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But that is still not the reason Tejanos celebrate El Cinco de Mayo. Arriving in Puebla they would join forces with the Mexican Cavalry under the leadership of Porfirio Diaz. Late in the evening on May 5 th the French Infantry were in the process of with drawing from the field of battle and it had been a long extensive exhausting battle. Ignacio Zaragosa orders Porfirio Diaz to withdraw his cavalry.

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Diaz, seeing an opportunity to destroy the retreating French Infantry disobeys the order and orders his cavalry to attack. Among these attackers was our own Tejano Cavalry. A mighty charge ensued resulting in the total destruction of the infantry forcing the entire French Army to abandon the field of battle. Diaz knew that if he allowed the infantry to regroup he would have to fight them again the next day. It was a glorious Mexican victory. General Diaz, instead of being reprimanded would be the hero of the day.

Six years later the surviving Tejanos saw this battle and victory as their contribution in defeating the French and started the celebrations in South Texas. After Benito Juarez died the next candidate for the presidency Porfirio Diaz, would ride all the way to Alice Texas to seek the endorsement of Porfirio Zamora. And now you know the rest of the story. I am honored and humbled that so many of you throughout the U.

Just let me know if you need that information, ok? Hayes-Bautista and Cynthia L. Please see e-mail below--the authors' paper underscores what I said earlier to you that El Cinco de Mayo is indeed "An American Tradition" just as much as it is also a Mexican tradition. Su Hermano Chicano From: Eastern Daylight Time Subj: If you would like more detailed information, I published a book "El Cinco de Mayo: I hope this clarifies some of the mystery, please feel free to share with your complete list serve.

I have enjoyed your posts, this is the first time I can offer something in return. April 13th, -- Millionaire Robert Mills Dies. Just a sample of what I found with a search on Spanish History. Since it was the National Humanities web site, I expected the materials would be factual, but I noted the unscholarly use of very broad generalizations. Sadly, there seems to be an anti-Spanish bias among government sanctioned groups, of which we need to be aware. Note the print they use, Spanish hanging Indians in the first selection below, and label the material for primary use.

Spanish -English in the Caribbean, Power Getting it, keeping it, Po wer, American Beginnings: Spanish -English rivalry, Caribbean, File Format: Columbus, Hispaniola settlement, File Format: Castro was a self-made man, the embodiment of the American dream. He overcame poverty and discrimination to graduate from college and launch a successful career in politics and diplomacy. But you've got to work for it.

Growing up on the U. He said he wondered why the Hispanics were laborers and none delivered the mail or worked in offices. It didn't seem right that the Hispanic children had to walk miles to school every day while the white kids would wave from a passing school bus, he said. He set out to beat the odds. When he couldn't get a job as a teacher — schools didn't hire educators of Mexican descent back then — he became a drifter for a while, working as a farm hand and boxing here and there.

He landed a job with the U. Consulate in the border city of Agua Prieta, Mexico. After five years, a senior official told him he was doing a great job but had no future in the foreign service — he had a Hispanic name and no Ivy League education. Castro quit and moved to Tucson. A law school dean at the University of Arizona told Castro he wouldn't be accepted because Castro couldn't afford to quit a job teaching Spanish. Besides, the dean said, Hispanic students didn't do well in law school.

Undeterred, Castro went to the university president, who convinced the dean to give Castro an opportunity to prove himself. He excelled and went on to be elected the first Hispanic county attorney and later the first Hispanic judge in Pima County Superior Court. He was the second-youngest in a family with 12 children — 11 boys and one girl. His father was a union leader forced out of Mexico for organizing a strike at the mine in Cananea. His father died when Castro was 12, and his mother became a midwife to feed the family.

She delivered babies for the Mexican families around Douglas in exchange for flower, corn, beans and other staples. He went on to serve as U. Johnson later sent him to Bolivia, and he stayed for a short time under Richard Nixon before returning to Arizona and making the first of two bids for governor. His statewide races were two of the closest gubernatorial elections in state history. He lost to Republican Jack Williams in by 1. He fared better four years later as the Republican Party was embroiled in the Watergate corruption scandal. Castro defeated Republican Russ Williams by less than 1 percentage point three months after Nixon resigned in controversy.

As an ambassador and judge, Castro was used to having unquestioned authority; he struggled to adjust to the checks and balances imposed on a governor, said Alfredo Gutierrez, a Democrat and legislative leader while Castro was governor. He told the AP he was proud of his work motivating Hispanics to vote, many of them for the first time despite deep nerves.

I had more authority. Castro spent his waning years living in Nogales and talking to students around the state, motivating them to work hard and chase lofty dreams. Castro's success in politics was unlikely for a Mexican-American in the s. Arizona's Hispanic community was sizeable but not active in politics. Despite deep nerves, many voted for the first time when they cast a ballot for Castro, he said. Castro's races for governor were two of the closest in state history.

He fared better four years later, defeating Republican Russ Williams by less than 1 percentage point. As an ambassador and judge, Castro was used to having unquestioned authority; he struggled to adjust to the checks and balances imposed on a governor, said Alfredo Gutierrez, a fellow Democrat and legislative leader while Castro was governor. Doug Ducey said Castro "lived a full life of exemplary service to Arizona and its people. His parents Vicente and Julia Perez nee Larrache were immigrants from Spain and the Basque, Country who met and fell in love while employed as domestic servants of a wealthy family in Los Angeles, and who married and moved to the San Gabriel Valley to pursue their shared dreams of family and prosperity- dreams that would come to fruition in the little town of Puente, a place evoking the memory of their native lands in its pastoral beauty, in its hills and valleys.

