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Besides, multiple analyses of the variables linked to georeferenced observations are derived from or can be displayed in terms of continuous surfaces. As a consequence, the so-called modifiable areal unit problem Openshaw is theoretically avoided because any pattern detected is not a consequence of arbitrarily defined survey units. Surface findings Kernel Density Estimation 30 meters bandwidth-Gaussian kernel function. Codes refer to locations mentioned in the text.

Hence, Kernel Density Estimation has been proven to be a valuable tool for ascertaining spatial variations in the surface archaeological record Figure 2. In fact, some potentialities of this procedure in relation to similar strategies have been already discussed for different survey experiences Mayoral et al.

In this case, as the recording strategy was based on pre-established categories, density estimations could be built for every class of artifact considered. Nevertheless, unlike physical quantities, qualitative variables are not selfevident and need an ad hoc definition. Different variables approach us to unique dimensions of the archaeological record.

In this sense, the broad fabric categories employed here are informative about some facets of the surface compound. However valuable, it must be admitted that historical conclusions gained from the analysis of these broad categories should be complemented by a more qualitative approach. Functional, chronological or typological classifications would link us to different dimensions of the assemblage. Even so, the analysis of such a grouping system in this paper is a consequence of the kind of items recorded as well as the adopted sampling strategy. Actually, only a percentage slightly under 4.

This situation is the prevailing trend in the surface archaeology of the Mediterranean area Winther-Jacobsen , In contrast, the broad classes of materials employed here, though less informative about function or chronology, allows using the whole recorded sample. Unveiling the composition of the dataset The analysis of the diversity of artifact aggregates poses special interest because it brings together information about composition and abundance. In fact, it has been suggested that methods linked to the concept of diversity summarize for qualitative variables what variance does for quantitative ones Patil , However, it is not a closed or unambiguous concept and, accordingly, it demands a definition of the notion assumed.

In this paper we consider three interconnected indices, which stand out as the preferred systems to make the compositional arrangement of populations explicit: It is expressed by an integer which accounts for the different categories a group of observations can be classified into. Then, before it can be analyzed, it is necessary 1 to define a set of closed categories, and 2 to understand the mechanics of assignment of each individual to the appropriate type. Despite being a simple concept, its use can be problematic because it is highly affected by sample size biases.

It has been largely recognized that richness is strongly influenced by the total number of observations, an element which is sevillano perea 25 not independent of the invested sampling effort. We are always dealing with an incomplete set, and hence we do not know the real number of classes which occur in the target population either globally or in particular spots. Then, since this measurement gives just as much weight to the commonest as to the rarest material types, it is extremely sensitive to undetected classes.

Therefore, it might favor the underestimation of true population variability. Still, the measurement can be of interest as a preliminary approach to the compositional structure of the assemblage. The values express the range of different artifact categories within a 30 meter radius from each pixel. As expected, it displays a strong connection with abundance. In this sense, the comparison of Figures 2 and 3 reveals a clear spatial correlation between the richest assemblages and the most conspicuous artifact concentrations.

In map A of the Figure 3 artifact range is displayed for all types accounted for. The values of map B are obtained when contemporary pottery classes are excluded white glazed crockery, glazed pottery and other regional cooking and tableware. Despite being non majoritarian proportionally, the three categories represent less than 1.

In any case, both figures make explicit a coherent trend of richness growth or Figure 3: The majority of artifact concentrations, regardless of their heterogeneous natures, are easily differentiable from the material evidence of dispersed activity areas. They are traditionally defined as the conjoint measurement of the number of categories accounted for richness and its evenness, which is to say the categories equitably measured by their relative abundance Tuomisto , Theoretically, compositional diversity poses no problem when all classes are equally abundant.

However, when this is not the case, the weight we give to rarity is crucial. Diversity is a multidimensional attribute of a population. Then, the selection of a procedure to measure it brings the risk of distorting our perception of the object of interest, since a multidimensional property is projected in a onedimensional ordinal scale Patil , This fact has been largely recognized and different authors have pointed out its conceptual as well as procedural consequences from different disciplines Hulbert ; Jost ; Patil , but also from an archaeologist point of view Ringrose ; Kintigh A proposed solution to get around this inconvenience is the use of diversity profiles instead of one-way approaches Hulbert ; Chao and Jost , 2.

Then it is possible to assess the answers provided by a set of observations when confronted to formulas that give different weight to relative abundance. Two diversity measures have been applied in a local manner to our dataset: Shannon Entropy and Simpson Index. Both of them are among the oldest and still most used diversity indices Marrugan , , The first one, formally, quantifies the uncertainty in ascribing an observation to one of a series of categories. It is more sensitive to richness and less influenced by dominant categories than Simpson Index. On the other hand, the latter measures can be described as the probability of any two individuals drawn at random to belong to the same type.

The results of Shannon and Simpson indices are not directly comparable. This procedure makes possible to observe applied indices under a linear scale Jost , , which depends on the weight given to relative abundances. Thus, diversity values are expressed and interpretable in the same units of the number of categories. Finally, due to the fact that the implementation of diversity and evenness measurements for our dataset has followed the same plan, we will briefly define the second notion and how it was computed before discussing the results.

It can be described according to multiple criteria Smith and Wilson ; Heip et al. One way to derive a measurement of evenness is the normalization of the diversity value, dividing it by richness Tuomisto , The maximum possible value, 1, defines a completely even population, where different groups are equally abundant.

