Sensory Marketing--Smells Like Profits: Smells Like Profits (FT Press Delivers Elements)
Perhaps the most striking feature of the contemporary marketplace is the growing sense appeal of commodities, and the increasingly vociferous invocation of the senses in advertising. This paper examines, first, the role of the department store in precipitating the transformation in values from moderation to gratification, and second, the role of contemporary marketers in promoting a regime of hyperconsumption by harnessing the senses to the movement of merchandise.
Pier 1 Imports is a store that specializes in home decor, including wood and wicker furniture, draperies, and scented candles. On the cover of its Fall catalogue there is a picture of a tabletop fountain made of slabs of brown and grey speckled marble. Down the right edge of the cover is a series of coloured boxes. Each box is imprinted with the name of a different sense. At the top is feel golden yellow , then smell lawn green , hear purple taste lust red , and finally see burnt orange.
The calming new scent of Westin. Why all these invocations of the senses in contemporary advertising? Clearly, there is something stirring in the marketplace.
Sensory Marketing--Smells Like Profits: Smells Like Profits - Michael R. Solomon - Google Книги
What is it about the senses that so appeals to marketers and advertisers? What is driving all this hype? Formerly, marketing was all about the product or all about the service a company had to offer. She distinguishes a series of periods leading up to the current time of the senses. In the s, Krishna continues, it was discovered that branded goods could command a premium, with Levis jeans being the prime example. The focus accordingly shifted to building brand names and logos. But, according to Krishna, the focus on name and logo distracted attention from the other aspects of products in the same way price did previously.
As a result, the potential sense appeal of commodities remained occulted. Krishna notes that even the names of brands have become sensory in the new era of sensory marketing. It purports to elicit all five senses, whence the name and the catchphrase: Krishna underscores the way that, in the case of the iTouch:. This was yet another prescient move made by Apple to play up the senses when few other competitors were doing so Krishna The first thing I would note about the iPod with its so-called multi-touch interface is that it is not about touch.
It is about accessing sound in the form of i tunes and images in the form of pictures or videos. It belittles touch because its screen, being made of glass, is devoid of texture. There was a time, not long ago, when touch mattered to the operation of communication technologies. I refer to the days of the rotary dial phone.
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I happen to still have one such phone in my basement and bring it out every once in a while to practice dialing, even though it is not connected to any network. By contrast, the iphone neuters resistance. I do not own an iTouch or iphone but I do have an iPad. Rather perplexingly, it does not always respond to my touch.
I am told that this may be because the interface reacts not to touch but to temperature, and that perhaps the blood in my veins is too cold to activate the sensor. I do not appreciate being painted as a cold-blooded reptile, but this remains the most likely explanation, and I have found that rubbing my hands together vigorously before using my iPad definitely helps.
Capitalism did not just discover the senses yesterday. That was the date that capitalism began to transform from a mode of production into a mode of presentation Howes This enabled customers to shop for many items under one roof, and at the same time it exposed them to many items they had not intended to buy but might be led to desire. Second, the department store was a space of visual fascination with its palatial architecture and floor after floor of entrancing merchandise all laid out on tables.
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This open display of goods contrasted with the way goods had formerly been hidden away behind counters or in boxes, and the shopper had to ask a clerk to retrieve some item in order to inspect and possibly purchase it. Third, the department store allowed customers not only to look at but also to touch the merchandise — without the mediation of a salesperson.
This increased the risk of theft and damage, to be sure, but that concern was offset by the notion that once a shopper had held an item in their hands, they would be more likely to want permanent possession of it. Thus, department stores were full of both eye-catching and hand-catching displays Classen While the department store thus presented two kinds of inducement to buy, visual and tactile, it was the visual register that predominated. This occurred first in the form of the store window display that beckoned passersby to enter, second in the form of the posters and billboards that sought to attract the attention of more distant potential customers, and third in the form of the printed catalogues, some of which, like the Sears-Roebuck catalogue, even brought the store to the consumer.