In its bosom they would raise their sons to be very proud Citizens of America. Imbued with a very strong work ethic, Manuel excelled in school and graduated with a degree in Electrical Engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo back when it was a men's only institution and classes were held in Quonset huts. Having not had enough of Quonset huts, apparently, he graduated college and served in the United States Army, learning the hard way that "you've got to be flexible," and after serving two years he returned home to a good job with General Dynamics in Pomona.

He soon met the love of his life, Julie Busch, like him an alumna of Puerto High School and a graduate of USC, and through one of those beautiful quirks of fate. Now with a young wife carrying their first child, he carefully weighted the prospects of work in San Diego with the more heartfelt desire to be near his father and to join his brothers Patrick and David in the two-truck garbage hauling operation they had just started, figuring that it wouldn't be glamorous but it would be "steady work.

Manuel always believed that had a duty to his employees - providing family health insurance, pension, and profit-sharing since the s - long before there were any regulations or requirements to do so. Manuel and Judie have four sons, and the couple loved to take them on trips around the western United States, driving through the small towns, and visiting the National Parks, especially the Teton area in Wyoming. Manuel also had a very deep love for the Puente Valley and the people that live there. Com munity and family have the Grand Teton are had a very deep love for the Puente Valley an people that live there.

Community and family have always been important to him, punctuating his strong belief that you should always leave things better than you found them. Storytelling was a joy of his life, and few could entertain and inform as well as he, whether it be from his vivid memories of Puente as a boy, the exploits and antics of his ' father, Vicente, the "dichos" of his mother, Julia, the lessons of politics and life, or the joys and trials of watching a family and a business grow. His laugh was infectious and was at times a merciful salve he applied after curtly checking his audience with a hard truth.

Manuel was very proud of his wife and best friend, Judie, his four boys and daughters-in-law, Vincent, Christopher Michelle , David Carol , and Peter Michelle , his four grandsons and three granddaughters, as well as his brothers and sister-in-law Vincent Patrick and David Shirley , and his four nieces. He has left a lasting legacy in what he has built, who he has loved, and especially in the example of his life. He lived and will live on as compassionate, visionary, loving, tenacious, strong, responsible, and fun. He was never afraid if what he thought he was doing was right, and he was always purposeful in finishing what he set out to do.

He was a man who kept his promises. Manuel's final hours were marked with the Grace of awakening to the Great Reality, preparing for the fragile journey Home to the beautiful Father. Manuel peacefully surrendered his spirit early Good Friday morning as Psalm 23, "The Lord is my shepherd" was being read aloud to him.

Then, "while he was still a long way off, his father caught sight of him, and was filled with compassion. He ran to his son, embraced him and kissed him. After being hospitalized in February for respiratory problems, Molina died due to a bacterial infection in his lungs. He quickly took to the cumbia rhythm, mining the triplet beat for incredible squeezebox riffs. In , the year-old singer and instrumentalist moved to Mexico City, where he established a recording career with his band Los Sabaneros.

In , Molina moved to San Antonio, setting up shop in a city quite fond of his instrument. State Center Community College officials notified staff in an email sent early Monday morning. No other information about his death has been released. Cantu was raised in Mendota, the son of hardworking parents and brother to several siblings, Riofrio said. Cantu was the primary caretaker of his elderly mother at the time of his death, Riofrio said, and stayed close with several of his siblings. Cantu assumed the president post after serving in a string of administrative roles at Fresno City College and Reedley College.

He was the dean of instruction at Reedley for two years and served as dean of humanities and vice president of instruction at Fresno City. Early in his career he worked as a professor and department chair at the college. When Fresno City College President Cynthia Azari resigned in , Cantu was tapped as interim president and later applied for the job on a permanent basis. Those who knew him said he was a humble man who was always active in campus life.

Back then, she said, he was a spirited member of the faculty Academic Senate. He continued that passionate approach in all his roles, she said. As president at Fresno City, he navigated tough budget years while juggling deep-rooted challenges such as chronically low graduation rates. He also pushed for programs he believed in, like funding services for students who performed at lower rates than their peers. Cantu took Arias on a two-hour stroll of Fresno City a week ago, Arias said.

Stories Of Almost Everyone. History never really says goodbye. History says, see you later. But without it, without the right to dream and the waters that it gives to drink, the other rights would die of thirst. Our part of the world, known today as Latin America, was precocious: The writer is someone who can perhaps have the joy of helping others see.

In a interview with Spanish newspaper El Pais. The best thing about the world is the amount of worlds it has. Today is Cesar Chavez's birthday, and we should commemorate it by renewing our commitment to the workers who continue to labor in the factories of the fields. Chavez, who became one of the world's best-known labor organizers and spokesmen for the poor, came from humble beginnings.

Full text of "Dramatic and musical criticisms"

At age 10, Chavez and his family moved to California to look for migrant work after the family lost the farm. By the eighth grade, Chavez had to stop his schooling to work in the fields full time. Before the emergence of Chavez and the farm workers union in the s, not a single Mexican-American leader had achieved national recognition. In fact, Mexicans and other Latinos seemed not to exist in the nation's mind. We were the "invisible minority. I remember feeling proud when his portrait appeared on the front page of Time magazine's Fourth of July issue.

Now, decades later, a Cesar Chavez holiday is celebrated in California. It is an optional holiday in Texas and a day of recognition in Arizona. We had organized a non-violent protest against segregation and racism in the barrio high schools of East Los Angeles. Chavez was busy dealing with his union's historic Delano grape strike, but he took time out to defend us and send us a telegram expressing solidarity for our cause. Chavez, like the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. He incorporated the tactics and strategies of the civil rights movement led by King. Chavez once said that the "truest act.

