Origine du prénom Maryvonne (Oeuvres courtes) (French Edition)

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A relevant example is Pacific Rim, the Guillermo del Toro's film. The movie mixes elements taken from other similar productions and mingles myths and narratives. Pacific Rim describes ro- bots taken from Transformers, with the power source from Iron Man, who fighting mon- sters from Godzilla, using heroes acting like those in Power Rangers and using narrative tropes from films like Blade Runner, Rocky, King Kong or Jurassic Park.

While the main characters are pilot- ing huge robots, like those in Japanese anime films and the Power Rangers TV series, they establish neural connections similar to those of the characters of Avatar and are fighting creatures which look as if they were borrowed from Jurassic Park - or simply dinosaurs which grew up around the reactor at Fukushima nuclear plant. The cinematic kakology operates with multi-layered stereotypes. As seen before, the first level is visual; the robots are re-appropriated images from reality mixed with stereotypical mythology. If the Hellboy series creates an almost logical series of connections between the elements, in Pacific Rim there are series of explanations completely disjoined both in time and in space.

For example the argument is that the dinosaurs existed because there was a previous attempt to colo- nize Earth, failed due to The second level of melange, the narrative amalgamation is even worse. The film mixes chaotically elements from other cinematic mythologies. This is the case with the planetary Apocalypse brought by the reptilian aliens — allowing the crocodilian mon- sters to fight mega-robots. Yet the narrative kakology takes us to another level of story- telling ramblings.

The Transformation of the Mythological and the Re-appropriation 21 of Myths in Contemporary Cinema he has written Clash of the Titans is using half-digested ideas taken out Jules Verne, pseudo-scientific movies and children's films. More so, why not use the Power Rangers type of swords all the time?

Why walk on the ocean floor when they could swim since they have atomic engines? Why an alien culture having a technology so advanced uses mind- less creatures to colonize their desired planet? The simple answer is that our modern day mythologies are conglomerates of meaningless representations reproducing endlessly the same imaginary structures. As Grant Morrison explained in a recent book, the super- heroes are so important in the contemporary world because they operate in an empty context, they exist in a world in which the gods are gone, replaced by celebrities act- ing like super-gods Morrison And in the pantheon of late modernity, or video- modernity, we have a place for all the deities, no matter in which mythological universe these supernatural beings existed.


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They can come from the Greco-Roman world or the Asian steppes, these pagan gods live alongside with other incompatible ancient divine entities, like those of Christian extraction. All together, in turns, they coexist with the gods of Walhalla and the new deities from our own time. One of the most relevant Marvel narratives, The Avengers, created by Stan Lee, manifests the same excess of super-gods and super-heroes per square inch in terms of comic book publishing. This ensemble of amalgamated heroes and gods was brought to screen by director Joss Whedon Marvel's The Avengers Whedon puts togeth- er all the superheroes and creates a jumble of action, conflicts, twists and confronta- tions between various heroes, who were dominating lately the popular cinema.

However, the movie reached stag- gering sales of 1. This proves not only how profitable super heroes are, but also how popular the amal- gamation of images and narratives has become. The story takes the viewer from the Asgard of the Eddas to to the modern day New York, where a Chitauri alien invasi- on is expected. In this chaotic melange, Iron Man bickers with Captain America, then fights with Thor fight with the green hero Hulk emerging as victorious.

This is the typ- ical dyslexic mythological make-up, nothing is in place, nothing matches, nothing fits together, while everything mixes indiscriminately. Appropriation, explicit from the early modern art of Andy Warhol, to the latest productions in contemporary film industry Groys Creating almost paradoxical manifestations by changing the use of objects is a characteristic of the contemporary art. The film parody is nothing more than a manifestation of the pastiche, as Jameson has put it , which is in turn part of the postmodern mind- frame. His movies, starting with Blazing Saddles , a parodical re-appropriation of the westerns, to Space Balls where various materials from Star Wars and other sci-fi movies is incorporated, to Robin Hood: Men in Tights , with the re-digesting of the quest and adventure genre, follow the log- ic of re-enactment.

Since the spoof does not exist without the original, it is constantly forced to make references to the initial forms. Friedberg and Selzer, in a series of movies like Epic Movie , Meet the Spartans , and more recently The Starving Games , show how instead of the parodic treatment of old materials, the amalgamation be- comes a source of degraded intertextuality.

Actually the intertextuality becomes sex- ual-textuality, since most of the times the amusement is not only breaking the lim- its of logic, but also the common sense. In the amalgamated universe of second-hand mythology there are no more distinctions, no more codes sexual or social , and the sheer destruction and re-construction of meaningless situations is the only purpose.

Of course, everything is spiced up with gratuitous sexual innuendos and scatological humor. A more primitive version of this re-appropriation can be found in one of the most vulgar films of this kind: The comedy of McBride not only reaches heights of sexual innuendo, disgust- ing and vulgar references to scatology, but it also practices the most debased form of mythological amalgamation.

For example in a scene where the hero, Thadeous, kills the mythical Minotaur, he is unable to cut a horn as a souvenir, thus he decides to mutilate the monster's pe- nis and to wear it as a necklace. Or, when he wants to convince the wise wizard to help with his initiation journey, he provides the man with a thorough masturbation under the magic robe! Or, when he discovers that his squire, Fabious, is a traitor, he shows everybody that the man has a vagina, so this becomes another good oppor- tunity for nudity and, more importantly, exposing the viewers, for several minutes, and from several angles, this absurd amalgamation of identities.

Finally the best example of how appropriation work properly is the Shrek franchise - Shrek , Shrek 2 , Shrek the Third and Shrek Forever After , with the prequel Puss in Boots and some extras mostly holiday specials Shrek the Halls and Scared Shrekless together with several short films Shrek in the Swamp; Thriller Night; Donkey's Caroling and others. This is one of the most prolific production in recent cinema, and is extremely relevant for the discussion about the functioning of myths in contemporary visual culture.