There was, however, a problem with the hyperemphasis on the visual that distinguished the nascent consumer capitalist regime from its predecessor formation, industrial capitalism. In industrial capitalism the accent was on disciplining the senses rather than pleasuring them, and production rather than presentation — see Howes a: The problem was that as more and more of the visible surfaces of the city and countryside came to be colonized for advertising purposes, visual fatigue set in.
This raised the question: How do you catch the eye of the consumer when all your competitors are trying to do the same? Smithsonian National Museum of American History. The solution lay in multiplying the sensory bases of product differentiation. This principle was hit on accidentally by the Coca-Cola Company in if one may believe the display on this topic in the Coca-Cola Museum in Atlanta, which I had the opportunity to visit recently. At the time, Coke came in straight-sided glass bottles much like those of all the other soft drink manufacturers. The only thing that distinguished a Coke bottle from, say, a Pepsi was the paper label.
These labels had the annoying tendency of peeling off when the bottle was jammed in amongst other bottles in the dispenser boxes filled with melting ice. Coke therefore held a competition to design a distinctively shaped bottle that would enable customers to identify their product even if they could not see it when they reached into the icebox. The inspiration may have been off a cocoa bean rather than a cola bean — what were the designers thinking? Coke patented the design, of course. Adding feel was an important breakthrough as a means of product differentiation and persuasion Howes It was soon supplemented by adding sound.
The first jingle was composed in Another s start-up was the Wired Radio company which in the s was renamed Muzak a trademarked name, incidentally. It took some time for the next sense to be added, smell. The scent strip was not invented till , but then immediately took off. They were used extensively in magazines to advertise perfumes and colognes. As the technology for scent delivery has grown more sophisticated, scent-marketing has mushroomed into a billion dollar industry, with ScentAir leading the pack.
Now, just as most commercial environments come with a signature soundtrack, so many commercial environments come fragranced: And so was born what could be called the checklist approach to sensory branding, which was already becoming the new normal by the year , as the Pier 1 Imports catalogue illustrates. This move was first theorized by Pine and Gilmore However, the new multisensual marketing strategy proved no less problematic than the hypervisual strategy that preceded it. The main problem is that if every company is pursuing this strategy, it is no longer so different, and thus fails to fulfil the goal of product differentiation.
What do you do when you have used up all five senses i. One strategy is to outnumber your competitors by claiming that your product offers a sixth sense. This strategy has been tried by a surprisingly high number of automobile brands. A television commercial for the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle had the following voiceover:. And it comes standard on every Tucson. The Hyundai Tucson: A few years earlier, Toyota used the following line to promote the Lexus ES But All Six of Them?
Perhaps the biggest problem with the checklist approach, however, is that all of the most effective stimuli are steadily being privatized through trademark law. Initially it was only the brand name and logo of a company that could be trademarked, the idea being that this would prevent confusion in the marketplace i. Trademark protection was extended to colour first it helped that Pantone had devised a universal system for distinguishing and naming colours, making them easier to register , but then in the s more and more sounds and scents and shapes, and even store layouts, came to be trademarked providing they were sufficiently distinct or patented.
This state of affairs begs the question of whether sensations should be considered property in the first place. The judge rules that the neighbour should pay the baker — with the sound of clinking coins. This cautionary tale underscores the ludicrousness of the idea that there can be property in such an ephemeral trait as odour.
Of course, it comes from outside the culture of capitalism. How to Double Your Sales. That's What I call Service: Stories of Great Customer Service from the Wow! Creating Great Customer Service. The Professional's Guide to Business Development. Call Center Success Secrets. The Ultimate Guide to Customer Retention. Building Customer and Employee Allegiance. Marketing Through Turbulent Times. A Joosr Guide to Hug Your Haters by Jay Baer: Start With the Future and Work Back.
The Routledge Companion to Consumer Behavior. Let Their Mouseclicks Do the Walking. Virtual Social Identity and Consumer Behavior. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long.
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