On the other hand, evenness is closer to 0 when categories show remarkably dissimilar quantitative trends i. Because it is calculated as a diversity derived product, evenness inherits from it the weight placed on categories relative abundance. The implementation of both measurements in our dataset is based on a fourstep scheme: Thus, what we are mapping is an interpolation of Figure 4: Smoothed surfaces displaying local artifact diversity values 30 meters radius neighborhood: Exponential of Shannon Index; B.

Inverse of Simpson Index. This procedure has been applied because it allows keeping the point based arrangement in which the dataset was constructed. Besides the spatial resolution of the results is less coarse than the one obtained when using other tested approaches, such as the creation of quadrats or any artificial partitioning of the surveyed area.

It is clearly visible in the images that Simpson Index and its derived evenness produce lower values. As expected, the more weight we give to the most abundant species, the lower the diversity value obtained. Nevertheless, the global trend observable in maps A and B remains unchanged. Still, pointing out the differences between the two computations has some interest, because its comparison highlights where the relative abundance of dominant classes has stronger influence. For that reason, the use of ratios created by the division of one value by the other has been proposed Tuomisto , In this case of study, a 30 meter radius was considered appropriate for examining global trends.

Radius of smaller size would point out localized patterns of interest otherwise indistinguishable. However, there is a controversy between the spatial scale of the analysis and a minimum number of observations for each neighborhood. Because our data strongly varies in terms of abundance across the Figure 5: Smoothed surfaces displaying local evenness values 30 meters radius neighborhood: Evenness derived from the results of Shannon Index; B.

Evenness derived from the results of Simpson Index. As the threshold is widened, more points are excluded and a smaller area is accounted for.

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For example, in Figures 4 and 5, neighborhoods with less than five individuals are left out and those populated by less than 20 observations are displayed within a line pattern. We are aware of the potential influence of sample size biases, which may be particularly strong at scarcely populated locales. Discussion of the results In the following section we will inspect conjointly the analysis of richness, evenness and diversity values obtained for our dataset. They will be interpreted in relation to the abundance and distribution of the artifacts detected, taking into account the main classes of findings and its chronology.

Focusing on prominent clusters of artifacts, as we saw, an escalation of richness is clearly identifiable. This fact is repeatedly complemented by a decrease in evenness see maps in Figure 5. However, dissimilar spatial variations of both phenomena determine that, when visualizing diversity indices values, three distinct behaviors can be identified. Firstly, there is a set of locales featured by low values of effective number of categories.

The small diversity values are regulated by the acute quantitative disproportion between the abundance of frequent and rare classes of artifact compare evenness maps of the Figure 5. So we can conclude that these denser neighborhoods contain more categories than its surroundings, however when picking a small sample from them, fewer groups would be identified if compared to their immediate surroundings. It follows the opposite trend to that one described in the previous paragraph. In this case, the composition is still more diverse than its neighborhoods because the rise of richness is not accompanied by an extreme decrease of evenness.

Yet compositional equitability is slightly lower than that from the surroundings. However, unlike the previous compounds, these scatters can hardly be outlined from their surrounding haloes in terms of the employed diversity estimates. Here, the halo-core composition is comparable, except for the northeastern C. Such differences, in contrast, are better understood taking into account evenness. Additionally, a number of late republican artifact clusters not very dense though can be included in this section. Again, their compositional complexity does not outstand from their neighborhoods, neither with regard to diversity values, nor in terms of evenness they correspond to the codes C.

However, the detected pattern might be due to the fact that the coarse dimension of the archaeological record analyzed in this paper fails to provide proper estimates for featuring the composition of deeply eroded modest concentrations in particular for some chronologies. In this respect, it should be noted that ceramic building material was introduced in the middle Guadiana Basin in the transition from late republic to early imperial times. From that period onwards it has remained as a main contributor in the material compound. Logically, higher proportions of building artifacts could be expected in scatters interpreted as the surface remains of architectural structures.

In contrast, high pottery to tile ratio in low density scatters might be indicative of assemblages constituted by the repetition of non-spatially concentrated practices, such as manuring de Haas , Medium or high artifact distributions displaying the same ratio can correspond to refuse dumps, so any kind of relationship not necessarily in terms of spatial proximity is expected between them and other foci of activity.

In other instances, this pattern had been created by the combination of particular sets of practices carried out in relation to structures which depend only to a limited extend on ceramic building material. Figure 6 plots those neighborhoods where pottery is the majoritarian component of the assemblages against those areas where ceramic building material brick, imbrex-curved roof tile and tegula is dominant.

It is a product of the comparison of kernel density estimations built for both sets of categories using the same parameters used elsewhere before in this paper Gaussian kernel function and 30 meter bandwidth. Once this distance has been exceeded, pottery vessels dominate. Still, a more detailed comment would be desirable for every foci of activity as they display different patterns. Arguably, they can be linked to processes of different nature articulated independently within the activity foci.

Also remarkable is the configuration of C. The area to the north of the cluster core is dominated by building material. Thus the upper-left corner of the surveyed space presents a rich compound of artifacts relocated after being laterally displaced, mainly downhill. In opposition to this, only a minority set of architectural remains would have been moved upwards by post-depositional forces. In our study case, such places relate consistently to intermediate to high diversity values according to the estimators used. However, it increases as we move from the core of artifact concentrations.

This behavior could be linked to assemblages located around built spaces. An intense and recursive set of actions sevillano perea 31 Figure 6: Then, the material set they involve would possibly be less intentionally sorted than the one coming from the nuclei of activity i. In any case, it is clear that the phenomenon of haloes has also left a mark 32 archaeology and geomatics in the compositional arrangement of the surface record. Though it is normally identified by progressive decreasing density rates, it is also traceable by the visual inspection of any of the compositional indices explored in this paper.

