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University of California Press. Tantric Visions of the Divine Feminine: Religious Diversity in Singapore.
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Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore. A Very Short Introduction. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Translation from Mahipati's Bhaktalilamrita. Christian Theology in Asia. Krishna, Lord or Avatara?: Religious beliefs and practices of North India during the early mediaeval period, Volume 1.
A critical study of the Bhagavata Purana, with special reference to bhakti.
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India through the ages. The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India. A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions Editors: Mark Juergensmeyer and Wade Clark Roof, ed. Encyclopedia of Global Religion. Studies of an Asian God, pp. Theological Soundings and Perspectives. A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1. The Sanskrit Malhari Mahatmya and its context". Folk Deity of the Deccan". Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. State University of New York Press. The Lord, Visnu, took his place in the egg.
Then with his mind devoted to the supreme spirit, Brahma meditated upon Visnu. At the end of the meditation a drop of perspiration was produced from his forehead. That drop, of the shape of a bubble, in a moment fell on the earth. O you of an excellent face, I, having three eyes, a trident, and adorned with the crown of the matted hair, was born from that bubble.
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With modesty I asked the lord of gods: Samkarsana, O you of an excellent face. Krishna and Balarama are regarded as Hari and Hara. Here Balarama is regarded as Lord Siva. Some say that Krishna is Vishnu, Balarama is Shiva and Subhadra is Devi, thus the three siblings represent the three main schools of Hindu theism: Vaishnava, Shaiva and Shakta. The gods complained to Shiva that Vishnu had entered the body of the Buddha on earth for their sake, but now the haters of religion, despising Brahmins and the dharma of class and stage of life, filled the earth.
The triumph of the goddess: After seeing his of Brahma aberration on the altar at the time of marriage, Sambhu cursed him. He was then born as Yajnavalkya. Sakalya engaged Yajnavalkya in the royal palace for the performance of the Santi rites. The two substitutions involve Balarama, Krishna and Buddha is considered the avatar of Vishnu. Krishna is almost always included; in exceptions, he is considered the source of all avatars. Retrieved from " https: Forms of Vishnu Hindu philosophical concepts Vaishnavism.
Views Read Edit View history. But what I really appreciate about this episode is how relatively self-contained it is. A lot of first seasons try to end in such a way that the story would still work if the show never got renewed. Avatar obviously had a larger plot mapped out, but many specific story elements introduced in this season or even the last three episodes receive satisfying conclusions here.
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Admiral Zhao, Princess Yue, and this particular incarnation of Zuko say farewell so we can move onto the next phase of the journey. Avatar season two takes the feeling of defeat and despair from The Empire Strikes Back and doles it across twenty episodes. Only Katara can pull Aang out of his rage and sadness as Team Avatar figures out its next step.
One of the most interesting wrinkles of the latter half of season two is the conspiracy within the fortress-like Earth Kingdom capital city Ba Sing Se. The Fire Nation is your standard, fascist, evil, invading army. But Long Feng and his Dai Li secret police are a colder, more secretive type of villainy like something out of or North Korea.
Jet may not have been the most important character, but seeing him hypnotically forced to fight to the death still carries weight, even if his death had to meet vague kids TV standards. The final episode might as well be a remake. After abandoning a chance at enlightenment from a wise guru to save his friends based on limited information, Aang screws everything up.
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Even Zuko, on the verge of changing for the better, betrays his caring uncle to join up with his tyrannical sister. As the Earth Kingdom falls, the only question left is how can they possibly come back from this in season three? Discussion has centered on such themes as the conflict between modern human and nature , and the film's treatment of imperialism , racism , militarism and patriotism , corporate greed, property rights , spirituality and religion.
Commentators have debated whether the film's treatment of the human aggression against the native Na'vi is a message of support for indigenous peoples today, or is, instead, a tired retelling of the racist myth of the noble savage. The visual similarity between the destruction of the World Trade Center and the felling of Home Tree in the film caused some filmgoers to further identify with the Na'vi and to identify the human military contractors as terrorists.
Critics asked whether this comparison was intended to encourage audiences to empathize with the position of Muslims under military occupation today. Much discussion has concerned the film's treatment of environmental protection and the parallels to, for example, the destruction of rainforests , mountaintop removal for mining and evictions from homes for development. The title of the film and various visual and story elements provoked discussion of the film's use of Hindu iconography , which Cameron confirmed had inspired him. Other critics either praised the film's spiritual elements or found them hackneyed.
Avatar describes the conflict by an indigenous people , the Na'vi of Pandora , against the oppression of alien humans. Director James Cameron acknowledged that the film is "certainly about imperialism in the sense that the way human history has always worked is that people with more military or technological might tend to supplant or destroy people who are weaker, usually for their resources.
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Second off, he ultimately becomes one of [the Na'vi] and wins their way. Many commentators saw the film as a message of support for the struggles of native peoples today. Evo Morales , the first indigenous president of Bolivia , praised Avatar for its "profound show of resistance to capitalism and the struggle for the defense of nature". Cameron stated that Avatar is "very much a political film" and added: There are boots on the ground, troops who I personally believe were sent there under false pretenses, so I hope this will be part of opening our eyes.
