards were manufactured to perform occulter optimization measurements: A preliminary measurement campaign has been carried on at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. This article reports on the development and tests of the adaptive semi-implicit scheme ASIS solver for the simulation of atmospheric chemistry.
To solve the ordinary differential equation systems associated with the time evolution of the species concentrations, ASIS adopts a one-step linearized implicit scheme with specific treatments of the Jacobian of the chemical fluxes. It conserves mass and has a time-stepping module to control the accuracy of the numerical solution. In idealized box-model simulations, ASIS gives results similar to the higher-order implicit schemes derived from the Rosenbrock's and Gear's methods and requires less computation and run time at the moderate precision required for atmospheric applications.
ASIS can be easily adapted to various chemical schemes and further developments are foreseen to increase its computational efficiency, and to include the computation of the concentrations of the species in aqueous-phase in addition to gas-phase chemistry. Experimental implementation of a Pyramid WFS: The desire to implement a Pyramid on an Extremely Large Telescope ELT requires further characterisation in order to optimise the performance and match our knowledge and understanding of other wave-front sensors WFSs.
At LAM we are currently carrying out laboratory demonstrations of a Pyramid-WFS, with the aim to fully characterise the behaviour of the Pyramid in terms of sensitivity and linear range. This will lead to a full operational procedure for the use of the Pyramid on-sky, assisting with current designs and future implementations. Here we present our experimental setup and preliminary results. Experimental study of a high intensity radio-frequency cooler. The dependencies of SHIRaC's transmission and the cooled beam parameters in terms of geometrical transverse emittance and the longitudinal energy spread have also been discussed.
Investigation of beam purity at optimum cooling condition has also been done. Results from the experiments indicate that an emittance reduction of less than 2. The emittance is at expected values whereas the energy spread is not. France, 17 partner countries. An earlier study completed in this laboratory showed that in regular realization of the melting-freezing plateaus, there is no diffusion of impurities in the thickness of the ingot, or the diffusion is excessively slow and cannot allow a uniform distribution of the impurities.
On the other hand, it is frequently noticed that the experimental conditions before the freezing plateau have an impact on its characteristics value, slope,…. Up to now, no systematic study was performed on the influence of this parameter. So, the objective of the task started recently in this laboratory is to investigate the influence of the time spent in the liquid phase on the phase transition. As a final result, it is demonstrated that in order to reach the equilibrium of the concentration of impurities, it is necessary to ensure that the metal remains in the liquid phase at least 24 h before initiating the freeze.
At the end of the process, the aluminum ingot was chemically analyzed. The analyses reveal large contaminations of the surface of the ingot sodium, sulfur, and phosphorus. One of the important outputs of this study is that the conditions of usage of the cells should be given important attention since large contaminations can be brought by the furnace. These receivers are based on the conventional geodetic ASHTECH Z12 unit, which has been modified to meet the stability requirements of time and frequency comparisons. Comparison of the two receivers operated side by side in different antenna configurations shows typical short-term noise of 1.
Longer term variations indicate a temperature sensitivity in the equipment, which limits the performance of the GPS phase method. One of the receivers was successfully operated using a temperature-stabilized antenna TSA from 3S Navigation, and the ASHTECH antenna, which feeds the second receiver, was placed in a home-built oven maintained at a constant temperature. These precautions made it possible to reduce a number of systematic effects. The relative frequency stability obtained was about 3. The role of porous matrix in water flow regulation within a karst unsaturated zone: Some portions of the porous rock matrix in the karst unsaturated zone UZ can contain large volumes of water and play a major role in water flow regulation.
Previous research revealed the geological structure and water-related features of the study site and illustrated the feasibility of specific hydrogeophysical measurements. In this study, the focus is on hydrodynamics at the seasonal and event timescales. This large volume of water cannot be stored in fractures and conduits within the UZ.
