Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England: Volume 9 (Economic History)
No 'foreign' retailer or artisan was to live in the borough unless he first compounded with the bailiffs and aldermen for his freedom or for his foreign fine, on pain of 40 s. No 'foreigner' was to buy any corn, grain, salt, coal, herring, fish, merchandise, or anything else from any other 'foreigner', on pain of forfeiture. No goods were to be 'foreign bought and sold' without payment of appropriate fines, while inhabitants were required to sue only in the borough courts unless granted special licence to sue elsewhere. In regulations for taking up the freedom by birth were tightened.
Had the town still been in economic decline there would have been little need to protect the burgesses from competition, and further proof of the borough's attraction to traders is provided by the limits and bounds of St. Dennis's or the Pardon Fair set out in On the south side of High Street stood fletchers, bowyers, saddlers, collarmakers, ropers, glovers, smiths, haberdashers, hollandshiremen, grocers, linendrapers, and mercers, their stalls extending from East gate to St. On the north side of the road were the fishmongers and salters, then the shoemakers whose stalls extended up to the butchers' shambles.
Beyond them, towards the cornmarket, stood nailmen, ironmongers, 'Ipswich men being coverlet men', foreign woollendrapers and hosiers, turners, basketmakers, 'bowlmen', and traders in butter, cheese, and corn. The goldsmiths also had an appropriate, but unspecified, location. The injunction that stalls were only to line the streets and not to be placed crossways or alongside each other implies competition for space, a bustling hive of activity for the eight days of the fair.
The number of burgesses admitted to the town supports that interpretation. The total admitted each decade by purchase remained roughly stable during the earlier 16th century, at a level comparable to that of the later 15th. Remain he did, immediately becoming a common councillor, later an alderman, and eventually bailiff four times before his death in If the complaints of the s are to be believed, many more were assuming the freemen's privileges without paying for them. Despite the textile depression a distinct quickening of economic activity is evident in mid 16th-century Colchester, enough to sustain the urban economy through a difficult period for its staple industry and to permit some demographic growth across the second and third quarters of the century.
The town's economy grew decisively in the final third of the 16th century, and the key to that growth was the revival of its cloth industry. The lesson of the mid-century crisis in the English cloth export trade was that demand for the traditional heavy woollen product was inelastic, and that it was dangerous to rely so heavily upon one type of cloth, fn. Innovation was widespread, and in Colchester such innovation was inspired by the arrival of Dutch immigrants in the s.
Only then did the influx slow, a census of recording 1, aliens. The immigrants were granted considerable privileges, most notably control of the Dutch Bay Hall to which all 'new draperies' were taken for inspection and sealing before sale. Despite recurrent disputes with English weavers during the later 16th and early 17th century those privileges were repeatedly upheld. Colchester bays became a byword for quality in the 17th century, and were still known in the early 18th century 'over most of the trading parts of Europe'. The revival of the Colchester textile industry is evident from the town's occupational structure Tables I and II.
In the period the percentage of the occupied population engaged in cloth production and distribution rose to 26, with baymaker fourth among the town's leading occupations. By the period baymakers had achieved first position, and 37 per cent of the occupied male population was employed in cloth production and sale.
That figure rose to 40 per cent later in the century, by which time Continental producers were attempting to emulate the English product. Occupations of Colchester apprentices enrolled between and tell the same story, the proportion involved in textile production rising from little more than a quarter in the s to almost a half in each of the first three decades of the 17th century. The industry's progress was not entirely trouble free, particularly in the unstable trading conditions of the s and s.
Notwithstanding such vicissitudes, the long-term trend in production of new draperies in Colchester was decidedly upward. The officers of the Dutch Bay Hall collected 'rawboots', fines for faulty workmanship by English manufacturers, which from provide an index of bay production Table III. The decennial average figure rose steadily until the s when a combination of poor harvests and warfare caused difficulties for English foreign trade in general. Colchester's economy flourished in other ways from the later 16th century. The thrice-weekly market continued to sell a variety of foodstuffs including 'garden stuff', the Dutch having stimulated the development of horticulture.
Pontage was levied in on corn, timber, firewood, straw, hay, clay, sand, bricks, tiles, household implements, and wool carried to and from the town by road.
Nevertheless, wool was still sold in inns and private houses, the lessee of the market claiming in that the aldermen and common councillors were the greatest offenders. The town's overseas trade tended to follow the fortunes of its cloth industry. Port books suggest an expanding export trade in the late 16th century and the early 17th, based chiefly upon the new draperies. Exports of traditional woollen cloths, depressed in the s, mirrored the general recovery of that trade in the early 17th century, only to fall off steadily after In , apart from cloth, Colchester exported hides, leather and leather goods, coal, beer, wax, rough horns, and 'woadnets' perhaps 'woadnuts' or balls of woad , all in small quantities.
