A Short History of Seville
Later ties with France dragged Spain into the Napoleonic Wars. After the Bourbon restoration, Spain weakened by further strife, began to lose her colonies. By the 18th century, Spain had fallen into economic decline and in the 19th and early 20th centuries poverty led to political conflict and ultimately to civil war. In this event was repeated when Expo took place again in Seville, attracting thousands of visitors from around the world.
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History of Sevilla, Spain
The Roman ruins and remarkable mosaics of Italica are located less than 9 kilometres to the north of the city. A recently restored octagonal tower which was joined by the city walls. Next to Santa Cruz, this is the most atmospheric area of Seville. The Catholic religion was confined to the parish Church of Saint Ildefonso until the restoration following the reconquest of the city by Ferdinand. At that time the Bishop of Cordova, Gutierre de Olea, purified the great mosque and prepared it for celebration of the mass on 22 December.
The king deposited in the new Seville Cathedral two famous images of the Blessed Virgin: The royal residence and the court were itinerant, so there was no permanent capital. Burgos and Toledo disputed the priority;  thereafter the court most often resided in Seville,  the king's favorite city.
During the reign of Ferdinand's son, Alfonso X the Wise, Seville remained one of the capitals of the kingdom, as the seat of government now rotated between Toledo, Murcia and Seville. A great patron of learning, in Alfonso X founded the Estudio General o Universidad de Sevilla for instruction in Latin and Arabic; it did not continue, however—the present University of Seville is considered to have been founded in The spirit of the king's desire to gather all knowledge, organise it, and disseminate it with missionary zeal is clearly reflected in the Siete Partidas Seven-Part Code , one of the great foundational works of the Middle Ages.
This is a judicial code based on Roman law and composed by a group of legal scholars chosen by Alfonso himself. It may be said that the king was architect and editor of this compendious and magisterial work of cooperative scholarship, known originally as the "Book of Laws"; this and other works he patronised established Castilian as a language of higher learning in Europe.
Before his death, Ferdinand III had long planned the invasion of North Africa, and at the beginning of his own reign, Alfonso X appealed to Pope Alexander IV to endorse such an incursion as a religious crusade, and even built shipyards at Seville for that purpose. Encouraged by the apparent success of that raid, Alfonso summoned the Cortes to Seville in January to seek counsel, but no further action was taken.
The king may have decided that before undertaking any other ventures in Africa, it would be prudent to gain control of all ports of access to the Iberian peninsula. Years later, the king again summoned the Cortes to Seville in the fall of ; to raise monies for waging his war against the Moors, he proposed a debasement of the coinage, to which the assembly reluctantly consented. The motto is an heraldic pun in Spanish, i. The figure represents a skein of yarn, or in Spanish, a madeja. When read aloud, "No madeja do" sounds like "No me ha dejado", which means "It [Seville] has not abandoned me".
Alfonso was an intellectual, and a great patron of the sciences and the arts, hence his title. He distinguished himself as poet, astronomer, musician, linguist and legislator. Alfonso's son, Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from his father, but the people of Seville remained loyal to their scholar king. The symbol 'NO8DO' is believed to have originated when, according to legend, Alfonso X rewarded the fidelity of the Sevillanos with the words that now appear on the official coat of arms and the flag of the city of Seville. The Battle of Salado in resulted in the opening of maritime trade between southern and northern Europe through the Strait of Gibraltar and a growing presence of Italian and Flemish merchants in Seville, who were key to the inclusion of the southern routes of the Crown of Castile in that commerce.
The Black Death of , the great earthquake of which caused some casualties and serious damage to many buildings, including the great mosque ,  and the demographic and economic consequences of the crisis of the fourteenth century were devastating to the city. This aggravation of pre-existing social conflicts found an outlet in the anti-Judaism revolt of , inspired by the anti-Semitic sermons of Ferran Martine, the Archdeacon of Ecija.
The Jewish quarter of Seville, one of the largest Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula, virtually disappeared because of murders and forced mass conversions. During a stay of the Catholic Monarchs in Seville , Alonso de Ojeda, the Prior of the Dominicans of Seville and a loyal advisor to Queen Isabella, urged action against the conversos and the founding of the Spanish Inquisition. The city was chosen for the first auto de fe , after which six people were burned alive on 6 February The European discovery of the New World in was an event of supreme importance for the city which would become the European port of departure to the Americas and the commercial capital of the Spanish Empire.
The Muslim minority suffered a blow in when it was forced to convert to Christianity the Moriscos , to achieve religious conformity in the name of national unity. The influence and prestige of Seville expanded greatly during the 16th century following the Spanish arrival in America, the commerce of the port driving the prosperity which led to the period of its greatest splendour.
The Puerto de Indias in Seville became the principal port linking Spain to Latin America in with the monopoly created by the royal decree of Queen Isabella I of Castile ; this granted the city exclusive privileges as the port of entry and exit for all the Indies trade. From here all voyages of exploration and trade had to be approved, thus giving Seville control of the wealth transported from the New World, enforced by laws regarding the contracting of voyages and which routes the ships must follow.