MRS was also used to measure the seasonal variation of water stored in the karst UZ. A process-based model was developed to simulate the effect of vegetation on groundwater recharge dynamics. In addition, electrical resistivity tomography ERT monitoring was used to assess preferential water pathways during a rain event. This study demonstrates the major influence of water flow within the porous rock matrix on the UZ hydrogeological functioning at both the local LSBB and regional Fontaine de Vaucluse scales. By taking into account the role of the porous matrix in water flow regulation, these findings may significantly improve karst groundwater hydrodynamic modelling, exploitation, and sustainable management.
Modeling of the competition of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatter in multiple beam experiments. Detailed Thomson scattering diagnostics showed that SBS always precedes SRS, that secondary electron plasma waves sometimes accompanied SRS appropriate to the Langmuir Decay Instability LDI , and that, with multiple interaction laser beams, the SBS direct backscatter signal in the primary laser beam was reduced while the SRS backscatter signal was enhanced and occurred earlier in time.
Analysis and numerical calculations are presented here that evaluate the influences on the competition of SBS and SRS, of local pump depletion in laser hot spots due to SBS, of mode coupling of SBS and LDI ion waves, and of optical mixing of secondary and primary laser beams. These influences can be significant.
The calculations take into account simple models of the laser beam hot-spot intensity probability distributions and assess whether ponderomotive and thermal self-focusing are significant. Within the limits of the model, which omits several other potentially important nonlinearities, the calculations suggest the effectiveness of local pump depletion, ion wave mode coupling, and optical mixing in affecting the LULI observations. The series Rencontres du Vietnam, created by Jean Tran Thanh Van in , consists of international meetings aimed to stimulate the development of advanced research in Vietnam and more generally in South East Asia, and to establish collaborative research networks with Western scientific communities.
This conference, as the whole series, also supports the International Center for Interdisciplinary Science Education being built in Quy Nhon. The articles published in this volume present the latest results from the heavy-ion collision programs of RHIC and LHC as well as the corresponding theoretical interpretation and future perspectives. Lower energy nuclear programs were also reviewed, providing a rather complete picture of the state-of-the-art in the field.
These features are promising to improve, not only, gaseous retrieval in clear sky or scattering atmosphere, but also to retrieve aerosol parameters. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to an Information Content IC analysis of potential synergy between thermal infrared, shortwave infrared and visible, in order to obtain a more accurate retrieval of gas and aerosol.
This forward model can be relied to an optimal estimation method, which allows simultaneously retrieving gases profiles and aerosol granulometry and concentration. The analysis of the information provided by the spectral synergy is based on climatology of dust, volcanic ash and biomass burning aerosols. This work was conducted in order to develop a powerful tool that allows retrieving simultaneously not only the gas concentrations but also the aerosol characteristics by selecting the so called "best channels", i.
The methodology developed in this paper could also be used to define the specifications of future high spectral resolution mission to reach a given accuracy on retrieved parameters. This laboratory is primarily designed to analyze environmental samples that display low radioactivity levels using gamma-ray spectrometry. Two high-purity germanium detectors were placed under 85 m of rock ca.
Both detectors are fully equipped so that the samples can be analyzed in an automatic mode without requiring permanent presence of a technician in the laboratory. Auto-samplers twenty positions and systems to fill liquid nitrogen automatically provide one month of autonomy to the spectrometers. The LAFARA facility allows us to develop new applications in the field of environmental sciences based on the use of natural radionuclides present at low levels in the environment. As an illustration, we present two of these applications: Safety of dermal diphoterine application: Diphoterine Laboratoire Prevor, Valmondois, France is an active, amphoteric, polyvalent, chelating, slightly hypertonic decontamination solution for chemical splashes to the skin and eyes.
It chemically binds a large number of chemical substances present on the skin surface without causing a significant release of heat exothermic reactions. Because of its amphoteric properties, it can bind chemically opposite substances such as acids and bases or oxidizers and reducing agents. No adverse effects have been observed in an ongoing postmarketing surveillance program during many years of use in European industrial facilities. Diphoterine has more recently been used in hospitals for delayed management of chemical burns to the skin and eyes. There is interest in having protocols for both immediate and delayed diphoterine use for skin decontamination.
