112 Vital Tips for Effective Budget Planning & Saving (01)

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Robust domestic demand along with recovery in external demand contributed to this growth. In the current fiscal year, our growth target is 7. The good news is that the provisional estimate released by BBS for current fiscal year reflects a growth of 7. At the end of previous fiscal year, the growth rate of private investment stood at Private sector investment gathered momentum due the restoration of private investors' confidence resulting mainly from sustained political stability, government initiatives to reduce investment impediments, and decline in interest rates, etc.

In previous fiscal year, growth of public investment was somewhat sluggish, however, I believe this stagnation will soon disappear with accelerated implementation of annual development programme. Fuel price is current rising in the international market. Despite this inflation in Bangladesh has been declining steadily. By the end of March , month average inflation rate stood at 5.

I believe that, at the end of current fiscal year the food and non-food inflation rates will remain within the target as a result of macroeconomic stability, supportive fiscal and monetary policy, satisfactory agricultural production despite loss of agricultural crop in the haor region due to flash floods, and improved domestic supply system. By the end of March this year, growth rate of broad money supply stood at On the other hand, reserve money experienced Growth of total domestic credit has slowed down due to decline in public sector borrowing.

However, growth of private sector credit flow is much closer to the target. Besides, the flow of agricultural and industrial credit remains uninterrupted. The efficiency of financial intermediation is increasing gradually as a result of various initiatives taken by the government and the Bangladesh Bank. Consequently, interests on deposits and loans continue to decline. At the same time, interest rate spread is also shrinking. At the end of March , the rate of interest on deposits and loans dropped to 5.

I believe with sustained discipline in the financial sector, this rate will decrease further in future. The nominal exchange rate of Taka against US dollar has remained stable for a long time. Recently, demand for dollar increased slightly due to increase in import expenditure and other factors. As a result, Taka has slightly depreciated against dollar. Multifarious adverse conditions in international market have created slight pressure on RMG export.

Of the two major export destinations, export to the European Union has improved significantly. I believe export to the US market will also increase considerably with accelerated economic recovery in the US. Till March of current fiscal year, growth of import payments stood at Growth of imports was mainly triggered by the existing momentum of domestic demand.

During this period, growth of both import LC opening and rate of settlement were quite satisfactory. Especially, there has been significant increase in the import of capital machineries, which is indicative of increasing production capacity in the days ahead. In the first ten months of the current fiscal year, remittance inflow has decreased by In fact, most of the developing countries in the world except some Latin American and Caribbean countries have experienced decline in remittance inflows during the last two consecutive years.

Due to low oil prices and contractionary fiscal policies adopted by some governments, remittance inflow to South Asia from GCC countries has decreased notably. Furthermore, weak growth in countries of Europe and Russian Federation, deflation of Euro, adoption of anti-immigration policies by many countries, various hindrances in remittance transfer, relative benefits of remitting money though informal channels and controlled exchange rate policy of many countries have negatively impacted the remittance inflow.

Balance of Payments and Foreign Exchange Reserve: Despite negative balance in the current account, the overall balance of payment till March of current fiscal year was positive due to surplus in the fiscal and capital accounts. As a result, foreign exchange reserve is increasing steadily. Our goal is to ensure balanced and harmonized development of all sectors of the economy.

The MTMF is updated every year. Under this framework, income and expenditure ceilings, commensurate to other sectors of economy i. These ceilings are kept within a safe limit to sustain macroeconomic balance. Similarly, level of budget deficit and mode of financing are also decided keeping in view the objective of macroeconomic balance. In formulating the budget structure, we have taken the sustainable development goals as well as the targets of the 7th Five Year Plan into account.

I believe the proposed budget structure will be successful in mobilizing necessary resources in this respect. Now, let me mention the underlying assumptions of the proposed budget structure-. Tax net will be expanded and the new Value Added Tax law will be implemented. Tax exemption and tax holiday facilities will be withdrawn gradually;. Now I am presenting a picture of the proposed income and expenditure of FY below Table We are consistently laying emphasis on increasing the revenue collection for successful implementation of the government's development agenda.

We are already reaping the benefits of reforms adopted to increase NBR revenue collection. The growth rate of NBR revenue collection up to March of the current fiscal year stands at 20 percent which is the highest in recent years. The ongoing reform programmes including automation of revenue administration, reduction of tax exemptions, expansion of tax administration, tax net and tax base will be strengthened in the next fiscal year.

In addition, VAT Act will be effective from 1 July which will add significant momentum in revenue collection. In this backdrop, we have estimated revenue collection for the next fiscal year at Tk. Out of this, Tk. The target of non-tax revenue collection has been set at Tk. Total expenditure has been estimated at Tk. As a result, the total size of the Annual Development Programme will be Tk. We have placed special emphasis on growth enhancing mega projects in making allocations for Annual Development Programme of the next fiscal year.

Furthermore, our emphasis on the importance of enhancing regional capacity and development of human resources will continue as before. In the upcoming fiscal year, we expect to utilize sizeable amount of project aid in implementing some large projects. In this context, the Annual Development Programme for the next fiscal year has been determined by adding Allocations for human resources development sector education, health and related sectors is Budget deficit in the next fiscal year will be Tk.

While deficit will increase slightly compared to the previous year due to increased allocations for development activities and social security sector, it is unlikely to have any negative macroeconomic impact due to robust GDP growth. Of the domestic sources, Tk. At this stage, I want to say a few words about the overall expenditure structure development and non-development of the proposed budget. Based on the allocation of businesses of different ministries and divisions, we have grouped them into 3 main categories. These are social infrastructure, physical infrastructure and general services sectors.

Bangladesh has achieved significant success in attaining high GDP growth over the years, and in distributing growth benefits equitably. At the same time, it has taken firm measures towards achieving these goals. I firmly believe that the trend of steady growth of per capita income will persist, and equitable distribution of resources will be ensured.

Like MDGs, Sustainable Development Goals will also be met in time resulting in the establishment of a developed and prosperous Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a fast growing emerging economy. It is at the same time undergoing structural change at a rapid pace. In addition, volume of international trade and capital flow has increased manifold compared to anytime in the past adding momentum to internal and external equilibriums. As a result, adjustments need to be made to predetermined medium and long term policies and strategies to attain overall economic equilibrium.

To this end, we sit with all relevant stakeholders more than once in a year in order to harmonize all economic strategies including the fiscal, monetary, exchange rate and trade policies with existing reality. At this stage, I would like to briefly present our economic thoughts and strategies before the nation through this august house.

For the next fiscal year, we have set a target of achieving 7. Let me now elucidate the strategies we plan to pursue in accomplishing that goal. Domestic demand is the principal driving force of our GDP growth. It is worth mentioning that contribution of domestic demand was 5. In domestic demand, contribution of private consumption is the largest. Though we witnessed weaker remittance flows this year, overall inflows in the economy, in fact, remain the same as some of it is transmitted through informal channel.

A number of steps have been taken to encourage transfer of remittance through formal channel which hopefully will substantially increase the remittance inflow. Besides, we are strengthening targeted cash transfer initiatives under social safety net programmes. The consumption multiplier of these programmes is generally very strong.