By the same token, at least for specific contexts and spatial scales, low equitability and wider ranges of categories could be linked to compounds recently incorporated to the plow zone. None of these premises is of general application, though they could be plausible for many contexts. For instance, the interpretation of a number of places included in the groups A and C previously described could benefit from this hypothesis. However, it is difficult to validate the applicability of these hypotheses. Finally, a framework less intelligible is linked to diversity values derived from low density assemblages.

At those areas, there is a strong local variability which, in general, can be assigned to small changes in richness. Relative abundances of material types are more homogeneous in low density areas, and consequently evenness reaches systematically higher values compare Figures 2 and 5.

Fewer artifacts of fewer types have arrived there, however no dominant class is noticed. One additional cause can be assigned to heterogeneous diversity patterns detected for less abundant neighborhoods: Inconsistencies in assemblage compositional complexity might result from variations in surface visibility. This topic is not covered in this paper, however it would be interesting to test if differences in land use or the presence of vegetation significantly lead to a more diverse or homogeneous dataset.

Yet, notwithstanding what has been said above, it is worth mentioning two clearly divergent situations. The first example concerns to a plot of land showing the highest effective number of types indicated in maps with the code D. It contains medium to low densities of ancient artifacts, added to which there is also a scarce distribution of contemporary sherds. The material sets from both periods create a rather evener than uneven composite.

There are other spots of low density and high diversity not individualized in the maps, but easily identifiable for instance in the surroundings of nuclei A. Finally, the pattern recognized in locale D. It is the only place where low artifact densities are matched with low and constant diversity values. Observing the richness low to intermediate and diversity low , it can be argued that any of the material classes is constantly dominant mainly coarse pottery over a small number of categories among them we can place the ceramic building material.

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Matching this information with the diagnostic sherds recovered, which mostly date back to late republican period, it emerges a coherent pattern of intense occupation of this space during that time. Other low density scatters also display sevillano perea 33 the same behavior at different points of the surveyed space. The difference now lies in the absence of noticeable later inclusions. This clearer image, also supported by low artifact heterogeneity, would favor the identification of smaller and isolated foci of activity, hardly noticeable by density figures.

According to the line of reasoning previously stated, a richer and less even compound would be detected at those spots in comparison to their immediate neighboring areas, where activities developed in a dispersed way would have been carried out. Thus, if such spatial contrasts have not been completely blurred by post-depositional processes, it might reasonably be expected to find local differences in the composition of the scatters, even if densities remain similar. Waagen discussed this topic and proposed suggestive ideas in relation to richness and low density areas.

The results of this exercise are not yet conclusive, because their interpretation is heavily dependent on local factors. Nevertheless, three of the re-surveyed spaces intersect with D. Conclusions There is not a straightforward method to infer the connections between the heterogeneity of an assemblage and the multi-causal processes connected to its formative history.

Then, it is suggested that, to overcome some of the shortcuts of the surface archaeological record, there are relevant techniques to explore patterns in the composition between and within not so much diagnostic artifact aggregates. In this paper, a number of methods have been applied to analyze the compositional complexity of ZUVAS dataset. They stand as supplementary tools to estimate and summarize different facets of the archaeological record.

Their implementation have provided us the means 1 to evaluate the variability of surface scatters; 2 to compare the values obtained and understand them in relation to other areas of the surveyed space; and 3 integrate the results within wider approaches to the dataset.

Our tests have deliberately chosen to employ a spatial scale which focuses on medium size patterns because at this stage we are interested in describing the main phenomena occurring in our study area. In any case, the picture obtained already outlines in considerable detail the main local patterns. Furthermore, we are aware that the kind of employed categories offers a coarse grained model. Nevertheless, surface archaeology lacks the means to efficiently produce more specific catalogues at a landscape scale i.

In that sense, as long as sample size is sufficiently large, the compositional complexity of other dimensions of the surface archaeological record could also be analyzed specifically. I also would like to thank Dr. Victorino Mayoral for his helpful comments on this manuscript. A Regional and Interregional Perspective. Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: Estimating diversity and entropy profiles via discovery rates of new species.

Beyond dots on the map: Comparative Issues in the archaeology of the Roman rural landscape. Site classification between survey, excavation and historical categories. JRA Supplements 88, Indices of diversity and evenness. The nonconcept of species diversity: The relationship between evenness and diversity.

Measuring archaeological diversity by comparison with simulated assemblages. American Antiquity 49, Measuring biological diversity, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing. Escuchando el ruido de fondo: A Romano-Lusitanian townscape revealed. The modifiable areal unit problem, Norwich, GeoBooks. Diversity Indices and Archaeology, in: Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Aarhus University Press, Reliability of Archaeological Records on Cultivated Surfaces: A Michigan Case Study.

Van De Velde, P. Assesing off-site data from field surveys around the Italic Sanctuary of S. Giovanni in Galdo, Molise, Italy. The classical farmstead revisited. Activity differentiation based on a ceramic use-typology. The Annual of the British School at Athens , This contribution aims to defend the potential of non-destructive tools for understanding the nature of the surface archaeological record. These tools have been used to assess regional historical processes in many fields, including demography Bintliff , cultural colonization Vermeulen and Mlekuz , relationships between the sacral world and the settlement pattern Pelgrom and Stek , landscape exploitation theoretical models Tol et al.

One of the most critical points of archaeological sampling is the common but unsolvable use of modern unit boundaries, which shapes the results in terms of how the data is aggregated artificially, rather than by an underlying past structure which in excavation archaeology helps to interpret pottery assemblages. An interesting example is the aggregation of data by primary or secondary deposition, which is a more feasible option than interpreting scatters through supposed domestic use, like the old-fashioned Pompeii premise.