Whereas studies of diphoterine efficacy, clinical and in vitro or ex vivo, have been published or are in the process of being prepared for publication, no review has yet been published focusing solely on the safety of this decontamination solution. Therefore, all available studies on the safety of diphoterine are described here, including recent studies demonstrating no harmful effects on the skin. Diphoterine can be used, even on damaged skin, without toxic, irritant, allergenic, or sensitizing effects. Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model.
Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N VL1 and 48 deg N VL2 , providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique LMD , we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model GCM , which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year.
The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.
Efficacy of a collagen-based dressing in an animal model of delayed wound healing. The mRNA expression and the proliferation of dermal fibroblast were investigated. Histological analysis of scar tissue also shows an enhancement of remodelling associated with no sign of acute inflammation. Moreover, GBT allows cell growth inside the matrix and stimulates proliferation of human dermal fibroblast. A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars. A method to estimate the neutral atmospheric density near the ionospheric main peak of Mars is introduced in this study.
The neutral densities at km can be derived from the ionospheric and atmospheric measurements of the Radio Science experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor MGS. The derived neutral densities cover a large longitude range in northern high latitudes from summer to late autumn during 3 Martian years, which fills the gap of the previous observations for the upper atmosphere of Mars. The method presented in this study can be applied to other radio occultation measurements, such as the result of the Radio Science experiment on board MEX.
Determination of the ability of Thymox to kill or inhibit various species of microorganisms associated with infectious causes of bovine lameness in vitro. Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis hairy heel warts , interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon foot rot.
Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. Thymox is a broad-spectrum agricultural disinfectant that is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and readily biodegradable. Overall, the values found in this study of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Thymox show its potential as an alternative antibacterial agent used in bovine footbaths; however, field trials are needed to determine its effectiveness for the control and prevention of infectious claw diseases.
Published by Elsevier Inc. Our operational definition of anticipation is 'To foresee in order to act. Everyone, in a professional or private role, makes important decisions for employees, for business operations and commerce, for family, for investments, for jurisdictions, and for the country and economic zone, among other areas in which the polis is involved. Given the dynamics of reality in our times, every decision appears as a wager on the future. It is also related to the wish or desire to obtain the best outcome for risk assumed which a wager entails and the effort expended.
In other words, the hydrogen density near the exobase adjusts to have a balance between the local upward ballistic and the downward ballistic flux due to a short lateral migration time in the exosphere compared to the vertical diffusion time. Hollow atoms below, above, and at surface. It is now quite obvious that, in most cases, when a highly charged ion approaches, or penetrates a surface, many electrons are captured in excited states of the projectile.
The nature of the hollow atoms formed depends on the velocity of the ion, and whether or not capture has occurred above, below, or at the surface. I would like in this talk to discuss the nature, namely the electronic configuration of the hollow atoms formed in various circumstances. In the first two sections I shall summarize recent results, some of them are already published, or have been presented in other conferences.
Section I will be devoted to the study of hollow atoms formed inside the surface, section II to those formed far from the surface. In a third section I will present some new results, obtained at very low velocities, on hollow atoms at surface. These results have been obtained through a large international collaboration: The overall performances of the facility intensity and attainable final energy critically depend on the charge breeder optimization. Experimental results collected along the years confirm that the breeding process is still not fully understood and room for improvements still exists: The results of the numerical simulations, obtained implementing a plasma-target model of increasing accuracy and different values for the plasma potential, will be described along the paper: Property and instrumental heritage of the Bordeaux Astronomical Observatory; What future?
In the years , the Government of the Third Republic decided to develop scientific and technical research. Such an effort contributed to supporting and creating universities and other institutes such as astronomical observatories. It was set up by Georges Rayet in the years 's. In addition, the library contains about a thousand books for the period The future of the observatory is not clear at the present time, when the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique will leave to the campus in a few years. An approximation to a three-dimensional instantaneous state of the atmosphere.