In addition, real labour wage in both industrial and agricultural sectors are on the rise which will, in turn, help increase private consumption expenditure. Overall, with the increase of budget size, public consumption expenditure will significantly increase as well. Investment is an important component of domestic demand. The size of ADP has been scaled up in order to raise public investment expenditure. Existing programmes are being revamped to ensure its timely implementation. We have identified the impediments to private investment and speeded up steps to remove them. I will dwell upon this issue at greater length in the later part of my speech.

Different strategies included in the trade policy together with continuing incentives to exporters will have a catalytic impact on increasing external demand. With GDP acceleration, import demand is rising which is creating depreciation pressure on the exchange rate. This, I hope, will increase our export competiveness. We plan to continue incentive schemes for agriculture sector. At the same time, priority will be attached to development of physical infrastructure sector including power and energy and transport and communication sectors.

Along with increasing capital accumulation, sufficient resources will be allocated for human capital formation.

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Moreover, our efforts to increase female participation in the workforce will continue. In terms of GDP, size of our government expenditure is one of the smallest in the world. In , the emerging and developing economies of the world spent around Our aim will be to raise it to 19 percent of GDP over the medium term. Let me now briefly touch upon the main features of our fiscal policy:. For this purpose, implementation of development projects and ongoing initiatives for improving legal and institutional capacities for mobilizing domestic resources will be strengthened;.

Rather, all resources from public borrowing will be spent for development activities;. In addition, use of deficit financing tools that trigger crowding out effect and inflationary pressures will be avoided as much as possible;. Production and consumption patterns detrimental to environment will be discouraged and necessary assistance will be provided to ease the sufferings of climate change victims. Harmonizing Fiscal and Monetary Policies: Our fiscal and monetary policies play a complementary role to each other.

In addition to keeping inflation at bay, the central bank formulates monetary policy with a view to achieving high growth. Under this policy, provision of special incentives for agriculture sector and small and medium-scale enterprises will be continued. We must take robust steps to increase savings and investments in order to accelerate higher growth. In FY , our total investment was In the next fiscal year, we want to scale up total investment to Let me now put forward, in more detail, our strategies for increasing public and private investments.

Private investment is an important driver in achieving higher growth through increased consumption demand ensuing from employment generation. Realizing this, the government has always been active in stimulating private investment. It has identified all supply side impediments to private investment and has been implementing a comprehensive plan of action to remove them. Stimulating private investment requires a robust institutional structure.

The authority has taken various steps to remove the impediments to direct investment. It has formulated One Stop Service Act with utmost care. Under this law, BIDA will provide all inter-ministerial services required by the investors from one point. In this process, an investment proposal can be effectively completed in nine months. Presently Bangladesh ranks th in Doing Business index. The BIDA has already formulated an action plan to move Bangladesh's rank within in next five years.

Finding land to establish industries for local and foreign investors has always been a big challenge. So far, establishment of 22 economic zones has been approved. In the current fiscal year, the Hon'ble Prime Minister has inaugurated the development work of 10 economic zones. In addition, location has been selected for 59 economic zones while establishment of another 76 has been approved by the governing board of BEZA. We are planning to inaugurate the development work of another 10 economic zones in FY We have already created necessary legal and institutional framework of PPP in order to mobilize private investment in construction of public infrastructure.

Of these projects, loan agreements have been signed for 9 projects while 13 projects are at procurement stage. This Fund has so far provided financing of Tk. We have plans to invest around Tk. We are always keen to increase the size of ADP and have taken various steps to ensure quality of expenditure and timely completion of projects. Besides, we have taken steps to identify the low performing projects and appoint consultants for providing expert services to resolve implementation problems.

Initiative has been taken to improve coordination between the Economic Relations Division and development partners to ease fund release processes of 20 largest aid-recipient projects. We have taken steps to form a pool of project directors and provided training to improve their efficiency. We will continue to ensure financing of these projects on priority basis and monitor their implementation closely. You are aware that sustainable development and removal of supply side constraints mainly hinges on the meaningful development of power and energy sectors.

One of our prime goals, therefore, is to ensure energy security. For this reason, in line with the Vision, we have fixed a target of generating 24, megawatts of electricity by Special emphasis has been placed on generation of renewable energy based power. In order to reduce dependence on them, rental power plants will be gradually phased out from onwards. We are also expediting the preparatory work for installing LNG terminals to meet the ever-growing demand for energy. Around 20 lakh workers enter our labor market each year; of which, four lakh on average find employment abroad.

This year, the total number of overseas employment may exceed 6 lakh. In the domestic market, therefore, annually 16 lakh jobs on average have to be created. You are aware that employment grows with GDP growth. The structure of our economy, however, is undergoing robust changes. The share of industry and service sectors in GDP is gradually rising. Capital-intensive technologies including mechanization of agriculture are gaining popularity.

In this backdrop, we are taking special steps to generate employment opportunities for the new entrants in the job market. Now-a-days, the real wage of agricultural labourers is increasing with overall increase in wage rates across the country, which in turn, plays a vital role in reducing poverty and inequality. We intend to sustain this trend. We plan to continue providing necessary credit and input assistance in agriculture sector to prevent rise of unemployment in this sector. We will take effective steps to divert the increased workforce to emerging industry and service sectors.

By adopting labour-intensive strategies in the process of urbanization, adequate number of jobs will be created in the transport and construction sectors. Slow adaptation to changing technology and production techniques often creates unemployment. In this regard, we will impart necessary training to workers to improve their skills. Self-employment also plays a vital role in reducing unemployment. To this end, we will take necessary steps to provide training and micro-credit facilities to expand opportunities for self-employment.

Apart from this, employment generating schemes for the ultra-poor under social protection programme such as KABITA Money for work and TR Test Relief programmes also contribute in boosting employment generation. Furthermore, a considerable number of jobs will be created through various projects under development schemes of the government.

We have already taken a number of steps to expand our labour markets abroad. In order to explore potential labour markets, we are encouraging private sector while promoting labour diplomacy at the government level. The process of sending female domestic workers to the Middle East countries is being simplified. Initiatives to send workers abroad at a low cost under government arrangement are going on. In order to simplify the process of overseas employment online services will be expanded.

We are planning to set up technical training centres at all upazilas and modernize the existing ones. In addition, a specialized insurance company will be set up for the welfare of expatriate workers and a specialized health centre for their health checkup. You are aware that in a developing economy, growth initially remains factor driven. At a certain stage of development, growth slows down. At this stage of economic growth, development needs to be productivity and innovation-driven.

Skill development of available human resources is crucial for this purpose. We have been laying special emphasis on developing skills of our working population as one of the key drivers of economic development. In fact, there is no alternative to enhancing skills of working population for uninterrupted, rapid and sustainable development. Presently, Bangladesh has reached such a stage of economic development that retaining competitive edge globally and sustaining the uptrend in growth so far achieved would be almost impossible without skill development of existing labour force.