The work for farm workers' rights continues today. The health, safety and well-being of many farm workers and immigrant workers are once again under attack by the corporate interests that Chavez fought. While many of the workers may have won the same rights other American workers were granted by the National Labor Relations Act of - such as the freedom to form a union and the power of collective bargaining - many continue to be exposed to pesticides and other unhealthy working conditions as they toil to bring food to our table.

It is important for us to reflect and remember what Chavez stood for as he himself stated it. We know that our cause is just, that history is a story of social revolution and that the poor shall inherit the land. Chavez was a labor leader who shunned the spotlight and remained dedicated to the rank and file of his union until his death in He continues to be a hero to all Americans. Cesar Chavez to receive Navy funeral honors Labor rights leader will be honored at his California memorial for his Navy service on 22nd anniversary of his death April 23, Civil rights and labor leader Cesar Chavez is going to be honored for a different kind of service.

On Thursday, the 22nd anniversary of his death, Chavez will get full graveside honors from the U. Navy at his memorial in California. The idea for the ceremony came from a current Navy sailor who learned Chavez did not receive the honors at the time of his death, according to the Cesar Chavez Foundation. The foundation is hosting the ceremony, along with the National Park Service, which operates Chavez's memorial. Current sailors, veterans and Chavez relatives are expected to attend the formal ceremony that will include a Navy bugler playing "Taps," a rifle salute and a folding of a U. The ceremony won't be the first time the Navy has honored Chavez.

Organizers say Thursday's honors are an opportunity to show the public that Chavez, not known for his time in the military, served in the Navy just after World War II, and it helped him become the fighter and organizer he would later be known for. That motivated him to work for civil and labor rights starting in the early '50s. This is the first high school in the country named for the well-deserving civil rights leader who fought for social justice and the rights of all people.

At this time, it was his people, Mexican Americans. The four students and three teachers I interviewed were all from the early years of the founding of the school. All student interviewees were in the first graduating class of , including the valedictorian, and all pursued higher education as was in the vision of the high school. This is, of course, referring to his hope of completing college and becoming a productive, integrated citizen of the only country he really knows, USA. His progress is at a slower pace since he has to work harder by having a full-time job and going to a community college full-time.

Nevertheless, the training and education all students received have motivated them to complete university studies, some going on for advanced degrees. All students and teachers gave credit to the principal at the time, Josephine Gomez, who has since moved on within the UNO charter school structure, and was unavailable for comment. The students felt that there was tremendous rigor and discipline, sometimes to the point of excess.

They also felt that because of the size of the student body, with a freshman class of pictured in the yearbook , a great camaraderie developed among all the students. By senior year Latino students were pictured in the student annual. The familial feeling amongst students, teachers and parents established trust, and the school became a sanctuary in the neighborhood. One student stated that they spent nine hours daily at school. I feel that had a negative effect on us.

In order to become a student at the charter high school, parents and students were interviewed. Once accepted, students had to wear uniforms and work hard, which was the hope of the parents as well as the dedicated teachers, who spent more than nine hours a day at school, including weekends. Often times, students went on field trips or participated in after-school club activities.

Frequent exploratory trips to various colleges were taken. Curiously, the foreign language offered for a four-year study was Chinese, with a culminating activity of a trip to China during their senior year. Students had to pay their own way. Of the four students interviewed, only one of them went on the China trip. The students all stated that the two-year Spanish language program was inadequate. It is difficult to feel represented and welcomed in an environment that is plagued by privilege and pretentious entitlement when you come from a place of disadvantage and struggle.

This young lady expresses it best: D, 11 April hernandez. Ernesto Galarza, an immigrant to the US where he was educated, author of the book Barrio Boy and nominated for Nobel Prize in Literature, stated in his introduction: Already having read Barrio Boy in the early 70s, I noted the similarities in the life of Dr.

Garcia, also a Mexican immigrant and educated here in Texas. I first began exploring who Dr. Garcia was through a book dedication by a native of Corpus Christi, Dr. Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr. However, my education began much earlier framed by my childhood through my parents, particularly my father. He was the same generation of Dr. Garcia and had he lived in Corpus Christi, I am sure he would have worked enthusiastically with Dr.

Garcia in his civil rights efforts. That gives me a living historical perspective of several generations and insights into the conservative 50s era, the civil upheaval of the 60s, up to the millenials. As a new teacher in the Chicago Public Schools I could see how disparagingly Mexican Americans were portrayed in textbooks, e. As a relatively new resident of Corpus Christi, everyone always asks: I usually give them the standard answer: The longer explanation is I was drawn to this area because of Dr.

Garcia, his legacy, and his archives. I spent one spring vacation here to research Dr. Garcia for my first publication in Latino History and Culture: As the educational historian from our museum, I worked with my partner to get a high school named for Dr. We tried four times, four years, four different schools.

Since the formative years of our country, Mexican Americans in the Southwest have had leadership roles, such as mayor. Chicago did not have that luxury, having its first Mexican American mayoral candidate in I say that is disgraceful! At the time, Chicago, with its immigrant population, had the second largest growing Mexican American population in the country after Los Angeles, bigger than either Houston or San Antonio.