Other factors such as sample size Schiffer et al. In order to address the importance of intra-site research and the comparability of total collections and sampling survey, Bintliff This paper aims to address this lack, using quantitative techniques to detect the influence of collection and recording technique in the characterization of rural Roman sites. This paper concentrates on artefactual intra-site surveying. Analysis of survey methodology should be complemented by consideration of the material element of ancient human behaviours Haselgrove Household assemblages studies are not only a method for studying pottery typology, but also offer different research perspectives with which to link variation in the surface material to different domestic contexts.

Map of the study area. Sites mentioned in text are bold and underlined. Large sites such as our case study probably had a residential area, pars urbana, surrounded by industrial facilities. This approach to Late Roman domestic and industrial context does not aim to detect classical spaces such as those referred to by Vitrubius, but to offer a systematic understanding of the assemblage collected in the field by different quantitative methods, and to explore the spatial capabilities of such datasets.

The methodologies considered in the present paper are a GPS approach to artefacts density CPM and a more detailed intra-site survey organized in grids. Both methods were put into practice in and in three Roman sites: From those three we have selected the two first to analyze datasets by a Wilcoxon test and only the former Tisosa to experiment with the HJ Biplot method to compare statistically the outcome of the different applied survey methods.

CPM Code Per Material Survey Method The first method proposed is a high detailed hand-held GPS survey of intra-site surface scatters to explore the relationship between the obtained archaeological sample and the original morphology of sites. Its main aim is to study the spatiality of artefact distributions on intra-site oriented surveys. That methodology has been named Code Per Material or CPM, due to the creation of a code list within the GPS device Garmin GPS 60cx map to represent different kinds of artefacts observed on the surface, from different classes of building material to table wares sigillata and coarse wares cooking ware and dolia.

The CPM survey stresses the capabilities of the digital record in the definition of site character, and also the processes that affect the surface record such as horizontal displacement and scatter fragmentation. In the Spanish research agenda, the spatiality of single artefacts has been studied in the survey of micro-regions in Extremadura using GPS techniques Mayoral et al. That experiment was implemented in regional contexts, while specific places with representative density peaks over the background noise were studied by sampling techniques. The high degree of standardization of Roman pottery makes this procedure easy to achieve Winther-Jacobsen The code list is open and can be enlarged during the survey process, only common-sense communication between surveyors is required to inform the rest of team members about the appearance of new categories of artefacts.

It is important to stress that during the recording phase of the survey only a few selected materials diagnostic forms, decorated sherds, special finds are collected and brought to the laboratory for further analysis. The vast majority of artefacts are left in situ. This decision also helps to reduce laboratory processing time. It allows comparison of the presence or absence of different categories of artefacts which might indicate variability in the use of both domestic spaces or dwelling activities in the surroundings of sites FIG 3. These artefact densities can be easily integrated within specific GIS software comparison with other data sources such as aerial photography or geophysics surveys Gillings After filtering by typology or artefact category, items can be spatially analyzed and the probability of appearance assessed using kernel estimation Brunsdon We chose an analysis based on a Percent Volume Contours PVC calculation to smooth the output based on probabilistic densities expressed in percentages.

During the autumn of the CPM methodology was implemented on several fields around the site-core. CPM produced information about the core area of these buildings and differential patterns of pottery distribution for assessing human behavior and environmental development in the formation of the archaeological record LaMotta and Schiffer We encountered several Roman sites alongside the terrace above the valley floor, probably as a deliberate strategy for managing river movements and floods. Indeed paleo-river beds can be detected by means of aerial photography cropmarks and geological surveys pebble matrix soils.

These sites could have different social functionalities according to size and surface finds; some of them seem to be large farming households with private and productive spaces, while others are much smaller with poor remains, mainly coarse ware pottery, loom weights, and very few Late Hispanic sigillata. This procedure aims to define the site boundaries and check for the presence of different cores of human activity across the area that has been related to the Roman estate.

The point cloud serves to delimit the most suitable areas for an intra-site grid survey, which recorded cultural material in very high detail. The grid was set out over the entire area where a dense concentration of archaeological material was detected by the first CPM approach to both sites. In order to understand the relationship between site and environment, the survey grid was slightly larger than the core area, so that the edge of the site could also be determined.

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  6. This grid is geo-located by GPS, thus any information was recorded digitally, which allows further integration with a wide range of spatial data, from CPM survey to geo-referenced aerial photos, or legacy datasets. Each grid is surveyed for 10 minutes by a team member who collects any kind of archaeological material, regardless of its size or function, including building materials.

    Thus every unit will be surveyed in a standardized fashion size, time, collection and the only possible bias could come from surveyors or changes in ground visibility. Wares FIG 4 , metal, glass and so on are labeled, packed and studied in the laboratory to assess chronological information and functional variability across the site. However a statistical approach to extract a quantitative value of such differences between methodologies can also be obtained for each variable e.

    Thanks to the spatial attributes of both CPM and Artefactual survey shape files, we are able to compare the results by aggregating the data spatially, following the survey units from the Artefactual survey. Units are individuals n of an Xnxp matrix, while artefact quantitative data are variables p influenced by the methodology applied.

    An appropriate test for studying the influence of methodology on the record is the Wilcoxon signed-rank test used to compare two sets of scores from the same population, also employed for similar comparing purposes by Ammerman and Fieldman The Wilcoxon test analyses the difference between values sampled on different occasions different methods in this experiment from the same population, using a Null Hypothesis as follows: In archaeological language, this hypothesis explores whether different collection methods can record scatters comparable in quantitative terms regardless the applied method.