Moreover, adoption of knowledge- and technology- based production strategy is imperative for attaining 8 percent or more economic growth. We have taken a number of pragmatic steps to effectively build up the skills development system. Currently, drafting of a law to set up NSDA is in progress. With the establishment of NSDA, management of skills development training will be separated from the technical education system. A Managing Director has also been appointed. Hopefully, this fund will commence its operation from the next fiscal year. As a result, mobilization of additional resources for skills development training in both public and private sectors will be ensured.

In order to meet skills deficit at the mid and upper levels of management in our industry sector, a programme titled 'Executive Development Programme EDP ' has been introduced. Two well reputed universities from public sector and another two from private sector have been engaged under this programme. Curricula have also been developed to produce world class managers. A 9-month long Diploma course will be offered under these curricula. As a result, dependence on foreign managers will decrease in the one hand, and a pool of high-quality managers will be available to meet the demand of future industrial growth, on the other.

Bangladesh is one of the top remittance recipient countries in the world. Twenty five percent of this remittance was invested in different sectors. Construction sector specially benefits from these investments. Besides, remittance inflows play a role in boosting GDP growth by increasing consumption expenditure. Considering its importance in economic development of the country, we have undertaken different measures to increase remittances.

Some of the important steps include reducing cost of remittance transfer, improving remittance management efficiency of overseas banking units and exchange houses, strengthening drawing arrangement between Bangladeshi banks and the local banks of the countries where expatriates are working and motivating the workers to remit through Probashi Kallyan Bank Expatriates Welfare Bank. There is a ray of hope in the projections of international organizations that global remittance inflows to developing countries will likely recover in and achieve 2 percent growth.

I firmly believe that all these initiates together with increasing trend of global growth will have positive impact on our remittance inflows. You are aware that information technology not only makes our life easier but also creates many opportunities to facilitate economic growth. With that realization, we have pledged in our election manifesto to transform our country into 'Digital Bangladesh'.

With the expansion of ICT in private sector, we are encouraging automation and e-GP processes in different areas of public sector as well. Innovative ideas are being implemented in government offices in delivering various services through ICT. Complementary analogue initiatives are required for reaping the full benefits of digital dividends.

For this purpose, the government has undertaken initiatives to establish ICT related institutional framework and implement policy reforms. With this end in view, ICT Parks are being set up in different parts of the country to attract domestic and foreign investments. Our goal is to achieve high growth but not at the cost of the environment. With this objective in mind, as a pioneer among the developing countries, we attach priority to environment-friendly policies and strategies in formulating budget and planning documents.

In our planning process, concerns for conservation and environmental upgradation have become firmly rooted. Among the developing economies, Bangladesh was the first to set up Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund with its own fund. The 7th Five Year Plan also envisages a wide range of steps on this issue. Ministries are taking steps to incorporate SDG related issues in the performance indicators formulated under the medium-term budgetary frameworks and annual performance agreements. Now I would like to present a snapshot of our important work plans in different sectors for FY and beyond.

Sustainable and inclusive development is our motto. To this end, there is no alternative to human resources development. Hence, we always attach priority to investing in education. We have plans to build ICT based interactive classrooms in model primary schools with a view to enhancing both capacity and quality in primary education sector. Besides, we plan to undertake two projects at the cost of Tk. In addition, we plan to set up training centre in every district to ensure fundamental literacy and provide livelihood skills, Dip-in-ed training to primary school teachers and set up ICT resource centers in primary schools.

In order to increase enrollment rate and prevent drop out, all initiatives including school feeding, construction of new infrastructures and additional classroom buildings and other activities will continue as well. Besides, programmes for re-construction or improvement of dilapidated educational institutions will be taken up. Developing Quality of Education: Considering education as one of the principal strategies for poverty alleviation and economic development, the government has always attached highest importance to this sector.

The education policy, formulated keeping in mind the achievement of the goals of Charter for Change and the Vision , is being implemented in phases. First of all, we are focusing on expanding the opportunities for education. Our next priority is to build up a pool of trained teachers. The pay package for the teachers has been gradually increasing to complement the above goals. Activity to nationalize non-government secondary schools and non-government colleges, as pledged by the Hon'ble Prime Minister, is progressing fast.

Ongoing programmes including construction and renovation of infrastructure and provision of training for teachers will continue. Alongside, ongoing activities aimed at expanding higher education along with secondary, technical and madrassa education and ensuring their quality will continue.

What Muhith plans for the upcoming fiscal year

However, we need to recognize that improvement of quality of education will take some time. We are not only continuing our current programmes including elimination of education disparities, creative talent-hunt and provision of stipends, but also expanding their scope. Moreover, to fulfill the pledge of the Honorable Prime Minister, we will strengthen our efforts to set up five new public universities.

It may be mentioned here that the law regarding the setup of 5 universities has been enacted while the projects for constructing the physical infrastructure for 3 universities are in approval stage. Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Programme: In order to ensure quality and easily accessible healthcare and family welfare services for all people of the country, we have rolled out the 5 year long Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Programme at a cost of Tk. Through this programme, we are implementing initiatives for improved healthcare services for mother and child, population control and quality reproductive health services, specialized healthcare services, control of contagious and non-contagious diseases as well as new diseases caused by climate change, safe food with balanced nutrition and human resources development.

In addition, we plan to set up new community clinics and extend maternal health voucher programme in order to take healthcare services to the doorsteps of rural poor and marginalized people. As many as 13, community clinics have already been established and we have a plan to establish another community clinics. Forty three telemedicine centres have already been established. Initiatives to provide telemedicine services at district and upazila levels, social health protection programme and health services through video conferencing will continue as well. In these clinics, special care will be provided to the physically challenged persons.

Expanding Science-based Higher Education: Encouraging continually the expansion of science-based higher education and research is also on our card. For this purpose, we will carry on providing fellowships to scientists, technologists and researchers under The Bangabandhu Science and Technology Fellowship Trust. This will help produce scientists, technologists, researchers and academicians having specialized expertise who will contribute to the expansion and development of science-based education. The importance of applied research is felt strongly during budget formulation as well as at the time of according approval to a project.

In order to strengthen the scope of and opportunities for research, I propose to set aside Tk. Sustainable development of power generation, transmission and distribution system is one of the priority areas of this government. People are already enjoying the fruits of these endeavours. The power generation has increased while load shedding has decreased substantially.

Eighty percent population of the country has been brought under the electricity coverage. I firmly believe that the rest 20 percent will be brought under electricity coverage ahead of In addition to 33 power plants having a capacity of 11, which are under construction, we plan to install 42 more power plants with a capacity of 11, MW. Under a long term master plan, we will continue our efforts to install coal based power plants in Rampal, Matarbari and Payra while encouraging installation of power plants in private sector.

Furthermore, we have taken initiatives to install 4 power plants in Moheshkhali with financial supports of Malaysia, South Korea and Singapore. In order to sustain the current level of power generation capacity, BMRE of the existing gas based power plants will be continued as well. Side by side, we will carry on implementing our plan for importing power from Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and the North-Eastern part of India under sub-regional cooperation. I have already mentioned that dependence on rental power plants will be gradually reduced from onwards when a comfortable power supply situation can be ensured.