I was raised in Chicago where we did not have figures, historical or otherwise, who serve as heroes and leaders. Realizing that the Chicago Mexican population boom began occurring in the late 60s, it is only then when bilingual programs were initiated under duress in the public schools of Chicago, officially in , as stated in my book: Mexican Americans in CPS, As an educator, I can state unequivocally that leaders need to be visible for the good of all: This comes from decades of experience as an educator, administrator, and educational historian.

Garcia in Corpus Christi. This is the first high school in the country named for Dr. Garcia and is located in Chicago, IL, thus extending the reach and visibility of the legacy of Dr. Garcia, an immigrant, who excelled and gave back to his community both as a physician and civil rights leader. UCLA to require diversity course Freshman students enrolling at the University of California Los Angeles can expect to be thrust into another mandatory course alongside science, math, and English prerequisites. Now, as per a Faculty Staff vote, they will be forced to take a class on ethnic, cultural, religious or gender diversity.

Political science professor Thomas Schwartz said the mandated course was insulting. The search for answers in need of a question continues. Perhaps an enterprising bookie can open a line on how these courses will look. How much of the course will concentrate on teaching black students about the nuances of white culture? How many pages of the religious diversity course will be devoted to explaining the good Christianity has done for the world? Anyone remember that old chestnut?

South Junior High eighth-grader Francisco Perez deftly maneuvers a needle through a sewing hoop, weaving the name of a man he knows little about. On a square-foot piece of blue cloth with a red cutout resembling California, Perez stitches with white thread the words "David Gonzales, California, He was born 39 years after Gonzales died in enemy fire, after digging out and saving three soldiers pinned beneath bombshell rubble during World War II.

But Perez feels an inexplicable connection to this American hero. And she wanted them to learn through a form of commemoration that dates to the time of Betsy Ross, when quilting and flag sewing fueled an American tradition. Each student is sewing a patch in a quilt that will bear the names of the 38 Hispanic soldiers awarded the Medal of Honor, each soldier's place of birth and the year he was awarded the medal. The quilt will be showcased in a tribute to Mexican-American veterans at Santa Ana College next month. For Aguirre's students, each square represents a lesson on how Hispanics — the largest minority group bestowed with the Medal of Honor in proportion to their population — contributed to their new home.

It is their way of weaving their heritage into the fabric of America's international patchwork. They learn history and geography," Aguirre said. While sewing the patches, students spend a few minutes a day searching computer databases for more information about their chosen soldier. They sift through a volume of "America's Medal of Honor Recipients," in hopes of writing a basic report to complete the quilt project. The CAPS program celebrated its 10th anniversary in , and from its inception continues to empower Hispanic college students to become the next generation of successful Hispanic civic and business leaders through training, network-building, and ongoing engagement with leaders in business development.

The CAPS program provides full scholarships for a select group of college and university students from schools throughout California to participate in the CAPS program. Curriculum highlights include professional etiquette, interview skills, self and group awareness, Gallup Strengths Finder, and more. Click here and scroll down to "How to Apply" to learn more about the CAPS program, download the student application, and view curriculum highlights.

Click here and scroll down to "How to Apply" to view the Student Advisor application. This leadership role includes supervising the student activity for the duration of the program, providing structured activities to encourage peer to peer relationships and professional development, and assisting CAHCC staff with program needs during the above dates.

Click here and scroll down to "How to Apply" to view the Facilitator application. All applications are due June 15, I was challenged and pushed to learn how to give an elevator speech, how to network, follow up, make connections, proper etiquette, how to present myself The support that we saw at the convention was the most beautiful thing I've ever seen. It was through this and their support, that I realized that I can be and so whatever I set my mind to. And not just for myself but for the communities that need leaders, like the leaders at the convention and the leaders that made up this year's CAPS students, to bring our communities up" -Annalisa Duenas "I am grateful for the experience and for having met the other CAPS students and created a lasting friendship with them.

I am thankful for the hard work put forth by everyone involved to help make this a successful program. I will forever remember the experience and all that I have learned from these four days. Five towers with six layers of pots in each are part of the school's hydroponic farm, a soilless system created by Laguna Beach-based Alegrfa Fresh.

The urban farm company has helped the high school build and expand its minifarm, the only one of its kind on a high school campus in Southern California. This week, the school added a GardenSoxx system, which differs from a hydroponic vertical farm in that it is flat and built over man-made surfaces such as- concrete. Students this spring visited Alegrfa's farm in Ivine's Great Park, where they learned about healthful eating habits and jobs in urban agriculture. Inspired by their visit, the students created their own vertical farm and had a salsa-making competition with vegetables grown at school.

Erik Cutter, managing director at Alegria Fresh, said he was excited to help expand the high school's farm. Bell Gardens High is located a few miles from Angeles. Although the school paid for the materials, Cutter donated the labor and design of the farm system. He also helped train the 30 kids who now care for the garden.

The plants in the GardenSoxx farm will use 70 percent less water and grow leafy vegetables like kale. Hydroponic farming accounts for some 3, business in the U. Zamora is currently translating the diary Saenz wrote about his service in World War I. The following is taken from a paper published based on the Saenz diary. We extends our gratitude to Dr. That distinction alone would make the work worthy of attention.

Luz returned over and over in his diary and elsewhere to the idea that the democratic ideals sustaining the effort at the front were equally applicable at home. He explicitly conjoined the rhetoric of democracy with the call for the equal treatment of Mexicans in Texas. Luz elaborated on his reasons for joining the military when he was being transported for duty.

As his train passed by the farming community of Dittlinger, he remembered that the suffering of the Mexican people in the area had moved him to act on their behalf. He would continue invoking another motif: Although not as explicit here as elsewhere, Luz reminds us that he joined the army so that he could use his war experience as a justification to wage a more effective battle against injustice at home. For me, that farming area is another battleground. I fought battles there until I convinced county officials to pay the teacher for the schooling of our children.