Even though many missions have explored the Venus atmospheric circulation, its instantaneous state is poorly characterized. In situ measurements vertically sampling the atmosphere exist for limited locations and dates, while remote sensing observations provide only global averages of winds at altitudes of the clouds: Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages.
The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration.
Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties. Interlaboratory tests for low-level radioactivity measurements in France. In the framework of French national metrological coordination, the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants LMRI organizes every year an interlaboratory test program.
The participation in these programs is on a voluntary basis and the results are presented in a nameless way. These tests concern radioactivity, neutron and dosimetry measurements. In this paper, a review of interlaboratory tests for low-level radioactivity measurements proposed by LMRI is given from to Every year, three types of tests are proposed: The user's interest has increased, while the quality of results has improved.
High critical temperature superconductors HTCS are very promising for applications in microelectronics due to the control of high quality epitaxial thin films, in spite of a number of specific constraints. Active and passive devices are already available in various laboratories, prooving that applications are actually expected soon.
We report here on the interest of HTCS thin films, on preparation processes including materials and substrates choice, and also on characterization methods which are required in order to chek the quality of the samples. Finally some illustrative examples of applications are presented.
IMGT is used in medical research autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, AIDS, leukemias, lymphomas, myelomas , veterinary research, biotechnology related to antibody engineering phage displays, combinatorial libraries, chimeric, humanized and human antibodies , diagnostics clonalities, detection and follow up of residual diseases and therapeutical approaches graft, immunotherapy and vaccinology. IMGT is freely available at http: Detection of the valvular split within the second heart sound using the reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner—Ville distribution.
Background In this paper, we developed a novel algorithm to detect the valvular split between the aortic and pulmonary components in the second heart sound which is a valuable medical information. Methods The algorithm is based on the Reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner—Ville distribution which is a modified time—frequency distribution of the Wigner—Ville distribution.
A preprocessing amplitude recovery procedure is carried out on the analysed heart sound to improve the readability of the time—frequency representation. The simulated S2 heart sounds were generated by an overlapping frequency modulated chirp—based model at different valvular split durations. Results Simulated and real heart sounds are processed to highlight the performance of the proposed approach.
The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Jackson hereafter BJ method , estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS 6. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good.
The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. The HyMeX program Hydrological cycle in Mediterranean eXperiment aims at improving our understanding of hydrological cycle in the Mediterranen and at a better quantification and forecast of high-impact weather events in numerical weather prediction models. During this period two aerosol Raman lidars have been deployed at Menorca Island Spain: Both lidars have been continuously running during the campaign and have provided information on aerosol and cloud optical properties under various atmospheric conditions maritime background aerosols, dust events, cirrus clouds We will present here the results of intercomparisons between R-Man, and WALI aerosol lidar systems and collocated sunphotometer measurements.
Models outputs will help to validate airborne measurements. This paper presents the study domain, the hydrodynamic models and their use in the context of AirSWOT campaigns in France. A skincare combined with combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide provides a significant adjunctive efficacy and local tolerance benefit in adult women with mild acne.
Acne in adult women is an increasing reason for dermatological consultations. Subjects were randomized to receive the fixed combination applied either every evening or every other evening and a daily application of the standard emollient and the test care or a once daily application of the fixed combination and the standard emollient alone.
Clinical evaluations at Day 0, Day 45 and Day 90 included the count of acne lesions, assessment of clinical improvement and local tolerance. The quantitative lipid profile of the stratum corneum of the forehead was also determined. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio.
The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0. Detailed studies were performed to demonstrate the large-scale and small-scale homogeneity of the reference glasses.
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Ce document contient les r?? Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research?? Shear wave speed recovery in transient elastography and supersonic imaging using propagating fronts. Using this method, an 'ultrafast imaging' system up to 10 frames s-1 follows in real time the propagation of a low frequency shear wave. The objective of this paper is to develop and test algorithms whose ultimate product is images of the shear wave speed of tissue mimicking phantoms. The data used in the algorithms are the front of the propagating shear wave.