    The Alternative Hypothesis claims that there is a difference between means, or in archaeological terms: Summing up, the main goal of performing a Wilcoxon test is to check statistically how comparable our survey methods are. And if they are not, to examine the biases present in our data and established which kinds of archaeological-historical questions each method can solve, such as chronological definition, site function, and analysis of variability in site assemblages. The test was first applied to the building material scatters from La Tejera.

    This site was first surveyed with the CPM method, and afterwards an intensive artefactual survey was conducted over the principal archaeological areas. Here, we have information while pottery collections are still being studied about two different kinds of architectural artefacts: The test was performed by contrasting all the CPM against the artefactual survey, and finally the sum of CPM Building Material data against the artefactual survey. The results from the statistical test could be understood as a clear difference between the datasets collected by both methods, i.

    Thus, the results obtained from our two different approaches to surface scatters are not comparable in quantitative terms. The explanation for this is the very detailed collection and counting in each cell of the grid, which results in a large number of materials, that cannot be compared with strategies based in a continuous walk along the site, as CPM survey does. We can interpret that the surface record data has not been influenced by the employed methodology, and both surveys revealed similar quantitative data. This result suggests that the documentation method of CPM and the count of building material without collection works in the same way and the results are comparable, at least for the easy recognizable shapes of tegula.

    Biplot can be defined as a multivariate analytical technique, as proposed by Gabriel to analyze a data matrix where n individuals and p variables are considered. Its aim is to plot a multivariate matrix in a 2-dimensional space. This particular method can be used in many different ways. For vectors we can interpret variability of the datasets through the length of the vector and correlation through the angle formed by two vectors. FIG 7 offers an comprehensive explanation of the visual display and its geometrical interpretation. This kind of data analysis and visualization is extremely useful to explore data matrices such as those that survey archaeology often creates using using pottery classifications.

    One step further would be the plotting of the HJ-Biplot results on a map in order to preserve the spatial attributes of each recording unit, this goal can be achieved thanks to the creation of clusters with specific software Multibiplot and the exportation of clusters to mapping software as GIS. Below is a technical description of the bases of the HJ Biplot, following the seminal paper by Gabriel and the more recent work of Galindo that allows Biplot users to obtain a representation where row and columns were represented with same quality. The original method described by Gabriel differences two Biplot procedures GH Biplot and JH Biplot; the former enhanced the display of rows while the later does the same with columns.

    Given markers a1,…, an rows and b1,…bn columns , thereafter the inner product resembles the xij element from matrix X. Guide to interpret columns and rows relationships in a HJ Biplot. Apart from the technical parameters underlying the matrix algebra and the extraction of coordinates for the Biplot representation is important to note that the most important thing about this technique is its applicability to any kind of data.

    The odd position of CW category along the Axis 2 TABLE 3 could also represent a bias in the interpretation of very abraded materials that could be confused with submodern wares, also present in the area due its vicinity to the modern village and a strong process of artificial modification of the river bed has dramatically changed the landscape in the last 50 years. Thus we found a relatively high quantity of redfabric sherds with eroded surfaces that makes difficult to ascribe to a chronological period.

    Nonetheless the most sub-modern pottery like glazed or Chinese crockery can be easily recognized. It should be stressed that this failure is probably due to the nature of the surface record, maybe related to the original pottery assemblage rather than survey methodology. HJ Biplot for Artefactual survey of Tisosa. In that case we can observe a distinct behavior of two very well-defined classes of pottery. First the Table Ware and Common Wares have similar representations in both direction and length of vectors, expressing a high direct correlation.

    In opposition, the building material IMB and TEG also appears in the same position with a high correlation between them and with a weak correlation with the Table and Common Wares. This confirms clearly the impression of FIG 3, where we can observe how the building materials spread across a large area meanwhile different kind of wares appear within the interpreted site boundaries. As such, a general category of building materials may be more appropriate in the future.

    Conclusions We use the same experimental approach to field survey that has started several decades ago in relevant works Ammerman and Fieldman ; Terrenato and Ammerman ; Van Leusen from the developments of new methods based on digital tools that makes the treatment of datasets and its quantitative analysis more flexible. Our research is aimed at the development of methodologies to study surface scatters and at combining these with the output of other non-destructive techniques, namely oblique aerial photography. A digital methodology with the advantages of GPS devices allows us to compare statistically the quantitative results of two different methodologies, one based on a quick definition of scatters by means of a GPS code list, and another one conducted in a traditional fashion with collection and counting strategies to achieve a large dataset of household assemblages.

    Although statistically the results of both surveys are not possible to compare, both are reliable for different stages of research. CPM, for a quick but detailed first characterization of a site with smooth and understandable density maps, and the artefactual survey for research focused on the study of household assemblages, the formation of surface archaeological record and Roman use of domestic space. Another feasible scenario for intra-site survey is the development of sampling strategies.

    A probabilistic sample over large sites, their halo and periphery, can result in a qualitative image of Roman sites, and also may enhance the possibilities of working in more sites than a tradition total collection strategy. The last survey campaigns in the Roman Republican landscape of Aesernia Molise, Italia conducted by the LERC team from Leiden University can serve as good example of such sampling strategy accompanied of aerial and geophysics survey to gain knowledge about a large selection of republican farms.