Now that I wear the uniform of a warrior I have the hope of winning other battles that will bring justice for our people, one of many groupings that make up the suffering humanity that reclaims the sacrifice of their sound-minded and free men. It was exactly here, in this farming community, where it occurred to me to pick up a rifle.

I was driven by the mistreatment that our people face in these parts, where the Teutonic and German races predominate. And I think that those of us who have offered our services to fight the unjust and prideful Germans across the ocean could begin by making an example of the Izcariots, the bad citizens that we often encounter. Dubois, one of the most distinguished early leaders of the African American civil rights leaders, recognized this soon after the WW I.

Like Luz, Dubois urged his compatriots to now fight the home front war: Luz thus called on Mexicans to consciously link the wartime language of democracy and the Mexican civil rights cause.

Luz also defined the Allied cause and the fight against discrimination in Texas as one war. Although the conflict was occurring in different places and involved different issues, the fighting was joined by a general concern for the rights of the dispossessed, both in France and in Texas.

Gonzalez had been denied an exemption, although he was the only caregiver for his incapacitated father. The father died, presumably alone, while his son was overseas. For us the worse war will remain, the one back home against the ones from Martindale that killed your father and unjustly sent you to war. In another contemplative moment, Luz ponders the war back home as an immanent challenge: This time, however, without a rifle to defend ourselves as we did against the Germans in Europe.

In , with the help of financial contributions from LULAC members and supporters in South Texas, Luz published the diary along with additional materials that he had written during the war. He shared it with other soldiers and with fellow LULAC founders, who initially adopted this assessment as part of the emerging ethnic identity and accommodationist strategy of the postwar period.

Notions such as the Mexican homeland, US citizenship, inequality, and an imagined community back home may coexist neatly as abstractions. In real-life, however, they may prove much less mutually agreeable partners. The small print run of his book and the general practice of excluding the Mexican voice from recorded Texas and U.

Luz was born in May 17, , in the South Texas rural community of Realitos. His family migrated from central Mexico to the border area in the late s. They stopped long enough to earn enough money to continue on their trip to Mexico. Luz spoke fondly of his parents. Luz especially admired the caring and uncomplaining nature of his father who worked as a laborer in ranches, farms, and railroad lines throughout South Texas. In part because of limited resources and his absence, Rosalio expected everyone in the family to always behave with the same sense of family responsibility.

Cristina inculcated this value too. She was a highly independent and resourceful person who labored hard in her home and in her garden, often as a single parent. His earliest venture into public life allowed him to embrace his indigenous identity and to launch a career as a teacher and leader in the Mexican community of South Texas. A group of parents in the adjoining working class community expressed deep admiration for the public leadership role that Luz had played.

He agreed, and this is how Luz began his career of over forty years as a teacher and a public figure concerned with issues of inequality and discrimination in the Mexican American community of Texas. Soon after the school term at Oso, Luz attended a business school in San Antonio and obtained a teaching certificate. He joined the Mexican Protective Association during the s and served as its president in Moore. Although Luz may have been able to obtain a deferment from military service because of his occupation and his young family, he volunteered for military service in When he joined the military, Luz was the parent of three young children.

Luz was posted to the Intelligence Section of the 36th Infantry Regiment of the 90th Division, which allowed him the opportunity to use his translation skills primarily in English and Spanish, but also French, which he learned once he landed in that country. After his discharge, he led an effort to build a monument in San Antonio to commemorate the contributions of the Mexican soldier.

The group, however, diverted the enlisted funds to support the famous desegregation fight against the Del Rio Independent School District, which became known as the Salvatierra case of A local court favored the plaintiffs, however, a state court reversed the ruling and decided that the school district was not segregating children on the basis of race. In his private moments Luz must have seen this early legal challenge against school segregation as a symbolic tribute to Mexican American veterans of WWI.

Canales from Brownsville attempted to form a statewide organization that could effectively address discrimination and inequality. He joined Perales in a speaking tour in the Rio Grande Valley with this in mind. During the first failed attempt in to form this organization in Harlingen, Luz served as the Secretary of the convention. According to his family, Luz wrote the first constitution of what was to become the leading Mexican American civil rights organization.

He also served as the president of the McAllen chapter in the s, and throughout the s and s Luz promoted and expanded the views of LULAC with numerous articles in English and Spanish-language papers. Luz retired from teaching soon after WW II. He did not remain inactive, however. Luz wrote two manuscripts; an autobiography that focused on his childhood and a philosophical treatise on life here and in the hereafter. He also accompanied his youngest son at Sul Ross University and used the opportunity to complete his B.

Luz continued using his pen to comment on issues affecting the Mexican community. In , parents and community leaders from Alice successfully petitioned the naming of an elementary school after Luz. He received this recognition for his long years of service to the teaching profession as well as for his tireless work on behalf of the Mexican community through LULAC, the American G. Posted by jmon at 5: Albert Vela and Tom Saenz. The subject on this email from Walter Herbeck was the Mexican cure-all, and there it was the ending of the jingle.

What makes this 3D, open-world quest unique is its promise to not sway from its source material. It seems short on time, but if Lienzo delivers on their magical vision, it could be a very rewarding experience that educates a new generation of geeks about the mythos of a resilient community they may have never imagined. Lienzo is looking for supporters. El Profeta is the name of this mask.