Here, we first develop techniques to find the arrival time surface given the displacement data from a transient elastography experiment. The arrival time surface satisfies the Eikonal equation. We then propose a family of methods, called distance methods, to solve the inverse Eikonal equation: Lastly, we explain why simple inversion schemes for the inverse Eikonal equation lead to large outliers in the wave speed and numerically demonstrate that the new scheme presented here does not have any large outliers.
We exhibit two recoveries using these methods: A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler UVP , was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer Six distinct zoological groups were monitored.
The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food living and non-living particulate organic matter to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords.
Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes. Minoxidil hair formulation is commonly used for the treatment of male or female androgenic alopecia. This over-the-counter product is wrongly considered safe. The ingestion of a few milliliters by a child can lead to significant intoxication.
We report a case of significant intoxication after the ingestion of topical minoxidil Alopexy; Pierre Fabre Laboratoires , SA, Switzerland. A 7-year-old girl, who accidentally ingested a teaspoon of minoxidil hair solution, presented to the pediatric emergency department for emesis. She presented electrocardiogram changes sinus tachycardia and flattening T-waves but normal cardiac enzymes.
Her blood pressure normalized on day 2. Minoxidil topical solution is an unsafe product for children. This formulation should be strictly kept out of reach of children and manufacturers should enhance child-resistance security of packaging. The over-the-counter availability must be questioned. Etude vibroacoustique d'un systeme coque-plancher-cavite avec application a un fuselage simplifie.
L'objectif de ce travail est de developper des modeles semi-analytiques pour etudier le comportement structural, acoustique et vibro-acoustique d'un systeme coque-plancher-cavite. La connection entre la coque et le plancher est assuree en utilisant le concept de rigidite artificielle. Ce concept de modelisation flexible facilite le choix des fonctions de decomposition du mouvement de chaque sous-structure. Les resultats issus de cette etude vont permettre la comprehension des phenomenes physiques de base rencontres dans une structure d'avion. Une approche integro-modale est developpee pour calculer les caracteristiques modales acoustiques.
Elle utilise une discretisation de la cavite irreguliere en sous-cavites acoustiques dont les bases de developpement sont connues a priori.
The End and the Beginning
Cette approche, a caractere physique, presente l'avantage d'etre efficace et precise. La validite de celle-ci a ete demontree en utilisant des resultats disponibles dans la litterature. Un modele vibro-acoustique est developpe dans un but d'analyser et de comprendre les effets structuraux et acoustiques du plancher dans la configuration.
La validite des resultats, en termes de resonance et de fonction de transfert, est verifiee a l'aide des mesures experimentales realisees au laboratoire. Analyses of imaging data from Mariner, Viking and MGS have shown that surface properties albedo, temperature of the northern cap present significant differences within the summer season and between Mars years.
These differences are attributed to changes in grain size or dust content of surface ice. To better understand the summer behavior of the permanent northern polar cap, we perfomed a high resolution modeling approximately 1 deg x 1 deg. We compare the predicted properties of the surface ice ice thickness, temperature with the Mars Express Omega summer observations of the northern cap. The specific evolution of regions of interest cap center, Chasma Boreal Comparaison avec le calcul en 2D. In this paper, the finite element method is applied for the computation of the magnetostatic field in the windings of a shell-form reactor.
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The results are compared to those obtained in 2D. These calculation results are also compared to some test results. This causes growth and retreat of snow cover primarily CO2 in Martian Polar regions. The perennial caps are the only place on the planet where condensed H2O is available at surface. This leads to a significant variation on planet's surface albedo and hence effecting the amount of solar flux absorbed or reflected at the surface. Presence of dust or other surface impurities can significantly reduce the surface albedo especially during and right after a dust storm.
This change will also be evident in the surface energy flux interactions. Inter-annual variability of surface albedo and planet's top of atmosphere TOA energy budget along with their correlation with currently available mission data will be presented. We exclude cross-sections above 4. These data originate from field surveys within the global ocean, were solicited from investigators and databases, compiled, and then quality controlled.