A little coal, some old wool-cards, hops, rapeseed, saffron, peas, some clothing, a ton of 'old iron', and the occasional horse appear, but quantities of dressed calfskins, leather, rye, wheat, and oysters dominated the non-textile export trade. Export of oysters grew remarkably, the annual average for the four years and amounting to 1, bu.
Imports also grew and diversified. In , apart from various types of cloth, Colchester imported some Spanish wool and unspun cotton, handles for cards and wire, new wool-cards and combs, teazles, and red and green dyestuffs. Several shipments of salt were received, besides luxuries such as sugar, prunes, raisins, pepper, cloves, and ginger.
Household items included French knives and drinking glasses, bottles, brown and white paper, pins, and thread. Battery, copper wire, stone bottles, cordage, quern stones, rope, fish oil, vinegar, spirits, French salt, Spanish salt, Norway deal, 'timber to make cardboard', Holland cheese, clapboards, prunes, cloves, refined sugar, pickled herrings, wine lees, Osnabruck and broad Hamburg cloth and other manufactured items, foodstuffs, and raw materials came to the town, largely from Rotterdam but also from ports in France and Norway.
Despite its expanding trade, Colchester was not in the front rank of English provincial ports. Figures for customs payments in the s place it 14th out of the 19 ports for which evidence survives, fn. In , during a dispute with Colchester merchants, the Merchant Adventurers Company claimed that the town could boast only four or five merchants trading overseas, and that those bought only a fraction of the cloth made at Colchester, most bays being taken to London to be bought by the Merchant Adventurers and others. In the four years the annual average national export of double bays was 36, cloths, of which 1, 3.
The geographical horizons of Colchester's trade were not extended by its expanding new drapery exports. Imports were additionally received from the unidentified 'Olderne' and 'Borwage' possibly for Norway , and from Emden Germany. Occasional shipments were made to Seville Spain , the Spanish Islands and the Azores, but the bay trade to the Mediterranean was dominated by London. Taking ownership meant the rents went to the king. He created a new department of state and a new official to collect the proceeds of the dissolution and the First Fruits and Tenths. The Court of Augmentations and number of departments meant a growing number of officials, which made the management of revenue a major activity.
Its drawback was the multiplication of departments whose sole unifying agent was Cromwell; his fall caused confusion and uncertainty; the solution was even greater reliance on bureaucratic institutions and the new Privy Council. In dramatic contrast to his father, Henry VIII spent heavily, in terms of military operations in Britain and in France, and in building a great network of palaces. How to pay for it remained a serious issue. The growing number of departments meant many new salaried bureaucrats. There were further financial and administrative difficulties in —58, aggravated by war, debasement, corruption and inefficiency, which were mainly caused by Somerset.
After Cromwell's fall, William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester , the Lord Treasurer , produced further reforms to simplify the arrangements, reforms which united most of the crown's finance under the exchequer. The courts of general surveyors and augmentations were fused into a new Court of Augmentations, and this was later absorbed into the exchequer along with the First Fruits and Tenths. There was little debt, and he left his son a large treasury.
Stuart period - Wikipedia
Henry VIII spent heavily on luxuries, such as tapestries and palaces, but his peacetime budget was generally satisfactory. The heavy strain came from warfare, including building defences, building a Navy, Suppressing insurrections, warring with Scotland, and engaging in very expensive continental warfare. Henry's Continental wars won him little glory or diplomatic influence, and no territory. After , the Privy Coffers were responsible for 'secret affairs', in particular for the financing of war. However, under the direction of regent Northumberland, Edward's wars were brought to an end.
The mint no longer generated extra revenue after debasement was stopped in Although Henry was only in his mids, his health deteriorated rapidly in At the time the conservative faction, led by Bishop Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk that was opposed to religious reformation seemed to be in power, and was poised to take control of the regency of the nine-year-old boy who was heir to the throne.
However, when the king died, the pro-reformation factions suddenly seized control of the new king, and of the Regency Council, under the leadership of Edward Seymour. Bishop Gardiner was discredited, and the Duke of Norfolk was imprisoned for all of the new king's reign. When the boy king was crowned, Somerset became Lord Protector of the realm and in effect ruled England from to Seymour led expensive, inconclusive wars with Scotland.