He adopted Cesar Chavez ideology of art as a social service. Two prospectively maintained institutional databases were used to calculate and characterize malpractice risk: Risk groups were divided into pretort reform to and post-tort reform groups to the present. Operative procedures were included for elective, urgent, and emergency general surgery procedures. During the study period, 98, general surgical procedures were performed.

A total of 28 lawsuits 25 pre-reform, 3 postreform were filed, naming general surgery faculty or residents. Published by Elsevier Inc. It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species ROS can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS , and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary.

The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption. Reducing meat over- consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country.

While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic.

While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet.

Ionized gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species ROS into artificial cells. This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species ROS , generated ex situ by ionized gas plasma , can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles cell mimics encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity.

An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine. Taken together, our findings suggest that TFAM could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and molecular target for the treatment of NSCLC, as well as for prediction of the effectiveness of chemotherapy.

Reactive oxygen species ROS , important signaling molecules in plants, are involved in developmental control and stress adaptation. ROS production can trigger broad transcriptional changes; however, it is not clear how specificity in transcriptional regulation is achieved. A large collection of public transcriptome data from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is available for analysis. These data can be used for the analysis of biological processes that are associated with ROS signaling and for the identification of suitable transcriptional indicators.

Several online tools, such as Genevestigator and Expression Angler, have simplified the task to analyze, interpret, and visualize this wealth of data. The analysis of the exact transcriptional responses to ROS requires the production of specific ROS in distinct subcellular compartments with precise timing, which is experimentally difficult.

Analyses are further complicated by the effect of ROS production in one subcellular location on the ROS accumulation in other compartments. In addition, even subtle differences in the method of ROS production or treatment can lead to significantly different outcomes when various stimuli are compared. We suggest guidelines for the analysis of transcriptional data in ROS signaling. Mitochondrial ROS cause motor deficits induced by synaptic inactivity: Implications for synapse pruning. Developmental synapse pruning refines burgeoning connectomes.

The basic mechanisms of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ROS production suggest they select inactive synapses for pruning: To begin to unravel whether mitochondrial ROS regulate pruning, we made the local consequences of neuromuscular junction NMJ pruning detectable as motor deficits by using disparate exogenous and endogenous models to induce synaptic inactivity en masse in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles. We unveil mitochondrial ROS as synaptic activity sentinels that regulate the phenotypical consequences of forced synaptic inactivity at the NMJ.

Our novel results are relevant to pruning because synaptic inactivity is one of its defining features. Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training HIDT , characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers.

Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ACE2 counteracts the effects of angiotensin Ang-II by transforming it into Ang- , thus reducing the ligand for the AT1 receptor and increasing stimulation of the Mas receptor.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. The ROS 1 gene fusion undergoes constitutive activation, regulates cellular proliferation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. ROS 1 fusions can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, real-time PCR, sequencing-based techniques and immunohistochemistry-based methods in clinical laboratories. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Aims There are conflicting reports on the role of reactive oxygen species ROS i.

VE-Cad-tTA that can induce 1. Animals were divided in two groups: Interestingly, although endothelium-dependent nitric oxide NO -mediated coronary vasodilation was significantly increased after short-term increase in NOX- ROS , coronary vasodilation was drastically reduced after long-term increase in ROS. We also show that short-term ROS increase induced proliferation in EC and angiogenic sprouting in the aorta.

Abiotic stresses, including high soil salinity, significantly reduce crop production worldwide. Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait and is regulated by multiple mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms and dissecting the components on their regulatory pathways will provide new insights, leading to novel strategies for the improvement of salt tolerance in agricultural and economic crops of importance. Here we report that soybean salt tolerance 1, named GmST1, exhibited strong tolerance to salt stress in the Arabidopsis transgenic lines. The GmST1-overexpressed Arabidopsis also increased sensitivity to ABA and decreased production of reactive oxygen species under salt stress.

In addition, GmST1 significantly improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. GmST1 belongs to a 3-prime part of Glyma. However, comparative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis around Glyma. The data also indicated that GmST1-transgenic lines survived under drought stress and showed a significantly lower water loss than non-transgenic lines. In summary, our results suggest that overexpression of GmST1 significantly improves Arabidopsis tolerance to both salt and drought stresses and the gene may be a potential candidate for genetic engineering of salt- and drought-tolerant crops.

Kombairaju, Ponvijay; Kerr, Jaclyn P. Oxidative stress is a critical disease modifier in the muscular dystrophies. Our work in dystrophic skeletal muscle revealed that X- ROS is excessive in dystrophin-deficient mdx skeletal muscle and contributes to muscle injury susceptibility, a hallmark of the dystrophic process. We also observed widespread alterations in the expression of genes associated with the X- ROS pathway and redox homeostasis in muscles from both Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and mdx mice.

As nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 Nrf2 plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in redox homeostasis, we hypothesized that Nrf2 deficiency may contribute to enhanced X- ROS signaling by reducing redox buffering. Having identified that reduced Nrf2 activity is a negative disease modifier, we propose that strategies targeting Nrf2 activation may address the generalized reduction in redox homeostasis to halt or slow dystrophic progression.

Ruxolitinib interacted with MMF to kill brain, breast, lung and ovarian cancer cells, and enhanced the lethality of standard of care therapies such as paclitaxel and temozolomide. The drug combination increased the levels of reactive oxygen species in cells, and over-expression of TRX or SOD2 prevented drug combination tumor cell killing. The drug combination increased AIF: From Bench to Bed Side. Reactive oxygen species ROS act as signaling molecules that control physiological processes, including cell adaptation to stress. Redox signaling via ROS has quite recently become the focus of much attention in numerous pathological contexts, including neurodegenerative diseases, kidney and cardiovascular disease.