Mixing characters taken from Perrault, like Puss in Boots, with Rumpelstiltskin, an antagonist borrowed from the Brothers Grim, with witches and humans as equally evil participants, Shrek puts a spin on the traditional fairy tales, making amalgamation its central axis. As noted before, Shrek is the typi- cal postmodern story, where the melange of fairy tales is based on a reversal of iden- tities — an Orcus is a god of the underworld, who is usually killed by the hero, not the other way around.

Elements from several classical narratives are appropriated for the benefit of a new production, in an indistinctive mixture of com- posing parts. Shrek, who is clearly an anti-hero, since he lives as a marginal and has no friends, is accompanied by a mule, Donkey. His universe is populated be numer- ous fairy tale characters, which most of the times have nothing to do one with anoth- er. Such is the coexistence of Pinocchio and the Big Bad Wolf, of Farquaad, the invent- ed antagonist, with Gingy the Gingerbread Man, who later fights in gladiator-like bat- tles. In the sec- ond Shrek, she makes half donkey babies, dronkeys with flying abilities.

Nothing is im- mutable in the logic of amalgamation. This is the case with Fiona, the Ossian ogre who is mixed with elements from Rapunzel and Sleeping Beauty, has traits from Cinderella, Snow White, Sleeping Breauty and Rapunzel, yet she is coexists as friends with all of them, including the transvestite Doris, the Ugly Stepsister.

This mingling of identities is even more explicit in Shrek the Third, when, by the magical intervention of a absent minded Merlin, Puss in Boots and Donkey are inter-changed. No identity is stable in this new mythology; Prince Charming and his mother, the Fairy Godmother, are ruthless social climbers; King Arthur is simply Artie, a Pendragon who does not want to be a hero; Rumpelstiltskin becomes an expression of an extortionist and of a dictator, sharing similarities with Lord Farquaad.

Puss in Boots, who also appeared in one of the earliest Disney pro- duction, is later transformed in the third movie, as the fat Puss, the duelist who has become obese and lazy behaving like a decrepit Marlon Brando. And since Shrek take place in Far Faraway, a parodical reference to Hollywood, almost all the myths and characters of the contemporary cinema productions are re-appropriated, in a to- tal transformation of identities, where the boundaries of fiction are moving beyond metafiction, into a total cross-referencing.

Shrek brings together elements from al- most all the Disney productions, it gives way to parodic re-appropriations of movies like The Princess Bride and Robin Hood, it criticizes Hollywood practices and nar- rative structures, becoming the ultimate expression of the contemporary myth-illog- ical practices.

Selected Essays on Mass Culture, ed. London, Routledge, , first ed. Evolution of an Image, London, Penguin, , first ed. Les Letters nouvelles, Marvel superheroes and everyday faith, Chalice Press, Capitalism and schizophrenia, trans. Ferrell, Literature and film as modern mythology, Westport, Praeger, Hull, Princeton, Princeton University Press, Hall and Mardia J. It looks at one particular case study of British to American cross-cultural exchange: The Lady Vanishes and Flightplan. When equipped with the knowledge of the source text, however, we can see that most of the conflicts present in the earlier work resurface in the update.

Dowling and Billy Ray, claim to have written an original script. This indicates that the similarities between the two films are not accidental but could rather serve as reference-points. Many also point to the links between Flightplan and other titles, e. Finally, a short mash-up video on youtube. This should not be surprising as the Hollywood film industry has always sampled ideas, attempting to capitalise on the success of earlier works. The practice is as old as the film industry itself.

The coming of sound, for instance, in- spired the studios to film their more popular pictures again [ What is new, howe- ver, is their visibility made possible thanks to the unprecedented access to digital film material and a vibrant online culture. The digital era may or may not have revolutionised cinema, but it has definitely revolutionised the extent to which viewers disseminate information. Reinventing Cinema means that viewers are now often better in- formed when writing about films than professional critics.

They too are able to judge, compare and tell others if they spot any hidden remaking practices as the case of The Lady Vanishes and Flightplan clearly shows. Remakes are also more visible thanks to the academic scrutiny they have enjoy- ed in recent years. There have been numerous publications dedicated to the study of Hollywood remakes of foreign films: Still, the linguistically and culturally complex issue of American remakes of British films has not received adequate attention.

Most im- portantly, such remakes turn out to be a particularly fertile and rewarding ground on which to examine British to American cross-cultural exchange, transformations wit- hin the film industry and the way they are reflected on the screen. It addresses the important role of remakes in film culture and their vital function in reflecting socie- tal and cultural transformations on the screen and beyond. It attempts to look for rea- sons why particular texts are revisited at particular times and to what extent one can continue to talk about hidden remaking practices in the digital era.

Finally, it tries to answer if Hollywood has made any attempt to address the problem of race, gender, religion or class-based preconceptions in the modern era of political correctness. The Lady Vanishes derives from at least two sources. With Flightplan, the problem of remaking is more complex for a number of reasons. First of all, the screen- writers of Flightplan, Peter A. Dowling and Billy Ray, claim to have written an origi- nal script. Furthermore, one could ar- gue against the link between The Lady Vanishes and Flightplan on the grounds of their respective genres: When Iris wakes up from a nap, she discovers that the lady has vanished without a trace.

All the passengers claim that they have never seen the old woman and that Iris must have imagined her. Despite constant rebukes, she con- tinues her search and is given a helping hand by a young man called Gilbert. When their attempts prove futile, she begins to succumb to the idea that the whole thing was just a figment of her imagination or a result of concussion caused by a flowerpot that fell on her head just before she boarded the train.

This boosts her confidence in her sanity and at the same time confirms her suspicion that the passengers are lying and must hence be part of a conspiracy. When she wakes up from a nap, she discovers that her child is missing. Worse still, when she begins her desper- ate search, she is confronted by passengers and an unremitting flight crew who claim that they have never seen the girl and that she was never even on board the plane.