The MAREDAT pigment database provides high quality measurements of the major taxonomic pigments including chlorophylls a and b, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'- hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, alloxanthin, divinyl chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, lutein, peridinin, prasinoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin, which may be used in varying combinations to estimate phytoplankton community composition.
Quality control measures consisted of flagging samples that had a total chlorophyll a concentration of zero, had fewer than four reported accessory pigments, or exceeded two standard deviations of the log-linear regression of total chlorophyll a with total accessory pigment concentrations. We anticipate the MAREDAT pigment database to be of use in the marine ecology, remote sensing and ecological modeling communities, where it will support model validation and advance our global perspective on marine biodiversity.
Results measured by electromyography monitoring. Preliminary results were measured by electromyography monitoring electromyoscan on three subjects suffering from spinal cord injury and who underwent a double therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate regained voluntary activity below the injury in subjects who received a double therapy: An infrared laser, whose frequencies and power settings cannot be disclosed due to its proprietary nature, was applied after an OEG injection performed according to Dr. Three cases, two males and one female, were selected for this study.
Presentation and comments of the graphs recordings of voluntary muscle activity below the injury are provided. This preliminary study suggests that the double therapy restores some voluntary muscle activity as measured by electromyography monitoring. Preliminary results of phase 2. A day-by-day summary of the field measurement as a function of universal time UT is given.
The nearby meteorological station 10 km away provides rawindsounding at 00UT and 12UT. The airborne equipment looked down while the ground based equipment looked up. The two lidars were operated at nm, and the on-board radiometers were identical to the ones on the ground. We also indicate the Meteosat data corresponding to the period of measurements. Two examples of simultaneous ground-based lidar, pygeometer and pyranometer data are displayed. The authors present the history of the founding of the French journal L'Annee Psychologique. The names of Theodule Ribot , Henry Beaunis , and Alfred Binet are closely associated with the journal.
Ribot's election to the chair of Experimental and Comparative Psychology at the College de France in marked the official emancipation of psychology in France. Because there was no laboratory associated with the chair, Beaunis, a physiological psychologist from Nancy, proposed to Ribot the creation of the first French laboratory of experimental psychology Under Beaunis's direction, this laboratory was established at the Sorbonne in Paris but was in fact dependent on another educational institution, L'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
Toussaint Kafarhire Murhula
In the laboratory's research was first published in a yearly journal named Travaux du Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique 2 volumes: Binet, who joined the laboratory in , was not satisfied by the form of this publication. With Beaunis's agreement, he then created L'Annee Psychologique in to develop the reputation of the laboratory's research. The authors present the evolution and vicissitudes of the journal from to , with a glance up to the present.
Observation and Model Simulation. The relationship between interannual variability of rainfall in north-east Brazil and tropical sea-surface temperature is studied using observations and model simulations. The model reproduces very well the rainfall anomalies correlation of between observed and modelled anomalies. The study confirms that precipitation in north-east Brazil is highly correlated to the sea-surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Using the singular value decomposition method, we find that Nordeste rainfall is modulated by two independent oscillations, both governed by the Atlantic dipole, but one involving only the Pacific, the other one having a period of about 10 years. Correlations between precipitation in north-east Brazil during February-May and the sea-surface temperature 6 months earlier indicate that both modes are essential to estimate the quality of the rainy season.
This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion EP thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power.
The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results.
The main objective of the project is to develop innovative Tools for the conservation of the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum. The adaptation of digital photogrammetric techniques for use in submarine is rapidly increasing in recent years. In fact, these techniques are particularly well suited for use in underwater environments. PErfECT developed different photogrammetry tools to enhance the red coral population surveys based in: To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination.
A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. President, fellow members of the American Geophysical Union, and members of the U. After receiving diplomas in several disciplines of geology, physics, and geophysics from the University of Strasbourg during the s, Xavier came to the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory as a visiting scientist where he put his knowledge to practice until In he received the Doctor of Sciences degree from the University of Strasbourg.