His religious policies angered Catholics. Purgatory was rejected so there was no more need for prayers to saints, relics, and statues, nor for masses for the dead. Some permanent endowments called chantries had been established that supported thousands of priests who celebrated masses for the dead, or operated schools or hospitals in order to earn grace for the soul in purgatory. The endowments were seized by Cromwell in By autumn , his costly wars had lost momentum, the crown faced financial ruin, and riots and rebellions had broken out around the country.
He was overthrown by his former ally John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. Until recent decades, Somerset's reputation with historians was high, in view of his many proclamations that appeared to back the common people against a rapacious landowning class. In the early 20th century this line was taken by the influential A. Pollard , to be echoed by Edward VI's leading biographer W. A more critical approach was initiated by M. Bush and Dale Hoak in the mids.
Since then, Somerset has often been portrayed as an arrogant ruler, devoid of the political and administrative skills necessary for governing the Tudor state. Dudley by contrast moved quickly after taking over an almost bankrupt administration in To prevent further uprisings he introduced countrywide policing, appointed Lords Lieutenants who were in close contact with London, and set up what amounted to a standing national army.
Working closely with Thomas Cramner , the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dudley pursued an aggressively Protestant religious policy. They promoted radical reformers to high Church positions, with the Catholic bishops under attack. The Mass was no longer to be celebrated, and preaching became the centerpiece of church services.
Purgatory , Protestantism declared, was a Catholic superstition that falsified the Scriptures. Prayers for the dead were useless because no one was actually in Purgatory.
It followed that prayers to saints, veneration of relics, and adoration of statues were all useless superstitions that had to end. For centuries devout Englishman had created endowments called chantries designed as good works that generated grace to help them get out of purgatory after they died. Many chantries were altars or chapels inside churches, or endowments that supported thousands of priests who said Masses for the dead.
In addition there were many schools and hospitals established as good works. In a new law closed down 2, chantries and seized their assets. But when the king suddenly died, Dudley's last-minute efforts to make his daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey the new sovereign failed.
Queen Mary took over and had him beheaded. She was next in line for the throne. Northumberland wanted to keep control of the government, and promote Protestantism. Edward signed a devise to alter the succession, but that was not legal, for only Parliament could amend its own acts. Edward's Privy Council kept his death secret for three days to install Lady Jane, but Northumberland had neglected to take control of Princess Mary. She fled and organised a band of supporters, who proclaimed her Queen across the country.
The Privy Council abandoned Northumberland, and proclaimed Mary to be the sovereign after nine days of the pretended Jane Grey. Queen Mary imprisoned Lady Jane and executed Northumberland. Mary is remembered for her vigorous efforts to restore Roman Catholicism after Edward's short-lived crusade to minimise Catholicism in England. Protestant historians have long denigrated her reign, emphasising that in just five years she burned several hundred Protestants at the stake in the Marian persecutions.
However, a historiographical revisionism since the s has to some degree improved her reputation among scholars. Protestant writers at the time took a highly negative view, blasting her as "Bloody Mary". Foxe's book taught Protestants for centuries that Mary was a bloodthirsty tyrant. In the midth century, H.
Prescott attempted to redress the tradition that Mary was intolerant and authoritarian by writing more objectively, and scholarship since then has tended to view the older, simpler, partisan assessments of Mary with greater scepticism. Haigh concluded that the "last years of Mary's reign were not a gruesome preparation for Protestant victory, but a continuing consolidation of Catholic strength. In other countries, the Catholic Counter-Reformation was spearheaded by Jesuit missionaries; Mary's chief religious advisor, Cardinal Pole, refused to allow the Jesuits in England.
The military loss of Calais to France was a bitter humiliation to English pride. Failed harvests increased public discontent. Historians often depict Elizabeth's reign as the golden age in English history in terms of political, social and cultural development, and in comparison with Continental Europe.
Although Elizabeth executed Catholic priests, she also executed some extreme Puritans, and on the whole she sought a moderately conservative position that mixed Royal control of the church with no people role , combined with predominantly Catholic ritual, and a predominantly Calvinists theology. Mary, Queen of Scots lived —87 was a devout Catholic and next in line for the throne of England after Elizabeth.
Her status became a major domestic and international issue for England. The upshot was years of struggle for control of the throne, nominally held by the infant king James V lived —42, reigned —42 , until he came of age in Mary of Guise lived —60 was a French woman close to the French throne. She ruled as the regent for her teenaged daughter Queen Mary, — The regent and her daughter were both strong proponents of Catholicism and attempted to suppress the rapidly Growth of Protestantism in Scotland.
Mary of Guise was a strong opponent of Protestantism, and worked to maintain a close alliance between Scotland and France, called the Auld Alliance. In the Regent became alarmed that widespread Scottish hostility against French rule was strengthening the partisan cause, so she banned unauthorised preaching. But the fiery preacher John Knox sent Scotland aflame with his preaching, leading the coalition of powerful Scottish nobles, calling themselves the Lords of the Congregation raised the rebellion to overthrow the Catholic Church and seize its lands.