Installation of Nuclear Power Plant: Demand for electricity in the country is rapidly increasing. To meet this increased demand, beside the traditional ones, we have already taken steps to generate power from nuclear sources. To this end, we have taken up a project to build a nuclear power plant in Ruppur having a capacity to generate MW electricity.

Development of Power Transmission and Distribution System: Alongside increase in electricity generation, proper and uninterrupted transmission and distribution of electricity is equally important. For this purpose, as part of improving overall electricity management system to ensure electricity for all by , we are planning to build 10, km electricity transmission line and 1,50, km distribution line. In addition, we plan to install another 2 crore pre-paid meters as part of our initiatives for reducing system loss, ensuring load management and saving energy.

Efficient Use of Electricity and Power Saving: Ensuring efficient use of power and conservation of energy by reducing wasteful behaviours in industry, trade and household sectors is important. For this reason, we have set targets to reduce the use of fuel by 15 percent by and 20 percent by To achieve this target, we have taken initiatives to prepare 'Energy Efficiency and Conservation Master Plan'.


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We will carry on our initiatives to increase electricity generation capacity by supplying LNG to power plants which closed down for lack of gas supply. We are expecting to import LNG and supply gas by The scope of gas exploration in deep and shallow sea has widened after the settlement of international maritime boundary disputes with India and Myanmar. Seizing this opportunity, the government is working to enhance exploration and production of gas under a long term plan.


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BAPEX plans to dig wells by With completion of digging and commencement of gas production from them as planned, the gas supply situation will improve. Ensuring Efficient Use of Gas: Ensuring proper use of gas is important along with increase in gas production. The Titas Gas Transmission and Distribution Company and the Karnaphuli Gas Distribution Company have planned to install prepaid meters in 2 lakh and 60, households respectively. Installation of boosters and oil head compressors in the Bakhrabad, Titas and Narshindi gas fields are in progress to augment gas production.

People are debating the issue of increasing gas prices. Gas will be purchased at international prices when its import begins in The current rate of taxes levied on gas, therefore, have to be rationalized. Consequently, the unit price of gas will undoubtedly increase. The gas price, however, will be adjusted by following the policy of subsidizing. Local and foreign investment is a pre-requisite for faster economic development.

Improved communication infrastructure is one of the important catalysts to attract investment. Taking this issue into active consideration, we have always taken different initiatives to improve overall communication infrastructure and those efforts will continue. Development of Road Transport and Communication System: In order to build a quality communication infrastructure and develop road transport system, we have undertaken a zone-based cluster projects to upgrade around 1, km regional highways.

Besides, we plan to undertake cluster projects for construction of 1, km highways in the districts of Bandarban, Rangamati and Khagrachari. Upgradation work of 3, km national highways to 4 lanes across the country is also underway. In continuation of this, in FY , we will upgrade km national highways to 4 lanes with a provision for separate service lane for slow moving vehicles. We have also plan to set up Axle Load Control Stations at various land and river ports, stone quarries and large toll plazas in order to control the movement of overloaded vehicles on the highways.

Moreover, upgradation work of Dhaka-Sylhet highways to 4 lanes will be undertaken very soon. Introduction of E-ticketing System: We have a plan to introduce e-ticketing system in bus, railway, waterway and private bus services to provide people with hassle-free and comfortable journey. To strengthen the country's highway network, we have plans to construct the 9th Bangladesh China Friendship Bridge on the Baga river in Patuakhali district, the 10th bridge on the Mongla Channel of Bagerhat district and the 11th bridge on the Jhapjhapia river in Khulna district.

To this effect, a Memorandum of Understanding has been signed with the Chinese Government. Considering the importance of railways in the development of communication system, we are working to improve and expand the railway network. In order to launch railway service over the Padma Bridge from the day of its inauguration, we have taken up a plan to construct kilometer rail lines from Dhaka-Mawa-Bhanga-Narail to Jessore. We have undertaken a feasibility study to construct a railway line from Bhanga junction in Faridpur through Barisal to Payra Port to establish railway connectivity with Payra port.

Besides, we have already taken initiatives to procure MG locomotives, and MG and BG passenger coaches for the development of rolling stock system. We have taken initiative to upgrade important railway corridors including Dhaka Chittagong to double line. We have already taken initiative to construct a railway bridge which will run parallel to the Bangabandhu Bridge built on the river Jamuna with JICA funding.

Apart from this, steps have been taken to upgrade Khulna Darshana section to double line under Indian state credit. We also have plans to upgrade Akhaura-Sylhet section to double line. Waterways and Port Development: Under the capital dredging project for development of internal waterways, work for improving navigability is progressing rapidly in eight river routes including Bhairab-Sylhet-Chhatak, Bilalpur-Ghoradiga-Netrokona, Mohanganj-Ghagrajora waterways. With the financial support of China, we have taken initiatives to procure three oil tankers and three bulk carriers having capacity of about 39, DWT each.

Besides, ongoing programmes for expansion of Sadarghat terminal building in Dhaka, construction of warehouse at Tamabil land port, and installation of jetty and pontoon for launch and wayside stations will continue in the next fiscal year. Air transportation is an essential part of modern communication system. Importance of air transportation is increasing everyday in fields of passenger and goods transportation and expansion of tourism and trade in both domestic and international arena.

In this context, our ongoing activities for modernization of all airports and development of infrastructure and strengthening of security system will continue. Side by side, we have plans to develop Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport, modernize runway and taxiway of Shah Amanat International Airport in Chittagong and apron and connecting taxiway of Osmani International Airport in Sylhet, and construct passenger terminal of Cox's Bazar International Airport.

The main goal of the government is to ensure supply of adequate and safe drinking water as well as sustainable development and management of water resources for agricultural development. Keeping this goal in mind, we have taken initiative to formulate National Water Resources Plan. Side by side, the initiatives for increasing navigability of rivers, prevention of river erosion, dredging of rivers, excavation and re-excavation of irrigation canals, construction and repair of irrigation infrastructure and construction of barrages and rubber dams will continue.

Besides, we will continue our programmes for flood control, prevention of saline water infiltration, removal of water logging and reclaiming lands from the sea. Side by side, initiatives to combat the negative impact of climate change will continue. Two projects - one for the development of water management system of Kalni-Kushiara river in the north-eastern part of the country and another for prevention of flash floods and improvement of drainage system in the Haor regions at a cost of Tk. Another project worth Tk. Besides, the project for construction of road-cum-embankment in Mirsarai in Chittagong at a cost of Tk.

We have set aside Tk. The goal of our government is to ensure adequate supply of safe and nutritious food. We are working relentlessly to achieve this goal. Our initiatives to upgrade the food grain storage capacity at government level to 27 lakh metric tons by are underway. We will continue our initiatives for open market sale of food grains at low price and allocate food to poor people under social protection programme.

We have plans to procure 28 lakh metric tonnes and distribute 27 lakh metric tonnes of food grains in FY Besides, under food aid programme, we will provide food assistance to 50 lakh low income families for 5 months at an administered price. At the same time, we will take steps to adopt digital technology to improve monitoring of food procurement, storage, and distribution management as well as supply of safe food. Disaster Management and Relief: For natural and geographical reasons, our motherland is known as a disaster prone country.