Coronagraphs history teaches that a particular attention must be dedicated to the occulter optimization. A breadboard of the occulting assembly BOA has been manufactured in order to perform stray light tests in front of two solar simulators in Marseille, France and in Torino, Italy. A first measurement campaign has been carried on at the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. In this paper we describe the BOA design, the laboratory set-up and the preliminary results. The results are based on data from several sources.
Recent data from Temple University was obtained using the optical-optical double resonance polarization spectroscopy technique, and finally, a group at the University of Latvia has added additional LIF FTS data. In the Hamiltonian matrix, we have used analytic potentials the expanded Morse oscillator form with both finite-difference FD coupled-channel and discrete variable representation DVR calculations of the term values. Fitted diagonal and off-diagonal spin-orbit functions are obtained and compared with ab initio results from Temple and Moscow State universities.
Supercritical impregnation and optical characterization of loaded foldable intraocular lenses using supercritical fluids. To prepare drug-loaded intraocular lenses IOLs used to combine cataract surgery with postoperative complication treatment through supercritical impregnation while preserving their optical properties. Supercritical impregnations of commercial foldable IOLs used in cataract surgery with ciprofloxacin an antibiotic and dexamethasone phosphate disodium salt an antiinflammatory drug were performed in a noncontinuous mode.
Impregnation amounts were determined through drug-release kinetic studies. The optical characterizations of IOLs were determined by evaluating the dioptric power and the imaging quality by determining the modulating transfer function MTF at a specified spatial frequency according to the International Organization for Standardization ISO A dynamic dilution system-based evaluation of the procedure adopted for determining ozone precursor volatile compounds.
Different atmospheres of VOCs were generated at concentrations between 0. These conditions are generally representative of those commonly observed in ambient air in the eastern France. This dynamic dilution allows the simulation of a wide range of scenarios concentrations, temperatures and relative humidities. After assessing the capacity and performance of the system, it was applied in order to evaluate the recoveries and stabilities of VOCs from canisters used for the collection and analysis of two mixtures of VOCs.
The first mixture contained six alkanes ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane and heptane , and the second contained five alkenes ethene, propene, butene, 1-pentene and 1-hexene , five aromatics benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene and o-xylene , acetylene, and 1,3-butadiene.
However, losses of certain aromatics were noted at low relative humidity. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c 3 and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin "nigrificans" and "orientis" are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1. Structuring Broadcast Audio for Information Access. One rapidly expanding application area for state-of-the-art speech recognition technology is the automatic processing of broadcast audiovisual data for information access.
Since much of the linguistic information is found in the audio channel, speech recognition is a key enabling technology which, when combined with information retrieval techniques, can be used for searching large audiovisual document collections. Audio indexing must take into account the specificities of audio data such as needing to deal with the continuous data stream and an imperfect word transcription. Other important considerations are dealing with language specificities and facilitating language portability.
The transcription systems have been integrated into prototype demonstrators for several application areas such as audio data mining, structuring audiovisual archives, selective dissemination of information, and topic tracking for media monitoring. As examples, this paper addresses the spoken document retrieval and topic tracking tasks. Introduction Sexually transmitted infections. By opposition to grazing incidence, normal incidence collectors are expected to collect more light with a simpler and cheaper design.
Designs are presented for the two current types of existing sources: Collection efficiency is calculated in both cases. SAGEM works on the collectors manufacturability are also presented, including polishing, coating and cooling. The feasibility of polishing has been demonstrated with a roughness better than 2 angstroms obtained on several materials glass, silicon, Silicon Carbide, metals Lastly, SAGEM has studied the design and feasibility of an efficient thermal control, based on a liquid cooling through slim channels machined close to the optical surface.
The system described in this work is meant to be a prototype of a more performing one that will be installed at ELI-Beamlines in Prague for the collection of ions produced after the interaction Laser-target, . The purpose of this work is to validate the design and the performances of this large and compact bore system and to characterize the beam produced after the interaction laser-target and its features. Moreover, the optics simulations have been compared with a real beam shape on a GAFChromic film.