    Even though Bintliff has strongly criticized sampling due to the possibility of losing chronological information and then survey reliability. We can consider this fact true for large sites like urban surveys, but small sites have an opposite trend. Most of them are mono-phasic or may be only the site which survives through a couple of centuries before acquiring a larger entity. Such cases have been noted amongst both Late Roman villas in Spain and the large Imperial villas with republican origins in Italy. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock.

    Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust.

    In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin.

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    Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance. Full Text Available This document examines, bases on the analysis of observable characteristics, if an income gapexists between the raizal population and non raizal population of San Andres Island.

    The methodological strategy uses quantileregressions to determine the existence of pay gaps throughout the distribution of income. Theresults suggest that being raizal has a negative impact on income for the lower quantiles. However,this difference vanishes as income increases, becoming positive at higher levels.

    Iron overload is associated with acquired and genetic conditions, the most common being hereditary hemochromatosis HH type-I, caused by HFE mutations. For this purpose, we analyzed the most common HFE mutations- c. Results revealed that the family's HH pseudodominant pattern is due to consanguineous marriage of HFE-c.


    Regarding unrelated patients, six were homozygous for c. We then performed sequencing of HFE exons 2, 4, 5 and their intron-flanking regions. No other mutations were observed, but we identified the -c. Finally, we investigated HFE mutations configuration with iron overload by determining haplotypes and genotypic profiles. Results evidenced that carriers of HFE-c. This data is corroborated by the association analysis where carriers of the complex allele HFE-c.

    In summary, we provide evidence that the complex allele HFE-c. Stability and change in kelp forest habitats at San Nicolas Island. Kelp forest communities are highly variable over space and time. Despite this complexity it has been suggested that kelp forest communities can be classified into one of 2 states: Our research group has maintained a subtidal community monitoring program for 38 years at San Nicolas Island consisting of twice-annual scuba-based surveys at 6 sites distributed within 4 regions around the island.

    Three types of perturbations are thought to be relevant to subtidal community dynamics at San Nicolas: These 3 perturbations differ in spatial and temporal specificity; physical disturbances and disease outbreaks occur periodically and could affect all 4 regions, while sea otter predation has been concentrated primarily at the West End sites over the last 15 years. We use nonmetric multidimensional scaling NMDS to examine spatial and temporal patterns of community similarity at the 4 regions.

    In particular, we evaluate support for the existence of stable states, which are represented on NMDS plots as distinct spatial clusters. Community dynamics at each site approximated a biased random walk in NMDS space, with one or more basins of attraction and occasional jumps between basins. We found evidence for alternative stable states at some sites, and we show that transitions from one. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article San Miguel County Census Roads.

    - Mayoral Herrera Et Al - Archaeology and Geomatics - E-book - PDF Free Download

    San Miguel County Census Edges. San Miguel County Census Tracts. San Miguel County Census Blocks. Hielke Miguel Haak Mares. It is the first subterranean cirolanid from the Bahamas, and the first to be found in waters of full marine salinity. Its most distinguishing characteristic is that its first three pairs of pereiopods are prehensile and extremely long. Natural history observations are also reported. Its most distinguishing characteristic is that its first three pairs of pereiopods are prehensile. Survey of benthic dinoflagellates associated to beds of Thalassia testudinumin San Andres Island , Seaflower biosphere reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    In order to determine the occurrence of epiphytic toxic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters of San Andres Island , Caribbean Colombia, we analyzed the sea grass beds on the northern and eastern sides of the island. We found seven species of toxicogenic dinoflagellates, belonging to the genera Prorocentrum and Ostreopsis. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island.

    Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in sediment, macrobenthic communities were not only less diverse but also their total biomass and body size individual biomass were reduced compared to sites with lower Cu.

    Cu concentration in tissue varied between species and within the same species, reflecting differing abilities to "regulate" their body load. The spatial complexity of Cu effects in a small marina such as SIYB emphasizes that sediment-quality criteria based solely on laboratory experiments should be used with caution, as they do not necessarily reflect the condition at the community and ecosystem levels. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean mussel embryos added to both site water ambient and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations.

    Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model BLM. Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater.

    Published by Elsevier Ltd. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh Hemiptera: To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14—18, A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island.

    The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, This study is the first detailed mapping of C. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island , California. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife.

    The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade.

    Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations. The biological soil crusts of the San Nicolas Island: Enigmatic algae from a geographically isolated ecosystem.

    Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californiens, and Pseudotetracystis compactis.

    Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed among sites on the island and among soil algal floras of western North America. Some algal taxa appeared to be widely distributed across many desert regions, including Microcoleus vaginatus, Nostoc punctiforme, Nostoc paludosum, and Tolypothrix distorta, Chlorella vulgaris, Diplosphaera cf. Some taxa share a distinctly southern distribution with soil algae from southern Arizona, southern California, and Baja California e. The data presented herein support the view that the cyanobacterial and microalgal floras of soil crusts possess significant biodiversity, much of it previously undescribed.

    The concentration of plutonium and other radionuclides measured in samples of surface sediments, seawater and brown algae collected offshore from North Light Harbor Pier at San Clemente Island , CA, are presented. From to , different forms of nuclear fuels used in operational or proposed SNAP Systems for Nuclear Auxillary Power devices were tested at this site to evaluate the effects of seawater on the heat sources. The principle radionuclide in the heat sources tested was Pu. During these tests, small amounts of Pu dissolved and migrated from the test chambers to the local marine environment.

