La mujer ideal (eLit) (Spanish Edition)

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  1. The Spanish Legion declares war on obesity
  2. La Sección Femenina: Women’s Role in Francoist Spain – Women and Charity in Spain,
  3. Spanish Lace: History, Production and Gender
  4. El método del Matchmaking

Female Identity in Modern Spain. State University of New York, La 2, 08 Oct. You may use these HTML tags and attributes: April 12, at 8: February 13, at 1: Because of the delicate nature of handmade silk lace, there are few extant examples of mantillas from the late 18th or beginning of the 19th centuries. Many attempted to duplicate handmade lace beginning in the late 18th century to create a more accessible and potentially durable product.

After much experimentation, John Heathcoate succeeded in making high-quality machine-made lace with his bobbin net machine, first patented in and then again in after some improvements Halls Women not only supplied much of the labour for working the machines; they also contributed with handmade embellishments, making the final product a combination of handmade and machine-made processes Halls One such example includes a large floral design, a fashionable choice for Blonde veils.

It doubles as part of the leafy vegetation pattern. The pattern includes bold flowers and delicate leaves with curving stems connecting the flora. This design is made using silk floss, which is complemented by a translucent net lace for the background. The flowers and leaves are also delineated by outlines to emphasize their form. That is, as women gained greater access to political and social spheres e. Elite women especially could model their donning of mantillas as a nod to past noble women as part of continuing this sartorial tradition but in an updated fashion.

Spanish women produce and wear Blonde mantillas, making them agents in their own identity fashioning. The garment itself also played a significant part in the crafting of an image of Spanish femininity to curb excess consumption, particularly of foreign clothing and objects. The prime minister, who, having received M. The council disapproved it.

The Spanish Legion declares war on obesity

The men to whom she refers were called petimetres. They exemplified the anti-male model, characters who indulged in narcissistic practices and weakened the country. Thus, that the Treatise for a national dress code was directly solely at women struck a chord for many women who did not see themselves as the only gender consuming luxury objects and garments. The text specified a detailed dress code based on social rank, with distinct outfits for different occasions. The women in each group would have three separate outfits, one for special occasions, one for less formal events, and one for the street, while each of the women would carry an insignia to identify her social status.

He places each of the models in a full-length format with little background in order to highlight the outfits. The clothing is made to look appealing and contemporary, while the artist limits the use of jewellery to emphasize restraint. How could the garments remain current by responding to fashion changes and simultaneously keep the same design?

Would new models be generated each year, and, if so, how would this curb elite enthusiasm for stylish products? Ximeno may have opted to showcase their French design in part because France had set the tone for fashion beginning with Louis XIV , making the ensembles seemingly more appealing even in their fairly restrained styles. The proposal not only promoted the mantilla to symbolize decorous Spanish femininity, but also specified nationally produced lace as its emblematic material. With the limitation in visualizing the different outfits based on social class, Ximeno ultimately failed to produce the imagery necessary for encouraging women to wear the national dress code.

La Sección Femenina: Women’s Role in Francoist Spain – Women and Charity in Spain,

He visualizes the maja Fig. She sports a white mantilla with a lace band that accentuates her face. Underneath the veil, the woman wears a bow, which provides additional stature and embellishment. As a sartorial staple in visual imagery of the maja, who was associated with the artisanal or labouring class, the mantilla endows the working woman with dignity as a model of Spanish femininity. Her overall tidy appearance and pleasing garments make her a presentable example.

In the combined Carolina Dress For All, and Dress a la Borbonesa , he shows the model surrounded by children who resemble their mother in dress although they do not wear veils , crafting a harmonious vision of maternal femininity. This detail ties dress to behaviour: In his examples, the use of recognizable Spanish items, like the mantilla, grants authenticity to the proposal and provides a better visual justification for the standardization of female clothing, since veils and other customary garments were already viewed, especially by foreigners, as the prevailing clothing items for all Spanish women.

By striking a balance between fashionable moderation and traditional assertions, Cruz Cano creates a model who takes pride in her Spanishness. His Carolina Dress in many ways exemplifies the complex negotiation between Spanish garments and women of different social status and places of origin in Spain.

That the council voted against the proposal suggests that the women viewed fashion as a vehicle to express individuality. The inventory sometimes indicates the location or origin of the mantillas, some foreign and others local, which would be typical of courtly consumption. The black lace mantilla cascades down her back, frames her face, and delicately touches her arms. Peeking beneath the mantilla, scalloped white lace discreetly covers her cleavage. Such sumptuous garments craft an image of Spanish femininity appropriate for elite women that distinguishes them from their European counterparts.