The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here demonstrating a good agreement with the simulations and a good control on the beam optics. A compact micro-wave synthesizer for transportable cold-atom interferometers. We present the realization of a compact micro-wave frequency synthesizer for an atom interferometer based on stimulated Raman transitions, applied to transportable inertial sensing. The phase noise effect on the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer is evaluated for diverse values of cycling time, interrogation time, and Raman pulse duration.
To our knowledge, the resulting contribution is well below the sensitivity of any demonstrated cold atom inertial sensors based on stimulated Raman transitions. The drastic improvement in terms of size, simplicity, and power consumption paves the way towards field and mobile operations. Topological gapped edge states in fractional quantum Hall-superconductor heterostructures. We propose and implement a numerical setup for studying edge states of fractional quantum Hall droplets with a superconducting instability.
The fully gapped edges carry a topological parafermionic degree of freedom that can encode quantum information protected against local perturbations. We numerically simulate such a system using exact diagonalization by restricting the calculation to the Laughlin quasihole subspace. We study the quantization of the total charge on each edge and show that the ground states are permuted by spin flux insertion and the parafermionic Josephson effect, evidencing their topological nature and the Cooper pairing of fractionalized quasiparticles.
The full affiliation for Author 3 is: C'est tout sauf un inconnu. Il habitait dans les montagnes. Elle se rend au Tonkin retrouver la branche vietnamienne de sa famille. Cet ouvrage est un regard surtout empathique sur douze merveilleux judokas. Catherine Gravil est journaliste. Qui nous donne des nouvelles du lieutenant Poignard, certes. Qui ne baissent pas les yeux. Qui ne rasent pas les murs. Qui parlent peu, mais fort. Qui ont des armes. Mercenaires Soldats de fortune et d'infortune Alain Sanders.
L'histoire a retenu les sur-noms de ces soldats de fortune? Et presque toujours pour leurs convictions. Vous allez adorer la seconde! Fin connaisseur et amateur — au sens fort du terme: Jean-Michel Charlier fut un homme rare. Mais les riches yankees pour donner aux pauvres sudistes. Lieutenant-colonel Georges Masselot Robert Saucourt. En parlant de Masselot, on a envie de dire: Il fut au rendez-vous de tous les combats pour la France: Il paya le prix fort ses engagements.
Et encore moins si ces gommeux ne sont pas texans…. Au Texas, toutes les femmes sont belles. Dussent les rues en ruisseler de sang… Ce que la presse en dit.. Mais elle porte en elle son histoire. Il ne laisse rien au hasard: Le jour de ses noces. Margaret Kelly a disparu en En 20 mois, il effectue missions de combat en heures de vol. Ou Pierre Paulot, sergent-chef au 8e? Tous fils de France. On ne leur demandait pas de faire la guerre — ou seulement de ne faire rien que la guerre —, mais aussi de construire. Ils se sont battus. John Franklin ne laisse rien au hasard: Il est de Venise.
En usant la semelle de ses souliers. Venise ne se donne pas au premier venu. La fin du Vietnam libre Alain Sanders. Un journaliste occidental les interpelle. Nous allons faire Camerone. En tenant compte de ce que dit la Loi. Qu'il ne faut jamais ignorer, faut-il le rappeler. Il continue les formations dans de nombreux domaines: Dans tous ses aspects. Le massacre des Cristeros est un exemple de cette haine. Mort au mauvais gouvernement! On ne devrait jamais quitter son enfance. Un jour, Foulques a mis le cap sur la Patagonie. Une tranche de vie. Le 9 mars , les Japonais attaquaient nos garnisons.
Et dix, vingt, trente autres encore. Mais aussi des sportifs, des acteurs, des chanteurs, des musiciens. Des femmes de sa famille. Une jeunesse de soleil et de rires. Bal l ades irlandaises. Les hommes y sont debout. Les femmes y sont belles. Miggiani, ambassadeur de Malte en France. L'Olive, le doum et l'orange Bernard Hoerni.