The Lords appealed to Elizabeth for English help, but she played a very cautious hand. The treaty with France called for peace and she was unwilling to violate it, especially since England had no allies at the time.
- False Prophets/True Believers.
- Tudor and Stuart Colchester: Economic history | British History Online!
- Post navigation.
- A Man to Match the Mountain?
- Alfgars Stories from Beowulf.
Supporting rebels against the lawful ruler violated Elizabeth's deeply held claims to the legitimacy of all royalty. On the other hand, a French victory in Scotland would establish a Catholic state on the northern border supported by a powerful French enemy. Elizabeth first sent money, then sent artillery, then sent a fleet that destroyed the French fleet in Scotland. Finally she sent 8, troops north. The death of Mary of Guise allowed England, France and Scotland to come to terms in the Treaty of Edinburgh in , which had a far-reaching impact. France permanently withdrew all its forces from Scotland.
It ensured the success of the Reformation in Scotland; it began a century of peace with France; it ended any threat of a Scottish invasion; and it paved the way for a union of the two kingdoms in when the Scottish king James VI inherited the English throne as James I and launched the Stuart era. When he died in , she returned to Scotland as Queen of Scotland. However, when Elizabeth refused to recognise her as the heir to the English throne, Mary rejected the Treaty of Edinburgh. She made an unfortunate marriage to Lord Darnley who mistreated her and murdered her Italian favourite David Rizzio.
Darnley in turn was murdered by the Earl of Bothwell. He was acquitted of murder; she quickly married Bothwell. Most people at the time thought she was deeply involved in adultery or murder; historians have argued at length and are undecided. However rebellion broke out and the Protestant nobles defeated the Queen's forces in Mary engaged in numerous complex plots to assassinate Elizabeth and become queen herself. Finally Elizabeth caught her plotting the Babington Plot and had her executed in Elizabeth's final two decades saw mounting problems that were left for the Stuarts to solve after John Cramsie, in reviewing the recent scholarship in , argues:.
Elizabeth remained a strong leader, but almost all of her earlier advisers had died or retired. Robert Cecil — took over the role of leading advisor long held by his father Lord Burghley.
- Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England: Volume 9 (Economic - download pdf or read online;
- Tudor and Stuart Colchester: Economic history?
- Ill Try.
- Praktikum der mikroskopischen Hämatologie: Begründet von Fritz Heckner (German Edition).
The three new men formed a triangle of interlocking and opposing forces that was hard to break into. The first vacancy came in , when Devereux was executed for attempting to take the Queen prisoner and seize power.
The main officials of the local government operated at the county level also called "shire" were the sheriff and the Lord Lieutenant. He was appointed for a one-year term, with no renewals, by the King's Privy Council. He was paid many small fees, but they probably did not meet the sheriff's expenses in terms of hospitality and hiring his under-sheriffs and bailiffs. The sheriff held court every month to deal with civil and criminal cases. He supervised elections, ran the jail and meted out punishments. His subordinates provided staffing for the county's justices of the peace.
He was a person with good enough connections at court to be selected by the king and served at the king's pleasure, often for decades. He was in charge of mobilising the militia if necessary for defence, or to assist the king in military operations. In Yorkshire in , the Lord Lieutenant was the Earl of Huntington, who urgently needed to prepare defences in the face of the threatened invasion from the Spanish Armada.
The Queen's Privy Council urgently called upon him to mobilise the militia, and report on the availability of men and horses. Huntington's challenge was to overcome the reluctance of many militia men, the shortages of arms, training mishaps, and jealousy among the gentry as to who would command which unit. Despite Huntingdon's last-minute efforts, the mobilisation of revealed a reluctant society that only grudgingly answered the call to arms. The Armada never landed, and the militia were not actually used. The day-to-day business of government was in the hands of several dozen justices of the peace JP.
They handled all the real routine police administrative functions, and were paid through a modest level of fees. Other local officials included constables, church-wardens, mayors, and city aldermen. The JP duties involved a great deal of paperwork — primarily in Latin — and attracted a surprisingly strong cast of candidates.
For example, The 55 JPs in Devonshire holding office in included:. The cultural achievements of the Elizabethan era have long attracted scholars, and since the s they have conducted intensive research on the social history of England. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Tudor period — The red and white rose of the House of Tudor. Part of a series on the. Social history of England History of education in England History of the economy of England History of the politics of England English overseas possessions History of the English language.