Implicit Measures of Attitudes
This timely volume features analyses by the major contributors to this important development. The chapter authors skillfully present both the promise and the uncertainties of the many implicit measures that have been proposed. This book is essential reading not only for attitude researchers, but also for all researchers who wish to understand whether they should incorporate implicit measures into their studies.
Implicit Measures of Attitudes
I would definitely use the book in a graduate course in attitudes. Eagly, PhD, Department of Psychology, Northwestern University "Wittenbrink and Schwarz drew together a distinguished group of authors whose expertise concerns how best to examine the interrelations among attitudes, social judgments, and behaviors Reader-researchers should consider this book a valuable resource, one that nicely characterizes current views on simple as well as complex measures of implicit attitudes. I would highly recommend this book for anyone thinking about incorporating the use of implicit attitude measures into his or her research and feel that the book would make an excellent addition to any graduate-level course on attitudes or attitude measurement.
His research concerns the role that stereotypes and group attitudes play in social judgment and behavior. His research interests focus on human judgment and cognition. His publications include 20 books and more than journal articles and chapters. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?
Learn more about Amazon Prime. Increasingly used in social and behavioral science research, implicit measures aim to assess attitudes that respondents may not be willing to report directly, or of which they may not even be aware. This timely book brings together leading investigators to review currently available procedures and offer practical recommendations for their implementation and interpretation. The theoretical bases of the various approaches are explored and their respective strengths and limitations are critically examined.
The volume also discusses current controversies facing the field and highlights promising avenues for future research. Read more Read less. Prime Book Box for Kids. Customers who bought this item also bought.
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LowTech Measures of Implicit Attitudes. Participants were then asked to complete a lexical decision task LDT to identify if target stimuli are words or a non-words. The target stimuli consist of words with known positive or negative valence. When words with positive valence are categorized more quickly in the presence of one group of word primes such as black sounding names , this indicates positive attitudes towards the group. In the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task EAST , participants categorized stimuli which consisted of words that either had positive or negative valence that were presented in either the color white or two different colors.
Implicit attitude - Wikipedia
When the words are presented in color, participants are asked to categorize based on color alone and ignore word meaning. When colored words are presented, categorization accuracy and speed are facilitated when, for words which the respondent has a positive implicit attitude, the response was the same as was expected for white words with obvious positive valence. In practice, the GNAT appears similar to the Implicit Association Test in that participants are asked to categorize targets representing either a concept such as race; ex. Participants are asked to respond 'go' or decline to respond 'no-go' during a short interval after each of the stimuli are presented.
In test trials, participants are asked to respond to one of the concepts white or black and words with either positive or negative valence; these are then switched so that the concept is then paired with the opposite valence category. When paired with words with positive valence, faster and more accurate responding indicates greater association, and therefore positive attitude towards the target concept either white or black race. Like the EAST, the GNAT has been used in populations who have been diagnosed with acute phobias to measure fear associations in addition to research on stereotypes and discrimination.
The Affect Misattribution Procedure relies on participant ratings of neutral stimuli as an indirect measure of implicit attitudes rather than latency or accuracy measures. In the procedure, participants are first presented with a stimulus usually an image or word , for either a brief visible period or subliminally, which is suspected to elicit a positive or negative attitude. Directly afterwards, participants are presented with a neutral stimulus most often a Chinese pictograph which they are asked to rate as either more or less, in this case visually, pleasing than an average stimulus.
During these trials, the positive or negative affect in response to the priming image is misattributed or ' projected ' onto the neutral stimulus such that it is rated as more or less pleasing than would be expected from solitary presentation.
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A full demonstration of the AMP procedure can be found in the external links below. The AMP has been used to study attitudes towards political candidates and has proven useful in predicting voting behavior. The following are some examples of how implicit attitude and explicit attitude are moderated by each other and how they interact with each other.
Individuals will alter a response when questioned for personal or social purposes.
This typically happens in situations where individuals are not willing to report or express their "affective response toward an object" because they don't want others to know how they feel about something they don't consciously accept or endorse their evaluation. Since implicit measures are not as vulnerable to control as explicit measures are, the correlation between implicit and explicit attitudes should decrease as self presentation concerns increase. For example, Nosek found that there was more overlap in explicit and implicit measures when people rated Pepsi vs.
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Coca-Cola low self presentation concern. However, when they rated thin vs. The strength of an attitude has an influence on explicit attitudes the stronger an implicit attitude the more likely it is that it will show up in an explicit attitude.
Strong attitudes are stable and not easily changed due to persuasion and can therefore help predict behaviors. The more an individual expresses or acts on an attitude the stronger the attitude becomes and the more automated the attitude becomes. Attitude strength should increase the correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes. Conscious thinking about the attitude should create more of an overlap between both implicit and explicit attitude.
Much of the literature within the field of social psychology has focused on explicit constructions of the attitude construct. Until more recently, examination of attitudes beyond reported awareness has lagged far behind that of explicit attitudes. This point is driven home in a review of research in the mid s which found that among attitudinal research published in , approximately only 1 in 9 experimental paradigms utilized an indirect measure of attitude necessary for determining contributions of implicit attitudes while all of the reviewed studies employed direct measures such as self report of attitudes which were explicitly aware to participants.
Newer research has called into question the distinction between implicit and explicit attitudes.
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However, they do go on to say that context can have a significant effect on this particular line of research. People's explicitly stated and implicitly tested attitudes are more likely to be in sync for trivial matters such as preference in a presidential election than for highly charged issues such as predispositions towards a certain race. They exert that "The more sensitive the domain, the greater the likelihood that motivational factors will be evoked and exert some influence on overt responses to an explicit measure".
A prominent dual process theory specifying the relation between implicit and explicit attitudes is Gawronski and Bodenhausen's associative-propositional evaluation APE model. Whereas implicit evaluations are assumed to be the outcome of associative processes, explicit evaluations are assumed to be the outcome of propositional processes. Associative processes are conceptualized as the activation of associations on the basis of feature similarity and spatio-temporal contiguity during learning.
Propositional processes are defined as the validation of activated information on the basis of cognitive consistency. A central assumption of the APE model is that people tend to rely on their implicit evaluations when making explicit evaluative judgments to the extent that the implicit evaluative response is consistent with other momentarily considered propositional information. However, people may reject implicit evaluations for making explicit evaluative judgments when the implicit evaluative response is inconsistent with other momentarily considered propositional information.
In addition to explaining the relation between implicit and explicit evaluations, the APE model accounts for diverging patterns of attitude change, including a changes in implicit but not explicit evaluations, b changes in explicit but not implicit evaluations, c corresponding changes in implicit and explicit evaluations, and d opposite changes in implicit and explicit evaluations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Alief mental state Attitude psychology Emotional baggage Halo Effect Implicit assumption Implicit cognition Implicit self-esteem Implicit stereotypes Implicit-association test Lexical decision task List of cognitive biases Mere-exposure effect Priming psychology Valence psychology. Theoretical and empirical Insights. Attitudes and attitude change pp.