    Currents dispersed this released Pu so that at present a small increase in concentration above that of fallout background is evident in the surface 3. The Pu associated with this sediment is slowly redissolving and can be taken up by marine algae. Except for a 0. In vitro explant cultures identified Ichthyophonus in None of the infected fish exhibited visible lesions and only a single fish was histologically positive. Significantly more females were infected Genomic sequences of Ichthyophonus isolates obtained from Puget Sound rockfish, Pacific herring Clupea pallasii, and Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were identical in both the A and B regions of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA but were different from Ichthyophonus sequences previously isolated from four different species of rockfish from the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    Ichthyophonus in Puget Sound rockfish may not have been previously detected because the infection is subclinical in this species and earlier investigators did not utilize in vitro techniques for diagnosis of ichthyophoniasis. However, since clinical ichthyophoniasis has recently been identified in several other species of northeast Pacific rockfishes, it is hypothesized that this either is an emerging disease resulting from changing marine conditions or the result of introduction by infected southern species that appear during periodic El Nin??

    Copyright by the American Fisheries Society Analysis of tethered balloon data from San Nicolas Island on 8 July The flight commenced at about For the purpose of presentation of results, researchers divided the flight into 13 legs. These legs consist of 20 minute constant level runs, with the exception of leg 1, which is a sounding from the surface to just above mb. The laser ceilometer record of cloud base is also shown. The cloud base averaged around mb during much of the flight but was more variable near the end.

    Temperature and moisture data below mb for this sounding is shown. The sounding indicates a cloud top around mb at this time. Alex; Herzog, Mark P. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

    We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges.

    High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H.

    Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges.

    This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination. The instrument utilized on the balloon flights, the 17 flights over a 10 day period, the state of the data analysis, and some preliminary results are described. A goal of the measurements with the Naval Research Laboratory NRL balloon was to give a unique and greatly improved look at the microphysics of the clear and cloud-topped boundary layer. For this goal, collocated measurements were made of turbulence, aerosol, cloud particles, and meteorology.

    Two new instruments which were expected to make significant contributions to this effort were the saturation hygrometer, capable of measuring 95 percent less than RH percent with an accuracy of 0. The data set, while unfortunately only partially simultaneous with the bulk of the FIRE stratocumulus observations, is unique and worthwhile in its own right.

    For the first time accurate RH measurements near percent have been made in-cloud; although, the use of the saturation hygrometer reflected a learning experience which will result is substantially better performance the next time. These measurements were made in conjunction with other microphysical measurements such as aerosol and cloud droplet spectra, and perhaps most important of all, they were all collocated with bivane turbulence measurements thus permitting flux calculations.

    Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley S. Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved.

    Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression , were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit.

    The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use. It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area.

    The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley S. Miguel Island , Azores , a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits ash and pumice lapilli produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano.

    A total of 1. The total affected area is Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than m3. The primary goal of the SCI wind power system is to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system.

    The wind system is also intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen-oxide emissions and other pollutants. This report describes the initial operational data gathered from February through January , as well as the SCI wind resource and initial cost of energy provided by the wind turbines on SCI. In support of this objective, several years of data on the wind resources of San Clemente Island were collected and compared to historical data.

    The wind resource data were used as input to economic and feasibility studies for a wind-diesel hybrid installation for SCI. Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out also known as megalandslides on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands.

    Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions e. Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations DSGSDs which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards.

    The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement.

    Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February and July , using an automated optical. The species encountered are known to produce toxins causing the Diarrehic Shellfish Poisoning and Ciguatera, poisonings which have been documented in the island. National Park Service, Interior.

    Notice of Availability of the Elevations of 49 bench marks in the southwestern part of the Sacramento- San Joaquin River Delta were determined during October and November A total of 58 miles of level lines were run in the vicinity of Bethel Island and the community of Discovery Bay. The datum of these surveys is based on a National Geodetic Survey bench mark T situated on bedrock The accuracy of these levels, based on National Geodetic Survey standards, was of first, second, and third order, depending on the various segments surveyed. Several bench marks were noted as possibly being stable, but most show evidence of instability.

    The CSU package contained instrumentation for the measurement of temperature, pressure, humidity, cloud droplet concentration, and long and short wave radiation. Eight research flights, performed between July 7 and July 14, are summarized. Data from all of the above systems are being analyzed. En memoria de Miguel Fisac. Full Text Available Miguel Fisac was a pithy person, sculpted from a single stone.

    There is no point in distinguishing parts where there were none, but it is worthwhile to attempt to analyze different points of view on the activity of a monolithic personality. Architects, designers, contractors, inventors, troublemakers and theologians among others could rightly claim him as one of their own. Period of Performance 24 September December The purpose of this report is to evaluate the wind power benefits and impacts to the San Clement Island wind power system, including energy savings, emissions reduction, system stability, and decreased naval dependence on fossil fuel at the island.

    The primary goal of the SCI wind power system has been to operate with the existing diesel power plant and provide equivalent or better power quality and system reliability than the existing diesel system. The wind system is intended to reduce, as far as possible, the use of diesel fuel and the inherent generation of nitrogen oxide emissions and other pollutants. As a result, the profile of West Indian migration looks different than to the Spanish-speaking circum-Caribbean, with more professionals and merchants and fewer unskilled laborers.

    A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together.

    Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved. Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts.

    Educación de adultos y tercera edad

    This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results.

    Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area.

    Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds. Miguel de Unamuno, universitaire. This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina unpopulated , also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and kilometers northwest of Colombia.

    The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it. All are Quaternary in age except the last, which is partly Pliocene. New radiocarbon and K-Ar ages augment stratigraphic data obtained during recent geologic mapping of the entire island and provide improved data to interpret eruption frequency. Average dormant intervals for the past approximately years in the areas active during that time are about years for Sete Cidades, for zone 2, for Agua de Pau, and for Furnas.