They persuade her that she is mentally unstable and delusional and that her hallucina- tions are caused by the recent death of her husband and child. Despite significant alterations in the script: Additionally, the authors of the script appear to include a veiled tribute to The Lady Vanishes. Furthermore, in both films, the vehicles are delayed due to unexpected heavy snow, which creates narrative as well as visual doubling. Thus, it is no surprise that the film becomes a jovial satire on his countrymen by playing with nu- merous stereotypes of Englishness as represented here by mostly two social classes: Their contempt for local cultures, languages and sensitivities is so out of place and incongruent with their circumstances that it makes for most of the comedy in the film.

For instance, both men are so much into cricket that they pretend never to have seen the old lady fearing that they may miss the match in Manchester if Iris stops the train. They are also annoyed to find out that not all foreigners speak English and that abroad things do not run exactly the same way as they do at home. To provide a variant to representatives of well-to-do classes, Hitchcock also shows local peasants from an unnamed Balkan country who appear to spend most of their time folk dancing and playing traditional instruments. Still, to challenge that stereo- typical image of the happiness of simple rural life, it appears that some of them are dancing on demand, forced to perform their folk rituals for the pleasure of Gilbert, who collects rural songs — a hobby worth admiring for its importance in preserving folk art for posterity, but at the same time a possible comment on class division and class relations.

Iris, whose telling name reveals her detective-like function, instigates the search for the lady and is prepared to go to all measures, and even risk her own life, in the pursuit of the truth. Being the daughter of a wealthy manufacturer, she is about to marry a bankrupt aristocrat to help him balance the books and enable her father to climb the social ladder. At the end, she chooses to marry Gilbert, thus refusing to be a pawn in this traditional English transaction. Her stubbornness, courage, persistence as well as her re- fusal to be subjugated to the male version of the story according to which her hyste- ria is unfounded and typically feminine contradict the conventional representation of gender and could be seen as indicative of changes taking place in pre-war Britain.

The old lady herself is another playful joke based on stereotypes. Although for most of the film we presume her to be an innocent sweet governess who always trav- els with her own favourite tea as an obvious sign of English peculiarities, pickiness and fondness of the beverage, at the end we discover that she is in fact an agent un- der cover.

Thus, this apparently benign sweet old granny who carries an important message about a secret pact between two European countries that could shape the course of history is a James Bond in a skirt — or rather a comedic prototype for anoth- er Englishwoman defying gender stereotypes, M, played by Judi Dench in the James Bond franchise from When looking at other nationalities in the film, it soon becomes obvious that The Lady Vanishes is a clever political allegory.

There is an evil neurosurgeon, Dr Hartz of Prague, who speaks with a German accent and is the mastermind behind the plot, and a couple of Italians, a magician and a baroness married to the Minister of Propaganda — both implicated in the kidnapping. Their complete refusal to join in the search for Miss Froy or to even admit that they have actually seen her has been interpreted as a comment on the Chamberlain Era with Britain turning a blind eye to the progressively dangerous political situation in Europe.

Still, although critical of the English at first, towards the end of the film Hitchcock has almost all of them, including Charters and Caldigott, reunite in the fight with the oppressors. The English opposition is greatly outnumbered and significantly consists of three men and three women. At first glance it appears that the issues of class, nationality and gender seem to play a minor role in Flightplan whose primary concern appears to be entertainment.

Contrary to expectations, when equipped with the knowledge of the earlier work, we can see that most of the conflicts resurface in the update although for obvious reasons they take on a new form and meaning. First of all, whereas the issue of class divisions does not apply in the American re- make, there are nevertheless clearly-marked divisions based on financial status. In Flightplan, the lack of cooperation can be read as a bleak comment on society in the new millen- nium where collective responsibility and a sense of community have been replaced by self-interest and individualism.

It shows how the representation of women has changed in seventy years and, most importantly, its current status quo in Hollywood. The film is primarily a Jodie Foster star persona vehicle. It is a continuation of her pre- vious roles initiated by her ground-breaking portrayal of FBI agent Clarice Starling in The Silence of the Lambs , the importance of which for feminists and lesbian groups cannot be underestimated. Since then, playing roles of strong though often victimised women in a male-dominated world, Foster has established herself as a powerful femi- nist icon on screen and an important player in the Hollywood industry: In Flightplan, in contrast to her English lady-like prototype, Kyle does not need a male companion to back her up.

Her husband is dead and the pater- nal figures of authority on board — the captain and the Air Martial — are shown as ei- ther weak or corrupt. Kyle is a propulsion engineer in her 40s with visible wrinkles and no make-up on to hide them from view, presenting what until recently was a very unlikely image of the main lead in an action thriller.

The gender ambiguous name, Kyle, was retained. The final product seems an uneasy mix of two stereotypes that do not sit comfortably with each other. On the one hand, we have Kyle with her motherly concern, warmth, gentleness, confusion, and vulnerability associated with the genre of melodrama.

On the other hand, we have a bullet-dodging character whose cunning, physical strength and acrobatics are larger than life and typically associat- ed with the over-the-top and self-reflexive style of Hollywood action flicks with their formulaic one-liners, low-angle shots and slow-motion explosions. When it transpires that they have become unwilling participants in an international military conflict that they do not quite understand, they wish to escape the alien and unfriendly lands and return home to the safety represented in the penultimate sequence and the familiar sight of Victoria station.

Although one of them reacts very passively, the other protests their innocence and is clearly enraged by her accusations. Kyle, howev- er, insists that he be searched and interrogated. Then I guess you have to find a few other Arabs to harass? On the one hand, they could be accused of typical Hollywood racial profiling and po- litical incorrectness as the Hollywood film industry has repeatedly cast Arabs in ste- reotypical roles of either terrorists or sex maniacs, as Jack Shaheen observes in his book Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People As the title of his recent publica- tion indicates, Guilty: Passengers regard non-white ethnic minorities on board with prejudice, suspicion and fear.