Imbalance in ROS formation and degradation has also been implicated in essential hypertension. Essential hypertension is characterized by multiple genetic and environmental factors which do not completely explain its associated risk factors. Thereby, even if advances in therapy have led to a significant reduction in hypertension-associated complications, to interfere with the unbalance of redox signals might represent an additional therapeutic challenge.

The decrease of nitric oxide NO levels, the antioxidant activity commonly found in preclinical models of hypertension and the ability of antioxidant approaches to reduce ROS levels have spurred clinicians to investigate the contribution of ROS in humans. Indeed, particular effort has recently been devoted to understanding how redox signaling may contribute to vascular pathobiology in human hypertension.

However, although biomarkers of oxidative stress have been found to positively correlate with blood pressure in preclinical model of hypertension, human data are less convincing. We herein provide an overview of the most relevant mechanisms via which oxidative stress might contribute to the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. Interspecific correlation between red blood cell mitochondrial ROS production, cardiolipin content and longevity in birds. Mitochondrial respiration releases reactive oxygen species ROS as by-products that can damage the soma and may in turn accelerate ageing.

Cardiolipin, an important mitochondrial inner-membrane phospholipid, has these properties by binding and stabilizing mitochondrial inner-membrane proteins. After controlling for phylogeny, body size and oxygen consumption, variation in maximum longevity was significantly explained by mitochondrial ROS production and cardiolipin content, but not by membrane resistance to oxidative attack. These results support the oxidative stress theory of ageing and shed light on mitochondrial cardiolipin as an important factor linking ROS production to longevity.

The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme RCE activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity.

There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy.

The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link. Mild inhibition of mitochondrial respiration extends the lifespan of many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reactive oxygen species ROS promote longevity by activating hypoxia-inducible factor 1 HIF-1 in response to reduced mitochondrial respiration.

However, the physiological role and mechanism of ROS -induced longevity are poorly understood. Here, we show that a modest increase in ROS increases the immunity and lifespan of C. Moreover, mitochondrial ROS increase resistance to various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting a possible association between immunity and long lifespan. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore mPTP openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel IMAC.

Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area.

Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium- reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium- reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly.

The endoplasmic reticulum ER is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species ROS. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases.

Implementation of a patient blood management monitoring and feedback program significantly reduces transfusions and costs. Patient blood management PBM measures have been shown to be effective in reducing transfusions while maintaining patient outcome. The issuance of transfusion guidelines is seen as being key to the success of PBM programs. As the introduction of guidelines alone did not visibly reduce transfusions in our center, a monitoring and feedback program was established.

The aim of our study was to show the effectiveness of such measures in reducing transfusions and cost. We designed a prospective, interventional cohort study with a 3-year time frame January 1, to December 31, In total, , patients aged 18 years or older were included. The PBM monitoring and feedback program was introduced on January 1, , with the subsequent issuance of quarterly reporting. Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second.

This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital a factor of 10 to 20 and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.

Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS -modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol HC , extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells.

HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS -induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death.

The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management.

The increasing fuel prices have challenged heavy duty vehicle HDV manufactures to strive for better fuel economy, by e. Despite this knowledge, the TT fleets seem to be left in the dark. Like HDV aerodynamics, similarities can be observed as a large low pressure wake is formed behind the tractor unloaded and downstream of the trailer full load thus generating AD. As TTs travel half the time without any cargo, focus on drag reduction is important. The full scaled TTs where simulated using the realizable k-epsilon model with grid adaption techniques for mesh independence. Our results indicate that a loaded TT reduces the AD significantly as both wake size and turbulence kinetic energy are lowered.

In contrast to HDV the unloaded TTs have a much larger design space available for possible drag reducing devices, e. This conceptual CFD study has given an indication of the large AD difference between the unloaded and fully loaded TT, showing the potential for significant AD improvements. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee Pan troglodytes that recognizes spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives.

Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced , noise-vocoded NV synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave SW synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time.

Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human.

Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria. Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men.

While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

Development of an automated sampling-analysis system for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species ROS in gas and particle phases: Results showed good performance with a favorable R2 value for the calibration curve above 0. Laboratorial comparison between online and offline methods for particle-bound ROS showed significant loss of ROS due to the relatively long time off-line treatment.

Field observations in Beijing found that concentrations of ROS in winter time were significantly higher than those observed in spring. Only a few weak positive correlations were found between ROS and some air pollutants, which reflects the complexities of ROS generation and transformation in atmosphere. This study was the first to simultaneously obtain concentrations of gas and particle-phase ROS using an online method.

Consequently, it provides a powerful tool to characterize the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the sources of the oxidizing capacity. Nitrite therapy after cardiac arrest reduces ROS generation, improves cardiac and neurological function and enhances survival via reversible inhibition of mitochondrial complex I.

Background Three-fourths of cardiac arrest survivors die prior to hospital discharge or suffer significant neurological injury. Excepting therapeutic hypothermia and revascularization, no novel therapies have been developed that improve survival or cardiac and neurological function after resuscitation. We hypothesized that nitrite therapy may improve outcomes after the unique global ischemia-reperfusion insult of cardiopulmonary arrest. Methods and Results We developed a mouse model of cardiac arrest characterized by minutes of normothermic asystole and a high cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR rate.

From a mechanistic standpoint, nitrite treatment restored intracardiac nitrite and increased S-nitrosothiol levels, decreased pathological cardiac mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to reactive oxygen species formation and prevented oxidative enzymatic injury via reversible specific inhibition of respiratory chain complex I.