However, our resilience in facing disasters and organizational skills to manage them has now been recognized and acclaimed worldwide. Inherent in this capability is the indomitable spirit of our people supported by long term realistic plans and strategies of the government.

In this connection, we have adopted the Disaster Management Plan to tackle disasters in an integrated manner. Ongoing activities to increase awareness and resilience regarding earthquake and other disaster management will be continued. Besides, we have plans to build flood shelters and relief silos and construct and renovate Mujib killas in disaster prone districts. We have been gradually strengthening various social security programmes for the welfare of the destitute, neglected, distressed, backward communities of the country and this trend will continue in future.

We will provide identity cards to all the physically challenged persons by using data from the database already created for them. Along with this, we will reorganize the existing development programmes in this area and undertake new development plans. Besides, we have planned to build a sports complex of international standard for the physically challenged persons on 12 acres of khas land in Savar.

Alongside, we plan to expand the programme of transferring social security compensation allowances digitally in phases. In order to increase the social security coverage and improve living standards of poor, I propose the following initiatives for FY We have undertaken multifarious programmes for the physically challenged persons. I propose to allocate a total of Tk 1, crore for these programmes in FY which is 31 percent higher compared to the current fiscal year. The initiatives I have discussed so far belong to our regular social protection programmes.

Alongside, we undertake social safety net measures depending on special circumstances. You are aware that the people in haor areas suffered huge losses in recent floods and disasters. We have taken up an emergency measure to provide 30 kgs of rice per month to each of 3. Alongside, a special allocation of Tk. An amount of Tk Besides, loan recovery will remain postponed until situation is improved, new loan at concessional rates has been disbursed among affected farmers, and facilities for re-scheduling credit have been provided. The immortal lines of the Rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, our national poet, have not remained mere poetic verses but have been translated into tangible reality.

As you know, about 50 per cent of our total population is women who have vibrant presence in all sectors including education, culture, sports, politics and business. Their development does not necessarily mean the wellbeing of their own families but extends to the society and country as well.

This conviction has led us to emphasize women education and empowerment right from the beginning. Development of Women and Children: We have a plan to set up 5, adolescent clubs in upazilas under 64 districts to make the marginal and helpless adolescent boys and girls at various levels of the society aware of gender-based violence and enable them to fight against it. Along with improving infrastructure of existing hostels, we have plans to construct new hostels in two divisional headquarters and a storied hostel for working women with special facility for physically challenged persons at Nilkhet in Dhaka.

Side by side, a plan to construct 60 day-care centres for children has been taken. Moreover, our ongoing efforts to promote women ICT free-lancers and entrepreneurs will continue. Welfare of Freedom Fighters and preservation of the spirit of liberation war: The present Government is the government of the freedom fighters; it is the government which led the war of liberation.

As expected, we will continue our efforts to uphold the spirit of the war of liberation, preserve its historical records and memorials, spread the spirit of liberation war among young generations and undertake welfare measures for the freedom fighters, their children and posterity. Besides, we have already undertaken a plan to construct 10, flats all over the country to provide improved accommodation facilities for insolvent freedom fighters. In order to facilitate our new generation to learn the true history of liberation war, we have taken an initiative to set up a research centre with the objective of identifying massacre sites, torture cells, killing grounds and mass graves of and building their database.

Manpower Export and Expatriates' Welfare: Remittance income is one of our main sources of earning foreign exchange. It plays an important role in our economic development in various ways including contributing to increase of income and reduction of poverty, stimulating savings, increase of investment and consumption expenditure and accumulating capital at individual level.

We will continue our ongoing activities for increasing remittance income and ensuring welfare of the expatriates. In this regard, we have a plan to undertake a number of measures that include setting up an online communication system to help expatriates access work permit and visa related information automatically, promoting private sector to explore new labour markets, sending workers abroad at low cost under government initiative, expanding online services, developing training infrastructure and providing training meet the demand of international market. In order to accelerate delivery of services to the expatriates, we have already taken a plan to introduce MRP issuance service in all foreign missions and MRV service in 47 foreign missions of Bangladesh in FY Development of Information Technology Services: Apart from this, we have taken initiatives to set up 7 IT training and incubation centres at seven locations across the country and to expand high speed fiber optical cable connectivity up to union level.

Under this project taken in collaboration with World Bank, e-GP system will be expanded to 23 large government organizations. As a result, we hope, 80 percent of public procurement tenders will be covered by e-GP. Our economy depends on agriculture. Despite industrial expansion and extensive development in IT sector, around 45 percent of total population of this country still depend on agriculture for their livelihood. We need to remember that agricultural land is gradually decreasing.

That is why from now onwards, we will have to consider controlling random constructions taking place in rural areas. We will further strengthen the ongoing programmes for increasing agricultural production and improving the state of farmers. Notable among them are innovation of rice variety tolerant to adverse climate, reduction of post-harvest damage to crops, establishment of agricultural industries, supply of improved quality seeds, irrigation extension, establishment of quarantine centres to ensure safe and risk-free imports, introduction of genetically modified technology, innovation of adversity tolerant variety of jute, research for the innovation of diversified jute products, increasing the use of environment friendly agricultural technology, increasing the use of renewable energy in agricultural sector and modernization of value chain system in this sector.

Alongside, we have taken initiatives to set up Farmers Service Centres all over the country to take the outcomes of agricultural research, agricultural information and technology, and agricultural services to the doorsteps of farmers. Construction of Rural Infrastructure and Development: One of our priorities is to develop rural communication system by constructing roads, bridges and culverts, ensure supply of safe drinking water and develop sanitation system.

We would like to continue this trend. To this end, we have plans that include construction of 5, km new road, maintenance of 11, km metalled road, construction and maintenance of 32, meter bridge and culvert, and construction of 82 union parishad buildings, 55 upazila complex buildings and 95 cyclone centers in FY Moreover, in order to ensure empowerment of poor rural women, we will take initiatives to increase diversified use of milk along with increasing milk production by means of extending cooperative activities in 50 upazilas having deficit in milk production.

Side by side, we will continue all other ongoing activities for the betterment of the poor in rural and char areas. One House One Farm: In continuation of this, there is a plan to form 60, more village development societies by involving 36 lakh poor families along with rehabilitation of , beggars within next 4 years. We plan to involve the beneficiaries of this project in silk farming. To begin with, we have taken steps to extend this programme to 25 upazilas of 20 districts. There is no alternative to industrialization in creating employment opportunities and achieving rapid economic growth.

In the light of this policy, we are taking steps to ensure industry-friendly environment and accelerate the momentum of industrialization. Based on the 7th Five Year Plan, we will construct 13 new buffer godowns and a Urea Formaldehyde UF 85 plant in different districts of the country for ensuring fertilizer preservation and distribution facilities. Besides, we have also adopted a plan to install a 'Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility' to ensure effective management of hazardous waste discharged by this industry along with environmental protection and workers' safety and health protection.

Textile and Jute Industries: Jute, the golden fiber, is the symbol of our heritage. Jute goods go along with our culture. We are working towards expanding our export market, exploring new markets and improving product quality as per demand of international market. We are constructing Bangladesh-China Friendship Exhibition Centre for creating exhibition facility for manufacturers and exporters to attract local and foreign buyers. I hope that construction of the centre will be completed by and we will be able to hold the Dhaka International Trade Fair of at this center.