    However, the average dormant interval at Sete Cidades increased from to about years before each of the past two eruptions, and the interval at Furnas decreased from to about years before each of the past four eruptions. Eruptions in zone 4 occurred about once every years during latest Pleistocene and early Holocene time; none has occurred for about years.

    Normal faults are common, but many are buried by Holocene trachyte pumice. A major normal fault displaces Nordeste. The first planning studies that gave rise to the San Bernabe substation go back to year The main circumstance that supports this decision is the gradual restriction for electric power generation that has been suffering the Miguel Aleman Hydro System, until its complete disappearance, to give priority to the potable water supply through the Cutzamala pumping system, that feeds in an important way Mexico City and the State of Mexico.

    In this document the author describes the construction project of the San Bernabe Substation; mention is made of the technological experiences obtained during the construction and its geographical location is shown, as well as the one line diagram of the same [Espanol] Los primeros estudios de planeacion que dieron origen a la subestacion San Bernabe se remontan al ano de La circunstancia principal que soporta esta decision es la restriccion paulatina para generar energia que ha venido experimentando el Sistema Hidroelectrico Miguel Aleman, hasta su desaparicion total, para dar prioridad al suministro de agua potable por medio del sistema de bombeo Cutzamala, que alimenta en forma importante a la Ciudad de Mexico y al Estado de Mexico.

    En este documento el autor describe el proyecto de construccion de la subestacion San Bernabe; se mencionan las experiencias tecnologicas obtenidas durante su construccion y se ilustra su ubicacion geografica, asi como un diagrama unifilar de la misma. La presidencia de Miguel Antonio Caro. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number R0 in each population. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities p San Andres and 4.

    The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread. Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photographs using the Habitat Digitizer Extension. Unlike the other two main volcanoes, Sete Cidades and Fogo, Furnas does not have a well-developed edifice, but consists of a steep-sided caldera complex 8 x 5 km across. The caldera margins of Furnas reflect the regional-local tectonic pattern which has also controlled the distribution of vents within the caldera and areas of thermal springs.

    Helium is considered as an ideal geochemical tracer due to its properties: These properties together with its high mobility on the crust, make the presence of helium anomalies on the surface environment of a volcanic system to be related to deep fluid migration controlled by volcano-tectonic features of the area and provide valuable information about the location and characteristics of the gas source and the fracturing of the crust. On the summer of , a diffuse helium emission survey was carried out on the surface environment of Furnas volcano, covering an area of To collect soil gases at each sampling point, a stainless steel probe was inserted 40 cm depth in the soil.

    Helium concentration was measured within 24 hours by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer Pfeiffer Omnistar Soil gas helium enrichment was mainly observed at the areas affected by the discharge of hydrothermal fluids: The island of Elba Tuscany, Italy at the crossroads of ancient trade routes: Dolia are large pottery containers used in Roman times for the storage and fermentation of wine. They were produced in specialized pottery workshops figlinae and were typically marked with specific epigraphical stamps, which represent a major tool to unravel their provenance and trade. In this work we present the preliminary results of a study of two dolia defossa, recently found at San Giovanni Portoferraio, island of Elba, Italy during archaeological excavations in a Roman farm late 2nd cent.

    AD , devoted to wine production and probably constituting the antecedent archaeological phase of the adjacent "Villa delle Grotte". Based on archaeological epigraphic evidence, five different production areas have been hypothesized: Archaeometric analysis of tempering agents intentionally added to the clay for the manufacturing of the dolia, particularly magmatic lithic fragments and clinopyroxene crystals, allowed us to suggest that the watershed of the central Tiber Valley - including different volcanic centres belonging to both Tuscany Magmatic Province Monti Cimini and Roman Magmatic Province Monti Vulsini and Vico volcano - could have been the most likely sites of production of the dolia found at San Giovanni.

    Alternatively, the site of Minturno southern Latium could be proposed. The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys.

    City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the midth century.

    Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location.

    After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0. This article describes the methodology for a community-based participatory intervention. Time series quasi-experimental study design. Dietitians, health promotion specialists, and community partners collaborated with restaurant owners and chefs to develop culturally tailored approaches without compromising traditional flavors.

    Twenty restaurants and diners are anticipated and will be sampled at 3 intervals for a total of 1, diners. We describe the community-based interventions within restaurants, including 1 analyzing and modifying selected recipes to create and promote healthier dishes; 2 providing nutrition labels on selected food items; 3 marketing healthy menu items through food tastings, signage, and social media promotion; and 4 offering low-sodium soy sauce and other condiments.

    Temporal changes in availability of healthful options, and the frequency of healthy dining choices. Foi promulgada o 19 de marzo de , festividade de S. Estableceu unha ditadura militar que foi aceptada por gran parte das forzas sociais e polo propio rei Afonso XIII. O ditador morreu o 20 de novembro de O PSOE defendeu o si. Esquerda Unida perdeu o seu grupo parlamentar propio no Congreso dos Deputados , ao obter soamente 2 escanos.

    Vigo , con Un 11,3 adicional acode algunha vez ao mes. Os ingresos obtidos polo turismo permiten equilibrar a balanza de pagamentos.

    Os principais cultivos son trigo , cebada , remolacha azucreira , millo , patacas , centeo , avea , arroz , tomates e cebola. Cun incremento de consumo desde os Desde o 1 de xaneiro de , o euro vinculouse ao valor da peseta , cun cambio fixo de , pesetas por euro. O prezo medio da vivenda nova baixou dos Na Galipedia, a Wikipedia en galego. Rei Xefe de Estado Presidente do Goberno. Orixe do nome de Hispania.