As queen, she sets a decorous example by displaying customary garments that illustrate her support for traditional clothing. She apparently loved to show off her arms and so does not wear a short jacket or gloves. In this regard, she expresses personal taste by opting for a variation of the traditional dress.

At the same time, she participates in a collective appreciation for such accessories. While the wearing of black has typically been associated with mourning, its use in Spain has a different historic significance.

The Renaissance author Baldasare Castiglione praised the Spanish preference for black as a courtly example to emulate. It was the queen and elite women who epitomized the former grandeur of the Spanish past by recalling Hapsburg styles through the adaptation of maja dress. Thus, the queen stands in the portrait in order to promote the royal union with the populace. The lace mantilla became a standard garment in portraits for fashioning a modern image of Spanish femininity. One such example, Portrait of a Lady with a Fan ca.

Spanish Lace: History, Production and Gender

Small floral motifs almost fleur-de-lys in appearance are spaced throughout the net lace mantilla, while the edges showcase leaf designs. The botanical patterns are made using the floss featured in either Blonde lace or embroidery, but most likely it is a Blonde mantilla since the motifs emphasize the matte sheen typical of Blonde lace.

The images were later placed in a complete volume that includes four additional prints that make up Madrid Fashions from , favouring the Spanish capital as the central location for new fashions. Madrid was also the hub of domestic commerce. The shops of Calle Mayor in central Madrid served as sites of distribution and commercial activity where national and foreign items like laces and silks were sold Haidt The inclusion of regional outfits fosters a relationship between traditional and modern garments, especially when they are combined to form new styles in many of the prints.

In his Collection , several women wear mantillas or other kinds of shawls or veils.


The mantillas featured show a vast assortment in textiles, styles and embellishment—from net lace to fringed borders. The captions at the bottom of each print often contain valuable information about the fashions exhibited, including the types of mantillas worn.

El método del Matchmaking

The petimetra was more directly associated with current fashions and was the source of satire as one that falsified a high social status and feigned cosmopolitan airs. In one example without a description of the clothing, Yo Petimetra! The woman wears the diaphanous veil crossed over her torso and gestures with elbow-length gloves and a fan. She is the height of elegance and fashion. The beguiling potential of the mantilla is seen vividly in another print of a petimetra Fig. Although the sheer component of the lace allows the viewer to discern the woman underneath, her identity is somewhat obscured, making the mantilla an alluring garment and the woman mysteriously intriguing.

The mantilla-clad women offer a modern vision of Spanish femininity as multifarious—tied to tradition via the link to the maja and tied to contemporary fashion via the link to the petimetra. The connection to current trends is made explicit in the fashion plates in which women model myriad mantillas that come in a vast number of materials, sizes and shapes.

In both portraits and in fashion plates, the mantilla grants the sitter or model a distinct Spanishness outside of the customary circumstances in which it was typically worn. Instead, the women depicted utilize the mantilla for its modern, fashionable potential, and artists, in turn, showcase the veils as part of the construction of an updated, urban image of Spanish femininity that lauded female labour and native lace production. Moreover, the mantilla, particularly the lace mantilla, commends the industriousness of native manufacture and the Spanish craftswomen responsible.

In the 19th century, the lace mantilla continued to be worn and fabricated by Spanish women, whether handmade or machine made. As fashion trends shifted and Spanish women incorporated different local and pan-European styles into their wardrobe, the lace mantilla provided a fixed point to assert their identity as definitively Spanish. It was, however, the visual depictions, primarily portraits, of ca. Articles Crafting Spanish Female Identity: Tara Zanardi Hunter College. Stillman, , cm, accession number Redmond, to mark the Diamond Jubilee Year, , L.

History, Production and Gender 11 Many European countries possess a notable lace-making history, particularly Italy, France and Flanders. Silk Lace, Blonde and the Spanish Mantilla 23 Lace mantillas gained popularity in part because of changing taste for more translucent or airy materials. Popular Pride and Fashionable Splendour 32 The fabrication of the mantilla—lace or otherwise—helped to bolster native industries.

Photography by Michael Bodycomb. AG Legajo Ex. Archivo General del Palacio. La pensadora gaditana The Cadiz Thinker. Imprenta de Francisco Xavier Garcia. Baroja de Caro, Carmen. Seduction and Scandal in Seville, Madrid, and Lima. Hispanic Review 77 1: Lace History and Lace Identification. The Construction of Femininity in the Spanish Enlightenment. Neoclassical Fashion and Gender Identity in France, La industria en Madrid. Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan. Consejo Social de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

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Machine-Made Lace in Nottingham in the 18th and 19th Centuries. City of Nottingham Museums and Libraries Committee. University of Chicago Press. Fashion and the Feminine in Nineteenth-Century France.