With a view to enhancing trade efficiency, we have a plan to undertake projects under Enhanced Integrated Framework EIF. In addition, our ongoing activities will continue to diversify export products. We have established the Competition Commission to prevent tendencies to destabilize the market through connivance and unethical syndication and ensure fair prices of products.

This commission has already started its operation. I hope that the commission will play an active role in ensuring market stability and fair prices. Our efforts are continuing to expand labour and commodity markets in new countries to sustain the pace of economic development of our country.

As part of this, we will hold overseas trade fairs while strengthening diplomatic efforts to ensure duty-free access for Bangladeshi products and explore labour markets abroad. As part of bilateral and multilateral diplomatic efforts, we will take steps to further strengthen bilateral relationship through Foreign Office Consultation FOC with different countries, meetings on bilateral issues, exchange of visits and signing of agreements. I gratefully acknowledge the support of Asian Development Bank in this connection.

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries facing negative impact of global warming and climate change. We are aware of this issue. We have already formulated strategies to tackle this change and are drafting a Country Investment Plan CIP as a part of our preparation. On the basis of CIP, we will take steps to ensure safe and sustainable environment.

Furthermore, we also have plans to prepare an Action Plan for ensuring low carbon emission-based development as well as Energy Efficient Development. We have set targets of creating mangrove gardens in 20, hectares, participatory block gardens in 17, hectares and strip gardens in 3, km of land within the next three fiscal years for afforestation, conservation of environment, preservation of wildlife and prevention of natural disasters.

We also have adopted plans to implement co-management activities for conservation of bio-diversity in 25 protected areas. In order to develop modern and planned city system in the light of the 7th Five-Year Plan and Sustainable Development Goals, we will continue the ongoing activities of formulating, coordinating and updating the zonal plans, master plan and detailed structure plan.

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Expansion of Housing Facilities: In addition, nearly 10, flats will be built for low-income people at Mirpur under PPP model. Furthermore, there is a plan to construct a satellite township at Section 9 of Mirpur in Dhaka and a multi-storied commercial-cum- residential building at GEC intersection in Chittagong. With a view to reducing traffic congestion in the city of Chittagong, an initiative has been taken to construct a 16 km long elevated expressway from Lalkhan Bazar to Shah Amanat Airport. Typically, most of the occupational emergency management can be divided into worksite evaluation, exposure monitoring, hazard control, work practices, and training.

Worksite evaluation is about identifying the source and location of the potential hazards such as fall , noise , cold , heat , hypoxia , infectious materials, and toxic chemicals that each of the workers may encounter during emergency situations. After identifying the source and location of the hazard s , it is essential to monitor how employees may be exposed to these dangers. Employers should conduct task-specific exposure monitoring when they meet following requirements:. To effectively acquire the above information, an employer can ask workers how they perform the task or use direct reading instruments to identify the exposure level and exposure route.

Employers should train their employees annually before an emergency action plan is implemented. Training requirements are different depending on the size of workplace and workforce, processes used, materials handled, available resources and who will be in charge during an emergency.

After the emergency action plan is completed, employer and employees should review the plan carefully and post it in a public area that is accessible to everyone. Emergency management plans and procedures should include the identification of appropriately trained staff members responsible for decision-making when an emergency occurs. Training plans should include internal people, contractors and civil protection partners, and should state the nature and frequency of training and testing. Testing of a plan's effectiveness should occur regularly. In instances where several business or organisations occupy the same space, joint emergency plans, formally agreed to by all parties, should be put into place.

Drills and exercises in preparation for foreseeable hazards are often held, with the participation of the services that will be involved in handling the emergency, and people who will be affected. Drills are held to prepare for the hazards of fires , tornadoes , lockdown for protection, earthquakes , etc. Communication is one of the key issues during any emergency, pre-planning of communications is critical. Miscommunication can easily result in emergency events escalating unnecessarily. Once an emergency has been identified a comprehensive assessment evaluating the level of impact and its financial implications should be undertaken.

Following assessment, the appropriate plan or response to be activated will depend on a specific pre-set criteria within the emergency plan. The steps necessary should be prioritized to ensure critical functions are operational as soon as possible. The critical functions are those that makes the plan untenable if not operationalized. The communication policy must be well known and rehearsed, and all targeted audiences must be alert.

All communication infrastructure must be as prepared as possible, with all information on groupings clearly identified. Emergency management consists of five phases: It focuses on preventing the human hazard, primarily from potential natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Preventive measures are taken on both the domestic and international levels, designed to provide permanent protection from disasters. In January , Governments adopted a year global plan for natural disaster risk reduction called the Hyogo Framework.

Preventing or reducing the impacts of disasters on our communities is a key focus for emergency management efforts today. Prevention and mitigation also help reduce the financial costs of disaster response and recovery. Public Safety Canada is working with provincial and territorial governments and stakeholders to promote disaster prevention and mitigation using a risk-based and all-hazards approach.

Disaster mitigation measures are those that eliminate or reduce the impacts and risks of hazards through proactive measures taken before an emergency or disaster occurs. Preventive or mitigation measures take different forms for different types of disasters. In earthquake prone areas, these preventive measures might include structural changes such as the installation of an earthquake valve to instantly shut off the natural gas supply, seismic retrofits of property, and the securing of items inside a building.

The latter may include the mounting of furniture, refrigerators , water heaters and breakables to the walls, and the addition of cabinet latches. In areas prone to prolonged electricity black-outs installation of a generator ensures continuation of electrical service. The construction of storm cellars and fallout shelters are further examples of personal mitigative actions.

On a national level, governments might implement large scale mitigation measures. After the monsoon floods of , the Punjab government subsequently constructed 22 'disaster-resilient' model villages, comprising single-storey homes, together with schools and health centres.

Emergency management - Wikipedia

One of the best known examples of investment in disaster mitigation is the Red River Floodway. Since then, the floodway has been used over 20 times. Preparedness focuses on preparing equipment and procedures for use when a disaster occurs. This equipment and these procedures can be used to reduce vulnerability to disaster, to mitigate the impacts of a disaster or to respond more efficiently in an emergency. The Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA has set out a basic four-stage vision of preparedness flowing from mitigation to preparedness to response to recovery and back to mitigation in a circular planning process.

FEMA also operates a Building Science Branch that develops and produces multi-hazard mitigation guidance that focuses on creating disaster-resilient communities to reduce loss of life and property. FEMA has subsequently prepared for this contingency by purchasing hundreds of thousands of freeze dried food emergency meals ready to eat MRE's to dispense to the communities where emergency shelter and evacuations are implemented.

Some guidelines for household preparedness have been put online by the State of Colorado, on the topics of water, food, tools, and so on. Emergency preparedness can be difficult to measure. Local Emergency Planning Committees LEPCs are required by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act to develop an emergency response plan, review the plan at least annually, and provide information about chemicals in the community to local citizens.