Conclusion Nitrite therapy after resuscitation from minutes of asystole rapidly and reversibly modulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation during early reperfusion, limiting acute cardiac dysfunction and death, as well as neurological impairment in survivors. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss.

The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals.

Cellular telephone use during free-living walking significantly reduces average walking speed. Cellular telephone cell phone use decreases walking speed in controlled laboratory experiments and there is an inverse relationship between free-living walking speed and heart failure risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cell phone use on walking speed in a free-living environment. The time it took each subject to walk 50 m was recorded and subjects were coded into categories: Subjects took significantly p significantly reduces average speed during free-living walking.

Mitochondrial uncoupling, ROS generation and cardioprotection. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is incompletely coupled, since protons translocated to the intermembrane space by specific respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain can return to the mitochondrial matrix independently of the ATP synthase -a process known as proton leak- generating heat instead of ATP. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCPs are able to lower the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and are involved in the control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species ROS production.

This review first analyzes the relationship between mitochondrial proton leak and ROS generation, and then focuses on the cardioprotective role of chemical uncoupling and uncoupling mediated by UCPs. This includes their protective effects against cardiac IR, a condition known to increase ROS production, and their roles in modulating cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis. Erythroid apoptosis increases significantly in myelodysplastic syndrome MDS patients with iron overload, but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear.

Importantly, the HIF-1a protein levels of erythrocytes elevated obviously after incubation with desferrioxamine DFO from MDS patients with iron overload, accompanied by ROS levels inhibited and erythroid apoptosis reduced. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids.

For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values.

In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations.

Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

The early LC3 lipidation induced by d-limonene is associated with inhibition of clonogenic capacity which is reverted by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. ROS -dependent signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species ROS are no longer viewed as just a toxic by-product of mitochondrial respiration, but are now appreciated for their role in regulating a myriad of cellular signaling pathways.

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H2O2, a type of ROS , is a signaling molecule that confers target specificity through thiol oxidation. Although redox-dependent signaling has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, the mechanism by which the ROS signal is transmitted to its target protein in the face of highly reactive and abundant antioxidants is not fully understood. In this review of redox-signaling biology, we discuss the possible mechanisms for H2O2-dependent signal transduction. Reactive oxygen species ROS are highly reactive, oxygen-containing molecules that can cause molecular damage within the cell.

While the accumulation of ROS -mediated damage is widely believed to be one of the main causes of aging, ROS also act in signaling pathways. Recent work has demonstrated that increasing levels of superoxide, one form of ROS , through treatment with paraquat, results in increased lifespan. Interestingly, treatment with paraquat robustly increases the already long lifespan of the clk-1 mitochondrial mutant, but not other long-lived mitochondrial mutants such as isp-1 or nuo To genetically dissect the subcellular compartment in which elevated ROS act to increase lifespan, we deleted individual superoxide dismutase sod genes in clk-1 mutants, which are sensitized to ROS.

We find that only deletion of the primary mitochondrial sod gene, sod-2 results in increased lifespan in clk-1 worms. In contrast, deletion of either of the two cytoplasmic sod genes, sod-1 or sod-5, significantly decreases the lifespan of clk-1 worms. Further, we show that increasing mitochondrial superoxide levels through deletion of sod-2 or treatment with paraquat can still increase lifespan in clk-1;sod-1 double mutants, which live shorter than clk-1 worms. The fact that mitochondrial superoxide can increase lifespan in worms with a detrimental level of cytoplasmic superoxide demonstrates that ROS have a compartment specific effect on lifespan — elevated ROS in the mitochondria acts to increase lifespan, while elevated ROS in the cytoplasm decreases lifespan.

This work also suggests that both ROS -dependent and ROS -independent mechanisms contribute to the longevity of clk-1 worms. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions. A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed.

Solar light irradiation significantly reduced cytotoxicity and disinfection byproducts in chlorinated reclaimed water. Chlorinated reclaimed water is widely used for landscaping and recreational purposes, resulting in human exposure to toxic disinfection byproducts.

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Although the quality of chlorinated reclaimed water might be affected by sunlight during storage, the effects of solar light irradiation on the toxicity remain unknown. This study investigated the changes in cytotoxicity and total organic halogen TOX of chlorinated reclaimed water exposed to solar light. Chlorine residual in reclaimed water tended to increase the cytotoxicity, and the synergy between solar light and free chlorine could not enhance the reduction of cytotoxicity.

Adding hydroxyl radical scavengers revealed that the contribution of hydroxyl radical to cytotoxicity reduction was limited. Solar light irradiation concurrently reduced TOX. Ratcliff; "What are you Mad About? Blochman - "Castle Sinister" part 3 by J. Jenkins - "Windward Passage" by William A. Bauer" by John P.

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Painton; "Traitor's Must Die! Edgar Hoover and Frederick L. Jones and Harman W. Air Force and the R. Malinay rescuing Corporal Donald Kearns" by C. Tolbert - "Loser takes All" by M. Gaffney - "Crazy Marriage" by Will F. Ratcliff; "Baseball's Billy the Kid - St. Morris; "Gunners Green Pastures - U. Spruance" by Frank D. Diddle" by Robert Andrews;. Moriarty; "Helping Hands and Feet - St. Fahey - "The Cencho" by George C. Barkley; "Casey Jones goes to War - U. Ratcliff; "The Bomber Boys - R. Lancaster Crews" by Martha Gellhorn;. Gorhan - " Melody in G.

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