According to Butler, the media and government authorise and increase racial hysteria, encouraging individuals to be on a constant look-out for alien elements without specifying what they are and how one could pro- tect oneself from them.


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When Kyle rescues her daughter from the burning plane, the only passenger to approach her is the Arab she previously mistreat- ed. He picks up her bag, hands it over to her and they make eye contact. Kyle smiles at him gently. This could be read as a gesture of reconciliation, an expression of sym- pathy and a mutual recognition of what it is like to be misunderstood and unjustly abused.

Flightplan, whose story pretends to be about a terrorist attack with a couple of Arabs as all too obvious contenders for the terrorists eventually features a benevolent look- ing, white, middle-class air martial as the main villain of the piece. Instead of protect- ing the plane and its passengers against harm, he is in fact exploiting their fear and manipulates the feeling of panic on board to his own advantage. His reasons, howev- er, do not seem to be political. They are entirely motivated by greed. Considering the proliferation of other works that critically engaged with the govern- mental policies of the time in a more or less obvious fashion, for instance, Crash , The Deal and Good Night, and Good Luck , it is possible to see Flightplan in a larger context as another such voice.

Thus, remakes not only show the potential of earlier works to generate new versions but also, by introducing changes, become a comment on societal and cultural transformations. They are part of a vibrant online culture whose collective intelligence and competence are a sign of modern times. In the case of Flightplan, the producers want to have their cake and eat it.

Not having obtained the rights to the earlier film, they brand their product an original work. Yet, by inclu- ding all too obvious references to The Lady Vanishes, they have ensured that Flightplan enters a more interesting critical discourse by profiting from its remake-of-the-classic status with critics and audiences in the know relishing in this feminist and political Hitchcock re-write. Looking at user comments on imdb. On the one hand, we have viewers entertained by this action-pa- cked movie or enraged by its convoluted plot; on the other hand, we have those who see it as a rewarding update of a known classic and those for whom it is little more than a poor Hitchcock imitation.

Publication Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press, The Powers of Mourning and Violence. London and New York: Make It Again, Sam: A Survey of Movie Remakes. Actresses in s British Cinema. Justine Ashby and Andrew Higson. A Theory of Adaptation. New York and London: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York University Press, The Making of Flightplan. Touchstone Pictures, Imagine Entertainment, How Hollywood Vilifies a People. Olive Branch Press, Movies in the Age of Media Convergence.

Rutgers University Press, Dogville de Lars von Trier. Il importe de remarquer que: La croissance du mythe est donc continue, par opposition avec sa structure qui reste discontinue. Grace et Tom vont-ils se marier et avoir beaucoup d'enfants? Ils se posent sans doute une autre question: Grace se venge alors des villageois en les exterminant.

Hospitality is both proposed and imposed by normative and prescriptive dis- courses that seek to be obeyed as laws of hospitality: Jason - Je sais pourquoi tu ne me prends plus jamais sur tes genoux. Grace — Oh, allons. The embodied Eye takes us to the disembodied Cinema-Eye, the machinery that copies and stores the images in motion. In the present essay, I analyze the aesthetic, cultural and technological dimensions of the dialectical move from perception to recording, from vision to visuality, from the organic to the technologic function represented by the transformation of the Eye into the Cinema-Eye.

I conclude that within the communication society, the camera brings forth a new identity for the body, thus becoming an indispensable attachment, a sort of safe backup for the images that are responsible for our state of mind and emotions. Cinema-Eye, camera, images in motion, cinema, visual perception, light. The act of looking le regard is what defines the intentionality and the purpose of sight, of vision Sight becomes possible by means of optical, chemical and sen- sory phenomena.

The look into the set up and the functioning of the visual organ starts with a number of theories and experiments that link the physical traits of the light to the anatomy of the eye. The data produced as a result of said experiments is later on integrated to the study of the relationship between visual stimulus and con- sequent behaviour, a study that would reveal information otherwise unperceivable about the specifics of the visual process.

Moreover, the integration of this kind of data to research on communication has helped prove such hypothesis. The analytical theory of sight focuses on studying the nature of visual stimuli and on the ways light will enhance their functions. Visual perception forms as a result of the input of electromagnetic waves of a certain spectre to the decoding system de- scribed above for example, the intensity of the waves will facilitate the perception of colour.

In order for the information to actually turn into a projection on the retina, it needs the support of other sources, so that to allow a precise positioning in space of all objects. Thus, the combining processes and the read- ing algorithms rely on a series of external associated variables, such as the memory, the eye movements, previous experience, prejudice and expectations. Even though, physically speaking, the stimuli are situated with- in a large area, the eye, by means of its biological characteristics, is able to discern dif- ferent intensities and amplitudes of the wave lengths that define said stimuli the per- ception of the intensity of light or the perception of colours.

The eye as a dark room eye, due to the concave form of the retina, where the im- age of the object will form. All devices that preserve and render images in motion rely on this principle of copying the reality into a similar rep- resentation to the one our memory engraves on our consciousness by means of visu- al mechanisms. The technical progress of today, the universal democratization of all devices used to take pictures are the result of an on-going process to update and op- timize of the search to capture, preserve and reproduce visual information the im- mortalization of the moment , the attempt to recompose movement creating the illu- sion of real movement and the transmission and receiving of audio-visual informa- tion from a distance.

This search has begun during ancient years and had as starting point an austere dark room. The dark room, mechanically copying the structure of the Eye the sense organ, translating visual signs and perceptions against our consciousness was the first essential step towards explaining the way the human being relates to the surrounding universe.