According to the EPA, "Many LEPCs have expanded their activities beyond the requirements of EPCRA, encouraging accident prevention and risk reduction, and addressing homeland security in their communities", and the Agency offers advice on how to evaluate the effectiveness of these committees.

Chapter II

Preparedness measures can take many forms ranging from focusing on individual people, locations or incidents to broader, government-based "all hazard" planning. Business continuity planning encourages businesses to have a Disaster Recovery Plan. Community- and faith-based organizations mitigation efforts promote field response teams and inter-agency planning. School-based response teams cover everything from live shooters to gas leaks and nearby bank robberies.

Family preparedness for disaster is fairly unusual. The Department of Homeland Security 's Ready. Disasters take a variety of forms to include earthquakes , tsunamis or regular structure fires. That a disaster or emergency is not large scale in terms of population or acreage impacted or duration does not make it any less of a disaster for the people or area impacted and much can be learned about preparedness from so-called small disasters. Preparedness starts with an individual's everyday life and involves items and training that would be useful in an emergency.

What is useful in an emergency is often also useful in everyday life. Some organizations blend these various levels. For example, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement has a webpage on disaster training [54] as well as offering training on basic preparedness such as Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and First Aid. Other non-profits such as Team Rubicon bring specific groups of people into disaster preparedness and response operations.

The basic theme behind preparedness is to be ready for an emergency and there are a number of different variations of being ready based on an assessment of what sort of threats exist. Nonetheless, there is basic guidance for preparedness that is common despite an area's specific dangers. FEMA recommends that everyone have a three-day survival kit for their household. Along similar lines, but not exactly the same, CDC has its own list for a proper disaster supply kit.

Children are a special population when considering Emergency preparedness and many resources are directly focused on supporting them. SAMHSA has list of tips for talking to children during infectious disease outbreaks, to include being a good listener, encouraging children to ask questions and modeling self-care by setting routines, eating healthy meals, getting enough sleep and taking deep breaths to handle stress. Preparation helps; when people feel prepared, they cope better and so do children. To help people assess what threats might be in order to augment their emergency supplies or improve their disaster response skills, FEMA has published a booklet called the "Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Guide.

In this guide, FEMA breaks down hazards into three categories: Natural, technological and human caused and notes that each hazard should be assessed for both its likelihood and its significance. According to FEMA, "Communities should consider only those threats and hazards that could plausibly occur" and "Communities should consider only those threats and hazards that would have a significant effect on them. Not all preparedness efforts and discussions involve the government or established NGOs like the Red Cross. Emergency preparation discussions are active on the internet, with many blogs and websites dedicated to discussing various aspects of preparedness.

On-line sales of items such as survival food, medical supplies and heirloom seeds allow people to stock basements with cases of food and drinks with 25 year shelf lives, sophisticated medical kits and seeds that are guaranteed to sprout even after years of storage. One group of people who put a lot of effort in disaster preparations is called Doomsday Preppers.

This subset of preparedness-minded people often share a belief that the FEMA or Red Cross emergency preparation suggestions and training are not extensive enough. Food, you still don't have enough" and "Rule Number People who thought the Government would save them, found out that it didn't.

Not all emergency preparation efforts revolve around food, guns and shelters, though these items help address the needs in the bottom two sections of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The American Preppers Network [64] has an extensive list of items that might be useful in less apparent ways than a first aid kid or help add 'fun' to challenging times. Emergency preparedness goes beyond immediate family members. For many people, pets are an integral part of their families and emergency preparation advice includes them as well. It is not unknown for pet owners to die while trying to rescue their pets from a fire or from drowning.

Emergency preparedness also includes more than physical items and skill-specific training. Psychological preparedness is also a type of emergency preparedness and specific mental health preparedness resources are offered for mental health professionals by organizations such as the Red Cross. CDC has a website devoted to coping with a disaster or traumatic event. Sometimes emergency supplies are kept in what is called a Bug-out bag. While FEMA does not actually use the term "Bug out bag," calling it instead some variation of a "Go Kit," the idea of having emergency items in a quickly accessible place is common to both FEMA and CDC, though on-line discussions of what items a "bug out bag" should include sometimes cover items such as firearms and great knives that are not specifically suggested by FEMA or CDC.

Whether fleeing a burning building or hastily packing a car to escape an impending hurricane, flood or dangerous chemical release, rapid departure from a home or workplace environment is always a possibility and FEMA suggests having a Family Emergency Plan for such occasions. Along with the contact information, FEMA suggests having well-understood local gathering points if a house must be evacuated quickly to avoid the dangers of re-reentering a burning home. If family members spend a significant amount of time in a specific location, such as at work or school, FEMA suggests learning the emergency preparation plans for those places.

Like children, people with disabilities and other special needs have special emergency preparation needs. While "disability" has a specific meaning for specific organizations such as collecting Social Security benefits, [70] for the purposes of emergency preparedness, the Red Cross uses the term in a broader sense to include people with physical, medical, sensor or cognitive disabilities or the elderly and other special needs populations. FEMA's suggestions for people with disabilities includes having copies of prescriptions, charging devices for medical devices such as motorized wheel chairs and a week's supply of medication readily available LINK or in a "go stay kit.

FEMA notes that long term power outages can cause damage beyond the original disaster that can be mitigated with emergency generators or other power sources to provide an Emergency power system. Emergency preparedness does not stop at home or at school. FEMA cautions that emergencies happen while people are travelling as well [85] and provides guidance around emergency preparedness for a range travelers to include commuters, [86] Commuter Emergency Plan and holiday travelers.

Items specific to an emergency include:. In addition to emergency supplies and training for various situations, FEMA offers advice on how to mitigate disasters. The Agency gives instructions on how to retrofit a home to minimize hazards from a Flood , to include installing a Backflow prevention device , anchoring fuel tanks and relocating electrical panels. Given the explosive danger posed by natural gas leaks, Ready. The response phase of an emergency may commence with Search and Rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population.

This assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organizations. Effective coordination of disaster assistance is often crucial, particularly when many organizations respond and local emergency management agency LEMA capacity has been exceeded by the demand or diminished by the disaster itself. The National Response Framework is a United States government publication that explains responsibilities and expectations of government officials at the local, state, federal, and tribal levels.

It provides guidance on Emergency Support Functions that may be integrated in whole or parts to aid in the response and recovery process. On a personal level the response can take the shape either of a shelter in place or an evacuation. In a shelter-in-place scenario, a family would be prepared to fend for themselves in their home for many days without any form of outside support. In an evacuation , a family leaves the area by automobile or other mode of transportation , taking with them the maximum amount of supplies they can carry, possibly including a tent for shelter.

If mechanical transportation is not available, evacuation on foot would ideally include carrying at least three days of supplies and rain-tight bedding, a tarpaulin and a bedroll of blankets. Donations are often sought during this period, especially for large disasters that overwhelm local capacity. Due to efficiencies of scale, money is often the most cost-effective donation if fraud is avoided. Money is also the most flexible, and if goods are sourced locally then transportation is minimized and the local economy is boosted.