Cameron said that Americans have a "moral responsibility" to understand the impact of their country's recent military campaigns. Commenting on the term " shock and awe " in the film, Cameron said: We don't know what it feels like for them to land on our home soil, not in America. Cameron's sympathies, and the movie's, clearly are with the Na'vi—and against the military and corporate men. A critic writing in Le Monde opined that, contrary to the perceived pacifism of Avatar , the film justifies war in the response to attack by the film's positive characters, particularly the American hero who encourages the Na'vi to "follow him into battle.
Every war, even those that seem the most insane [are justified as being] for the 'right reasons'. Many reviewers perceived an anti-American message in the film, equating RDA's private security force to American soldiers. Moore in The Christian Post stated that, "If you can get a theater full of people in Kentucky to stand and applaud the defeat of their country in war, then you've got some amazing special effects" and criticized Cameron for what he saw as an unnuanced depiction of the American military as "pure evil".
Cameron argued that "the film is definitely not anti-American"  and that "part of being an American is having the freedom to have dissenting ideas. Then, after that spectacular scene, all is justified [for the unified] indigenous peoples the allied forces Commentators around the world sought to interpret the relationship between the Na'vi and humans in the film, mostly agreeing with Maxim Osipov, who wrote in the Hindustan Times and The Sydney Morning Herald: We, along with the Avatar hero, are now faced with an uncomfortable yet irresistible choice between the two races and the two worldviews.
Conversely, David Brooks of The New York Times opined that Avatar creates "a sort of two-edged cultural imperialism", an offensive cultural stereotype that white people are rationalist and technocratic while colonial victims are spiritual and athletic and that illiteracy is the path to grace. Many critics saw racist undertones in the film's treatment of the indigenous Na'vi, seeing it as "a fantasy about race told from the point of view of white people", which reinforces "the White Messiah fable", in which the white hero saves helpless primitive natives,   who are thus reduced to servicing his ambitions and proving his heroism.
Cameron bows to the noble savages. However, he reduces them to dependents. On the Charlie Rose talk show, Cameron acknowledged parallels with idea of the "noble savage", but argued: So we are not talking about a racial group within an existing population fighting for their rights.
Avatar has been called "without a doubt the most epic piece of environmental advocacy ever captured on celluloid The film hits all the important environmental talking-points—virgin rain forests threatened by wanton exploitation, indigenous peoples who have much to teach the developed world, a planet which functions as a collective, interconnected Gaia -istic organism, and evil corporate interests that are trying to destroy it all. So it's really an evocation of the world we used to have. It's just human nature that if we can take it, we will. And sometimes we do it in a very naked and imperialistic way, and other times we do it in a very sophisticated way with lots of rationalization—but it's basically the same thing.
A sense of entitlement. And we can't just go on in this unsustainable way, just taking what we want and not giving back.
Commentators connected the film's story to the endangerment of biodiversity in the Amazon rainforests of Brazil by dam construction, logging, mining, and clearing for agriculture. Cameron fashionably denounces the same economic and military system that make his technological extravaganza possible. Stating that such a conservative criticism of his film's "strong environmental anti-war themes" was not unexpected, Cameron stressed that he was "interested in saving the world that my children are going to inhabit",  encouraged everyone to be a "tree hugger",  and urged that we "make a fairly rapid transition to alternate energy.
They appealed to him to help them stop a mining company from opening a bauxite open-cast mine , on their sacred Niyamgiri mountain, in an advertisement in Variety that read: The destruction of the Na'vi habitat to make way for mining operations has also evoked parallels with the oppressive policies of some states often involving forcible evictions related to development.
David Boaz of the libertarian Cato Institute wrote in Los Angeles Times that the film's essential conflict is a battle over property rights, "the foundation of the free market and indeed of civilization. David Quinn of the Irish Independent wrote that the spirituality depicted "goes some way towards explaining the film's gigantic popularity, and that is the fact that Avatar is essentially a religious film, even if Cameron might not have intended it as such.
James Cameron has said that he "tried to make a film that would touch people's spirituality across the broad spectrum. He is disabled, but Mr Cameron and technology can transport him into the body of a beautiful, athletic, sexual, being. After all, we are all disabled in one way or another; inadequate, old, broken, earthbound. Pandora is a kind of heaven where we can be resurrected and connected instead of disconnected and alone. Reviewers suggested that the film draws upon many existing religious and mythological motifs.
Vern Barnet of the Charlotte Observer opined that Avatar poses a great question of faith—should the creation be seen and governed hierarchically, from above, or ecologically, through mutual interdependence? He also noted that the film borrows concepts from other religions and compared its Tree of Souls with the Norse story of the tree Yggdrasil , also called axis mundi or the center of the world, whose destruction signals the collapse of the universe.
A Bolivian writer defined "avatar" as "something born without human intervention, without intercourse, without sin", comparing it to the birth of Jesus Christ , Krishna , Manco Capac , and Mama Ocllo and drew parallels between the deity Eywa of Pandora and the goddess Pachamama worshiped by the indigenous people of the Andes. The Times of India suggested Avatar was a treatise on Indianism "for Indophiles and Indian philosophy enthusiasts", starting from the very word Avatar itself.
Cameron calls the connection a "subconscious" reference: Answering a question from Time magazine in , "What is an Avatar anyway? In this film what that means is that the human technology in the future is capable of injecting a human's intelligence into a remotely located body, a biological body. But the idea was that they take flesh in another body. Following the film's release, reviewers focused on Cameron's choice of the religious Sanskrit term for the film's title.