At the beginning, the image the mechanical Eye managed to reproduce was ephemeral — it was only possible inside the darkness of the room and would immedi- ately go away, similar to the image reflected against mirrors. History documents a long series of small contributions to the microscopical fight of photo-chemical processes or in the field of optical and physical phenomena, until a real breakthrough is achieved, the redoubt of the ephemeral overthrown and the in- stant immortalized. On the first photography reality was very simply rendered: The Magical Lantern — the first pro- jector of static images, images initially drawn on Image 2.

The lantern was just a simple curiosity but, for the first time, it created the illusion of real movement by moving a series of fixed images. A series of scientists, engineers, physicists, psychologists, physicians or chemists will contribute to the optimization of the prototype and, in such, to the transforma- tion of the magical lantern a toy, by all accounts into a device where people could see other people or themselves as real as they could in a mirror, in motion and overthrow- ing the complex of the ephemeral. Thus, the cinema came into being — a rudimentary device that managed to miraculously reproduce the spectacle of life; a live mirror, a real one, in a performance both multipliable and repeatable of the surrounding world.

At the beginning of the 20th century, this particular stage of getting to immortalize the instant will overlap with the discovery of the electrical current and with the pos- sibility of broadcasting sound waves at a distance. The radio broadcast comes into be- ing and, later, some of the first innovations in television — in the form of prototype sys- tems that were considered to be visual rep- licas of the radio broadcast.

Using the same protocol used by the radio broadcast , peo- ple try to broadcast at a distance not only the sound waves but also images. The first Television Set was a complicated machin- ery that transformed images into dots pix- els ; the dots, as essential components of the image, were thus turned into an easi- ly broadcasted content, by means of a very sinuous process of decomposing and re- Image 3. The Baird television set prototype composing of the whole.

Wunenburger The shock of being confronted with the repeatable mirror image was extended from each individual to a mass scale with the coming into being of filmed mirror images. The collective consciousness was beginning to perceive something never experienced before: Improvements in the quality of the broadcast followed, larger screens, signals broad- casted at greater distances and, most significantly, the unification of all telecommuni- cation systems electronics, informational techniques and audio-visual media into the technical branch.

This assumption could be sustained by the resemblance between the camera and the eye. For instance, the camera lens is made up of a system of lenses and optical media same as the human eye. The eye and the lens are one and the same thing; they both have a similar struc- Image 4. The analogy between ture and similar functionalities. The lens is, in fact, the Eye and the Camera an artificial eye.

Within the mechanical eye of the filming camera, the yellow spot is substitut- ed by the same type of machinery that turns optical information into electromagnet- ic impulses. Similar to this, the image turned into electromagnetic impulses, will travel bio-physi- cal networks, from the sensory unit to the stocking and processing unit, be it a human eye or the machinery of a camera.

The reality of the image comes from the equivalency between things and their representation within the brain that turns signals into signs. When Dziga Vertov considered to be the forefather of the documenta- ry as an objective rendering of reality met with the camera, he launched the Kinoglaz manifesto, where Image 5. I am the Cinema-Eye. I take the strongest and most skilful hands of one individual; the best fitted legs from another one; a third individual is going to provide me with the most beautiful and most expressive face; with the help of editing I am able to create a new person, a perfect individ- ual.

I am the Cinema-Eye, I am the mechanical eye. Now and forever, I can free myself of the human immobility and set myself in a continuous motion, get close to the objects around, go further away, crawl under them or climb them. Within the communication society the camera becomes an indispensable attachment, a safe backup for all the images that are responsible for our state of mind and emotions.

Thus, the mechanical eye opens new estheti- cal horizons, by pushing towards the extreme the limitations of the visual field the fish eye lens. In accordance to make and model, the storing of the audio-visual information is done on a certain kind of support. With the first cameras, this was the celluloid film impregnated with photo-sensitive emulsion; as science evolved, there appeared the possibility to store the information on a magnetic board the video camera ; nowadays, with the digital video cameras, the information is stored on digital systems disks, memory units.

According to its features, the camera can also accommodate this kind of adjustment, either through a manual tune-up or, as in the case of the human eye, automatically. It is well known that for each camera the correct rendering of clarity the focus can be obtained by adjusting the focal distance; that will then place the focus in the spot where the optical sensor is placed. Older cameras only allowed a manual adjustment that left the accuracy of this setting that the eye performs instinctually, into the hands of the person that was handling the device.

We adapt our sight unconsciously, in accordance with the distance to the stimuli, within our visual field. In the case of professional cameras this feature is missing, as the focus of the image needs to be discerned and controlled technically and esthetically by the professional handling the device. When the intensity of the light varies, the iris will open up or close down, thus constantly regulating the quantity of light that reaches the retina. Same thing happens in the case of the camera.

The diaphragm that adjusts the volume of the light flow is built similar to the iris. Depending on the make and model of the camera, this function can also be performed automatically or manually. In the case of the human eye, the adjustment of the light flow is done, as for the regulation of the focal distance, automatically; we only become aware of it in case of disease, when the function is disturbed.

This particular instance of blindness was documented as early as Plato, in his dialogue that was the foundation of the Cave myth. University of California Press, 3. New horizons in psychology. A History of Modern Communication. Before being addressed from a historiographical standpoint, the biog- raphy of the recently concluded communist period was subjectively filtered and tele- vised.

After more than a decade during which memory had become repetitive and, at times, had sanctioned lynch law, it was time for an alterna- tive filter of identitarian representation. Exeunt the auto biographical pact, enter the fictional pact. The Screen of Transition A new generation of fiction writers and directors who had barely come of age un- der communism made the transition from biography to story. However, while the tes- timonial stage had been marked by the oppressive memory of those who had expe- rienced the traumas of the past, the narrative stage was bound to keep its allegiance to the present.