Some donors prefer to send gifts in kind , however these items can end up creating issues, rather than helping. One innovation by Occupy Sandy volunteers is to use a donation registry, where families and businesses impacted by the disaster can make specific requests, which remote donors can purchase directly via a web site. Medical considerations will vary greatly based on the type of disaster and secondary effects. Survivors may sustain a multitude of injuries to include lacerations , burns , near drowning , or crush syndrome.

The recovery phase starts after the immediate threat to human life has subsided. The immediate goal of the recovery phase is to bring the affected area back to normalcy as quickly as possible. During reconstruction it is recommended to consider the location or construction material of the property. The most extreme home confinement scenarios include war, famine and severe epidemics and may last a year or more.

Then recovery will take place inside the home. Planners for these events usually buy bulk foods and appropriate storage and preparation equipment, and eat the food as part of normal life. A simple balanced diet can be constructed from vitamin pills, whole-meal wheat, beans, dried milk , corn, and cooking oil. Professional emergency managers can focus on government and community preparedness, or private business preparedness. Training is provided by local, state, federal and private organizations and ranges from public information and media relations to high-level incident command and tactical skills.

In the past, the field of emergency management has been populated mostly by people with a military or first responder background. Currently, the field has become more diverse, with many managers coming from a variety of backgrounds other than the military or first responder fields. Educational opportunities are increasing for those seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees in emergency management or a related field.

There are over schools in the US with emergency management-related programs, but only one doctoral program specifically in emergency management. There are also professional organizations for emergency managers, such as the National Emergency Management Association and the International Association of Emergency Managers.

Cortez Lawrence, Superintendent of FEMA's Emergency Management Institute, convened a working group of emergency management practitioners and academics to consider principles of emergency management. This was the first time the principles of the discipline were to be codified.

The group agreed on eight principles that will be used to guide the development of a doctrine of emergency management. Below is a summary:. A fuller description of these principles can be found at [96]. For continuity and inter-operability between emergency management stakeholders, EMIS supports an infrastructure that integrates emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government involvement for all four phases of emergencies.

In the healthcare field, hospitals utilize the Hospital Incident Command System HICS , which provides structure and organization in a clearly defined chain of command. Practitioners in emergency management come from an increasing variety of backgrounds. Professionals from memory institutions e. This has been an increasingly major component within this field as a result of the heightened awareness following the September 11 attacks in , the hurricanes in , and the collapse of the Cologne Archives.

To increase the potential successful recovery of valuable records, a well-established and thoroughly tested plan must be developed. This plan should emphasize simplicity in order to aid in response and recovery: It should also include mitigation strategies such as the installation of sprinklers within the institution. In , the U. Agency for International Development created a web-based tool for estimating populations impacted by disasters. In , a checklist for veterinarians was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, it had two sets of questions for a professional to ask themselves before assisting with an emergency:.

While written for veterinarians, this checklist is applicable for any professional to consider before assisting with an emergency. TIEMS' goal is to develop and bring modern emergency management tools, and techniques into practice, through the exchange of information, methodology innovations and new technologies. TIEMS provides a platform for stakeholders to meet, network and learn about new technical and operational methodologies. TIEMS focuses on cultural differences to be understood and included in the society's events, education and research programs.

This is achieved by establishing local chapters worldwide. The International Association of Emergency Managers IAEM is a non-profit educational organization aimed at promoting the goals of saving lives and property protection during emergencies. The mission of IAEM is to serve its members by providing information, networking and professional opportunities, and to advance the emergency management profession.

It has seven councils around the world: Air Force Emergency Management personnel. The HFA is a global plan for disaster risk reduction adopted by governments. The key role of IRP is to identify gaps in post disaster recovery and to serve as a catalyst for the development of tools and resources for recovery efforts. In addition, the IFRC may deploy assessment teams, e. They are specialized in the response component of the emergency management framework. BGR and its partners respond globally to people with critical needs worldwide, whether those needs arise from chronic conditions or acute crises such as natural disasters.

The United Nations system rests with the Resident Coordinator within the affected country. Prevention and mitigation projects include forest fire prevention measures, such as early warning measures and education campaigns; early-warning systems for hurricanes; flood prevention mechanisms e. GFDRR helps developing countries fund development projects and programs that enhance local capacities for disaster prevention and emergency preparedness.

In the EU adopted Community Mechanism for Civil Protection, to facilitate co-operation in the event of major emergencies requiring urgent response actions. This also applies to situations where there may be an imminent threat as well. Accessible 24 hours a day, it gives countries access to a one-stop-shop of civil protections available amongst all the participating states.

Any country inside or outside the Union affected by a major disaster can make an appeal for assistance through the MIC. It acts as a communication hub, and provides useful and updated information on the actual status of an ongoing emergency. Naers are part of life in Australia. Heatwaves have killed more Australians than any other type of natural disaster in the 20th century. Australia's emergency management processes embrace the concept of the prepared community.

The principal government agency in achieving this is Emergency Management Australia. Public Safety Canada is Canada's national emergency management agency. Each province is required to have both legislation for dealing with emergencies, and provincial emergency management agencies, typically called "Emergency Measures Organizations" EMO. Public Safety Canada co-ordinates and supports the efforts of federal organizations as well as other levels of government, first responders, community groups, the private sector, and other nations.

Other acts are specific to individual fields such as corrections, law enforcement, and national security. There are several private organizations in Germany that also deal with emergency relief. As of , there is a program of study at the University of Bonn leading to the degree "Master in Disaster Prevention and Risk Governance" [] As a support function radio amateurs provide additional emergency communication networks with frequent trainings. The National Disaster Management Authority is the primary government agency responsible for planning and capacity-building for disaster relief.

Its emphasis is primarily on strategic risk management and mitigation, as well as developing policies and planning. The National Disaster Response Force is the government agency primarily responsible for emergency management during natural and man-made disasters , with specialized skills in search, rescue and rehabilitation. This arrangement unites humanitarian and development partners with Government of Nepal and had identified 5 flagship priorities for sustainable disaster risk management. If local arrangements are overwhelmed, pre-existing mutual-support arrangements are activated.

These structures are defined by regulation, [] and explained in The Guide to the National Civil Defence Emergency Management Plan , roughly equivalent to the U. New Zealand uses unique terminology for emergency management. Emergency management is rarely used, many government publications retaining the use of the term civil defence.

Civil Defence Emergency Management is a term in its own right, defined by statute. For example, publications refer to the Canterbury Snow Event Disaster management in Pakistan revolves around flood disasters focusing on rescue and relief. Federal Flood Commission was established in under Ministry of Water and Power to manage the issues of flood management on country-wide basis.

The National Disaster Management Ordinance, and National Disaster Management Act, were enacted after Kashmir earthquake and Pakistan floods respectively to deal with disaster management. The primary central authority mandated to deal with whole spectrum of disasters and their management in the country is National Disaster Management Authority. In addition each province along with FATA , Gilgit Baltistan and Pakistani administered Kashmir has its own provincial disaster management authority responsible for implementing policies and plans for Disaster Management in the Province.

Each District has its own District Disaster Management Authority for planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management and take all measures for the purposes of disaster management in the districts in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority and the Provincial Authority. In the Philippines , the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council is responsible for the protection and welfare of people during disasters or emergencies.