Thus, the perspective enabled by the transition generated a denouncement of the convention or ideological screen whereby communism had been represented, that is, appropriated. The mind-set of the present provides the imagological and narrative backbone of a defunct era: Both chart two exemplary stories about characters whose lives were marked by communism. This is a mature perspec- tive on communism, from the vantage point of the post-communist transition.

It is not by chance that the two representations have been appropriated in the West as identi- tarian versions that are symptomatic2 of the Romanian society as a whole. Recycling and Confronting Ostalgie under the Romanian Transition. Their story is one of childish naivety set against a backdrop of life im- posed by communism. Lilu, the seven-year old protagonist, has failed to assassinate Ceausescu as planned, and Eva, his sister, who is 10 years older than him, clandestinely emigrated shortly be- fore the end of the communist world. With hindsight, looking back at communism from the angle made available by the transi- tion, it becomes clear, thus, that ideology could be countered not only by flouting it, but also through the triumph of innocence.

As burlesque farces from another world, the stories in Tales from the Golden Age entail, as a first impulse, the recognition of the communist archetypes, followed immediately by identitarian distancing in a humorous vein. Derision essentializes the past and cre- ates distance. This time, however, parody has another func- tion.

Emilia, the protagonist of the novel, is emblematic of the category of n ostalgic cit- izens during the Romanian transition. We are in the s: Emilia, a low-income pensioner, lives in an apartment in the province, with her husband Tucu, as their daughter Alice is away in Canada. Lungu diegetically alternates her memories with diverse moments of the present.

The choice is strategic: The book has sparked conflicting reactions. The rationale behind this type of argument is as fol- lows: Her nostalgia is parodied by repetition, the point of this narrative and ideological game being the denunciation of communism, responsible not only for the mystification of memory, but also for sabo- taging the transition itself: Wheat is not inno- cent: That is why the Soviets, like elder brothers, have decided to help us.

Emilia are all those who cannot adapt to the new realities because their make-up was vitiated by communism. The problem with this interpretation comes from the fact that, still, the novel does not go through with illustrating the overturned socialist-realist scheme. Progressive to the end, she conceives the future as an ingenuous utopia.

She would like to restart the metal confections factory where she used to work as a young woman, but she is discouraged by her former co-workers. She does not adapt, but seeks to adapt the present to the past. Still, it would be questionable, to say at least, if he used his character mere- ly to place himself amongst inveterate anticommunists. At this point, phenomenology becomes just as important as ideology.

The author simply allows his character to man- ifest herself. Among the various memory flashbacks, transcribed by Lungu in various registers — ranging from the sentimental to the burlesque — the protagonist has a self-reflective, almost dialectical moment, which problematizes her concept of communist identity: I mean I might know. Maybe because in the old days, we called communists those who gave fiery speeches during boring, long meetings. Those who stuck to the party line without seeing left and right, without a care for people and with- out understanding the particular situations.

For us, it was not the party members who were communists, but the politricks and the zealots. I did not regret those guys. Now the communists were the ones who had lied, who had taken by force, put people in prison, tortured them, and so on. What kind of a com- munist was I? But if those were the communists, did it mean that I wanted com- munism without the communists? If not, did I still want communism?

Can you be one without wanting to be one? Therefore, her communist nostalgia seems to have no object. Instead, it does have content. While la- bels are misleading, what she experienced in her life remains: But Emilia finds it dif- ficult to rank herself amongst the communists, for she contributed nothing to this sys- tem, she was only the beneficiary of a polity that gave her a reasonably decent urban life.

This di- mension of her discourse is not, indeed, alien to the novel. Rhetorically non-homoge- neous, the flux of her memory frequently has melancholic-argumentative overtones. As a victim of the transition, Emilia makes a swift, pragmatic reckoning and deems that she used to live a better life under communism.

A diminished, but safe existence is preferable, in her view, to an uncertain transition, dominated by poverty. Thus, Dan Lungu maintains both stakes of the story. The film spawned an interesting polemical debate4 be- tween two generations of intellectuals regarding the way in which the Romanian soci- ety should relate to its communist legacy.

Before analysing the arguments sparked by the film, it should be noted that the director Stere Gulea and the script co-writers Lucian Dan Teodorovici and Vera Ion substantially changed the story of the source text, and this requires a conceptual clarification of the idea of fidelity in film adaptation.

The degradation of film as a medium is indirectly supported by the constant ap- peal to the idea of mimetic fidelity. The maximum that the cinema can do is to visu- ally illustrate the narrative with accuracy. Fidelity turns thus from a correlative prin- ciple into an axiological criterion. On the other hand, the acknowledgment of infidelity as an essential principle in an- alysing the relationship between novels and films coincides with a kind of return of the repressed in adaptation studies.

Recent approaches Leitch ; Westbrook , in- formed by respect for the cinema as a medium, do not exclude fidelity — for denying it would suspend the relevance of the comparison — but turns it from a valorising mech- anism into a hermeneutic barometer. The idea would be that there is no point lament- ing the lack of fidelity of a film in relation to a novel, but that one should question and seek to explain the stakes of the infidelity and the purposes of the adaptation. As long as the meaning is not exclusive- ly embedded in the source text, but in the process of adaptation, infidelity can also be- come significant in a hermeneutic sense.

The argument set forth by the professor from the University of Delaware unravels three constants distributed in a causal manifestation. The first — transgression — is in- scribed in the very nature of the marital contract as the latency of infidelity. The sec- ond — re-narrativization — marks the consequence of the breach of contract by one of the spouses, a consequence that leads to an amendment of the contract.

Finally, the third — which is two-headed: But this symmetry of axiological opposites — condemnation vs. Should it be faithful to the source text or should it be free and imaginative? In other words, which prevails? The criterion of precedence or the criterion of innovation? The categorical an- swer given by an entire tradition of adaptation studies is as predictable as it is paradox- ical: Therefore, axiological symme- try remains, as it were, a simulacrum, since the axiological verdict rests on the side of fidelity.

The justification of such a discriminatory situation, Leitch be- lieves, derives from the fact that the hermeneutics of adaptation has built and consol- idated its discourse mimicry by predicating it on the concept of artistic mimesis, de- rived from Plato and Aristotle, which is an essentially ethical concept. The romantic conception whereby art is a product of the imagination failed to impose itself precise- ly because it lacked the ethical weight. Therefore, as regards the reception of adapta- tions, the rigidity of the contract has stifled the latent tension of transgression.

When the latter manifests itself, according to this reductive view, a rule is violated, a text does not open. Leitch fails, however, to mention yet another paradox. This concept of the — albeit conservative — fidelity of adaptation has manifested itself, after all, since modernism. On the other hand, modernism is no lon- ger mimetic either: Benefiting fully from infidelity — by denying tradition — modernity undermined its ethics by approaching the idea of adaptation a field marked, in fact, by the dia- lectic tension between fidelity and infidelity through the rigid filter of a slanted aes- theticism.

However, in the terms of Umberto Eco, if fidelity prudently outlines the interpretation limits of an adaptation, infidelity provides the fertile grounds for a work opening out and lending itself to adaptation. The title of a book announcing the triumph of subjectivity in the Romanian literary criticism of the s — Infidel Readings Manolescu — seems symptomatic not only as a methodological op- tion in the study of adaptation, but also for the textual relationship that it establish- es.

He takes the breach of contract to its ut- most consequences, even postulating his separation from it the break-up , which he understands as a condition of its re appropriation. The term Gulea uses is not at all an innocent one in adaptation theory. Julie Sanders has used to make a broader dis- tinction, functional in the field of intertextuality and rewriting: Stere Gulea says more or less the same thing, trying to answer those who accused him of having produced a film that swerves too far away from novel. His plea for a substantial degree of autonomy is quite clear: Will the film, in itself, stand or not?

I think it is inevitable: We understand that she has been speaking to her daughter Alice, who will arrive together with her husband Allan from America in just a few days.

Discussion:Familles subsistantes de la noblesse française (A à K) — Wikipédia

The first scene introduces us visually into a warmly lit interior, acquaint- ing us with a socialist domestic space onto which the modesty of the Romanian tran- sition has been superposed. He returns home from his rural farmstead we learn that he was there from the previous phone call. The central theme of communist memory, so striking in the novel, is here replaced by the family theme.

While Lungu had relegated the concrete meeting between the two generations to half a page, reducing it to a conflict over the telephone about the elections, Gulea nar- ratively develops precisely this ellipse of the novel. By exploring the meeting between the two parents and their daughter, accompanied by her husband, the film adapta- tion breaks out of the adaptation frameworks, decidedly entering the unpredictabili- ty of appropriation. The mythologized microhistory from the novel gets atomized, in the film, into several fragmented micro-histories.

Emilia is no longer the sole representative of the Romanian transition. Besides her, there are several other complementary or antag- onistic voices. Une famille de ce nom avec des branches d'Ardhuy, de Pieyres, Bonjour, un article qui pose question. N'ayant pas de sources j'ai seulement fait 1 ou 2 petites modifications. Bonjour Lothaire57, cet article souffre de sources bien peu consensuelles.

Discussion:Familles subsistantes de la noblesse française (A à K)

Si vous en avez de nouvelles. Cela rends cette liste totalement non fiable car des personne se permette de juger qui est noble et qui ne l'est pas. Merci de rajouter au plus vite la famille Malivert du Pouy d'Artois dans cette liste. Pour conclure cette famille est vicomtale puis comtale!! Il reste une chose que je n'explique pas: Il faut garder ces discussions pour l'avenir car ils reviendront un jour ou l'autre. Dans le lien qu'avait mis Dupouydartois il y avait en revanche un authentique noble en la personne de Louis de Goyon-Matignon mais quel spectacle Ce chiffre de 5.

Quant aux traditions on leur fait dire ce que l'on veut. Preuves pour Malte en Page de la dauphine en Honneurs de la Cour Preuves pour Malte Par ailleurs de nos jours dans le Valette il n'y a semble-t-il aucune famille Rigaud ou de Rigaud. Normal, cette famille n'est pas noble. Elle a pour souche: Nos Rigaud contemporains n'en descendent pas.

Vous dites "Nos Rigaud contemporains n'en descendent pas. Merci pour cette info. Dans Magny, on lit: Dans le Grand Armorial de France: La Branche cadette de la Haye du Val, maintenue noble en , fit ses preuves pour Saint-Cyr en et pour les Ecoles Militaires en Cela ne change rien au fond de notre discussion As far as I know, we are the last remaining de Saint Felix de Mauremont in existance.

My great great great grandfather was the admiral de Saint Felix who was captured in late 's or early 's at La Reunion. Cette famille est bien reprise dans le Dictionnaire et Armorial de la Noblesse de Patrice de Clinchamps p Ancienne extraction , capitoul de Toulouse en , maintenue noble en Le Tallandier est meilleur que le Valette sur certains points et moins bon sur d'autres. Bonjour, Dans l'absolu, vous avez certainement raison, mais il faut bien reconnaitre que l'ANF souffre de trois faiblesses: Je suis d'accord avec vous sur vos remarques.

Je reprend votre discussion en cours sur les sources. Le "Valette" semble effectivement une bonne source, mais n'oublions pas qu'il a beaucoup de lacunes! Merci pour votre message. Le Valette est en effet lacunaire. Et sauf erreur, il y a bien eu concomitance entre la suppression de la noblesse et la suppression des charges…. On ne peut donc pas imposer un jugement ou une notion sur Wikipedia.

Merci pour cette intervention. Tout en affirmant aujourd'hui: Tout en s'accordant le pouvoir royal de reconnaitre le principe de noblesse de tel ou tel famille. Il n'y a pas eu libre consentement. Et que dire des Chevaliers de Malte? Je me permets, en outre, de relever une petite erreur d'analyse de votre part.

Je respecte parfaitement votre opinion. Mais il ne s'agit pas d'un pouvoir royal ne l'oublions pas. J'ai beaucoup de respect pour le droit car je le pratique et pour l'histoire car cela me passionne. Je partage le regard de Saintdie d'Artagnan vs M. Il y en a deux raisons: Car s'ils sont Nobles de quatre races, leurs enfants le sont de cinq.

Quand il est dit que " Par contre, celle de M. Prenons des cas concrets: Il meurt quelques mois plus tard. Votre phrase est pertinente: Merci aux uns et aux autres de leurs avis. Merci d'avance de me donner votre avis. Pour moi d'aucune source. Se fichaient-ils de leur situation nobiliaire?

Il y a donc tout simplement prescription pour contester la noblesse de ces familles. Finalement, ces familles ont-t-elles un principe de noblesse? Mipast vous avez des infos? On rejoint le cas de la famille Catoire de Bioncourt que j'ai mis dans les FSNF et sa dispense en de paiement du marc d'or. Faut-il en fait mettre ces familles dans un article "Vivants noblement"? Selon le parler du temps, on dit qu'elle "vit noblement". Elle peut encore pour entrer dans le second ordre de l'Etat, acheter une charge donnant la noblesse. Un soldat, un administrateur habile, un riche homme achetaient une terre noble et s'alliaient avec la fille d'une famille de petite noblesse.

Merci Mipast pour ces infos que je retrouve en partie dans l'ouvrage que j'ai: Toutes les familles le savaient bien. Je suis d'accord avec vous Mipast. Je ne critique nullement l'Histoire de France et l'ANF mais j'aime bien relever quelques contradictions et points de faiblesse. Pour moi ce retour au Tiers n'a rien d'injuste. Il ne semble pas qu'elle soit celle du droit. Ils obtinrent alors soit un anoblissement donc le pouvoir central n'estimait las que l'anoblissement interrompu en valait anoblissement soit une maintenue de noblesse et alors le pouvoir central paraissait admettre comme un anoblissement parfait l'anoblissement interrompu en Cela parait peu discutable.

Il est pertinent de se pencher sur la notion de droit. Si nous analysons les dates, il y a dans un premier lieu la suppression de la noblesse 19 juin , puis la suppression des titres 23 juin , puis la suppression de charges anoblissantes notamment en La suppression de la noblesse intervient donc avant la suppression des charges.

Pour comprendre le raisonnement: Il y a une notion de double peine difficilement concevable. Les plus modestes et les moins vaniteux s'intitulent "chevalier de En effet vous avez parfaitement raison. Je pense aussi que ceux qui souhaitaient supprimer la noblesse, la connaissait bien mal. C'est exactement cela LasCases. Je partage votre regard Mipast. S'agissait-il seulement d'une dispense temporaire?

Je ne vois pas comment donc non a priori. Oui mais moi je ne l'ai pas. J'essaie de me renseigner pour les quelques familles bretonnes et normandes que vous citez. Bonsoir Keranplein et Mipast ,. Ah oui cela fait beaucoup! Vous serez-t-il possible d'indiquer le principe de noblesse de ces familles et leur province d'origine? Merci pour votre travail de comparaison. L'ouvrage de du Puy de Clinchamps fournit-il des statistiques? Gros travail pour ces listes, merci. En outre pour avoir plus de certitudes dans ces listes il ne faudrait retenir que les familles qui se trouvent dans les principaux ouvrages.

En cas d'un ouvrage ne mentionnant pas il y a non consensus et doute. Bonne lecture et merci pour vos messages. Quel est l'objectif du dernier en date, tout juste paru? Est-ce une liste de toutes les familles de France maintenues en ? J'avance un peu ainsi au hasard afin de rendre ce travail divertissant. Je n'ai pas encore choisi la prochaine lettre. Merci pour ce travail passionnant! J'ignore s'il a eu une descendance. Ses descendants, s'il y en a, auraient donc une noblesse parfaite?

Seule la famille Girard de Langlade y figure en C'est bien que cette association fasse un tel travail de recherche. Cette unique preuve est-elle suffisante aux yeux de l'ANF aujourd'hui? Extraction maintenue en PPC: Cette famille est-elle subsistante?

Merci Lothaire57 pour toutes ces recherches. Pour ma part je n'ai qu'un Valette et quelques autres maigres sources secondaires donc je ne peux malheureusement pas vous aider, de plus le temps me manque. Soyons trop prudent que pas assez. Valette et l'ANF 3. Dans ce domaine les chiffrages les plus bas sont les plus fiables. La noblesse en chiffre. Avez-vous en ce cas l'intention de trancher pour dire qui a tort et qui a raison? On a donc le choix.

Dubois de Bellejame de Geslin: Gueneau de Mussy et de Montbeillard: La famille de La Biche de Reignefort figure sur votre liste.

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Vous avez raison pour la famille de La Biche de Reignefort. Les porteurs du nom actuels semblent descendre de ce couple. Certificat de noblesse pour les cadets gentilshommes en Ce certificat de complaisance? Vous pouvez aussi consulter la page d'aide. Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Discussions closes en Chistophe de Cotignon, maintenu noble le 11 avril Discussions de juin Bref, vous le savez, cette liste ne sera jamais fiable. La question devrait, je pense, se poser autrement: Un autre titre pour cet article?

C'est risible, en avez-vous conscience? Si nous ne voulons pas de limites alors changeons le nom de cet article sans tarder. On n'a pas fini se tirer les cheveux Chaix d'Est-Ange ou Valette. Fait-elle si peur, est-elle si blessante? Des fables, pourquoi pas, il en faut, mais pas sur cette page. Laissons cette liste aux historiens contemporains, ceux qui font des tout petits tirages, mais qui sont honoris causa.