A 'golden age' of development commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies in the Americas, and the influx of riches from them. Since only sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centers needed to go to Seville to acquire trade goods from the New World.
A twenty percent tax, the quinto real , was levied by the Casa on all precious metals entering Spain. Since it controlled most of the trade in the Spanish colonies, the Consulado was able to maintain its own monopoly and keep prices high in all the colonies, and even had a part in royal politics. The Consulado thus effectively manipulated the government and the citizenry of both Spain and the colonies, and grew very rich and powerful. In turn Seville became a metropolis with consulates of all the European governments, and was the home of merchants from all across the continent who settled there to represent their companies.
The factories established in the barrio of Triana were famous for their wares, including soap, silk for export to Europe, and ceramics. The city developed into a multicultural centre that nurtured the flowering of the arts, especially architecture, painting, sculpture and literature, thus playing an important role in the cultural achievements of the Spanish Golden Age El Siglo de Oro. The advent of the printing press in Spain led to the development of a sophisticated Sevillian literary salon. In the middle of the 13th century, the Dominicans, in order to prepare missionaries for work among the Moors and Jews, had organized schools for the teaching of Arabic, Hebrew, and Greek.
To cooperate in this work and to enhance the prestige of Seville, Alfonso the Wise in established in the city 'general schools' escuelas generales of Arabic and Latin. Pope Alexander IV, by the Bull of 21 June , recognised this foundation as a generale litterarum studium. Rodrigo de Santaello, archdeacon of the cathedral and commonly known as Maese Rodrigo, began the construction of a building for a university in The Catholic Monarchs published the royal decree creating the university in , and in Pope Julius II granted the Bull of authorization—this is considered the official founding of the present University of Seville.
The Catholic Monarchs and the pope granted the power to confer degrees in logic, philosophy, theology, and canon and civil law. The college was situated near the modern Puerta de Jerez. Only two architectural elements remain: This establishment was of incalculable importance, for it was there that the expeditions to the Indies were organised, and there that the great Spanish sailors were educated. In a special position was created for Vespucci, the 'pilot major' chief of navigation , to train new pilots for ocean voyages.
With its monopoly on the West Indies trade, Seville saw a great influx of wealth. This wealth drew Italian artists such as Pietro Torrigiano , a classmate rival of Michelangelo in the garden of the Medici. Torrigiano executed magnificent sculptures at the monastery of Saint Jerome and elsewhere in Seville, as well as notable tombs and other works which brought the influence of the Italian Renaissance and of humanism to Seville.
French and Flemish sculptors such as Roque Balduque arrived also, bringing with them a tradition of a greater realism. Important historic buildings from this period include the Seville Cathedral , completed in ; after Seville was taken by the Christians in the Reconquista , the city's mosque had been converted to a church.
This structure was badly damaged in a earthquake, and by the city began building the current cathedral, one of the largest churches in the world and an outstanding example of the Gothic and Baroque architectural styles. The former minaret of the mosque, called the Giralda , survived the earthquake, but the copper spheres that originally topped it fell during the earthquake, and were replaced with a cross and bell. The new cathedral incorporated the minaret as a bell tower, which was eventually built higher during the Renaissance. It is surmounted by a statue, known locally as "El Giraldillo", representing Faith — The Archivo General de Indias General Archive of the Indies , housed in the ancient merchants' exchange, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes , is the repository of valuable archival documents preserving the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines.
The structure, an Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture , was designed by Juan de Herrera.
The Casa consistorial de Sevilla is a Plateresque -style building, currently home of the city's government ayuntamiento , built in The hospital was dedicated, although still incomplete, in The College of the Annunciation of the Professed House of the Society of Jesus in Seville was one of the intellectual pillars of the Spanish Counter-Reformation , and also served as a starting point for Jesuit expansion in overseas lands. The building of the Professed House, where the university was installed from 31 December , had been the first residence owned by the Jesuits in Seville. It was founded in February , and work on the church, dedicated to the Annunciation, began in At first it housed a College for the Humanities, but as early as it had become the Professed House, a residence for those Jesuits who preached.
The Jesuits were expelled from Seville in the 18th century and the building became the seat of the University of Seville in The tiny chapel in the Puerta de Jerez, consecrated in , was replaced by the magnificent Church of the Annunciation, built in Renaissance style — as the church of the Professed House. Work on the church with its noble classical facade began in ; it was consecrated in There are some important paintings in the main altarpiece, including The Annunciation by Antonio Mohedano , and the Exaltation of the name of Jesus or Circumcision by Juan de Roelas.
It had judicial powers as an appeals court in civil and criminal cases, but had no powers of government. The building that housed the Audiencia of Seville is located in the Plaza de San Francisco de Sevilla, and is currently the headquarters of the financial institution Cajasol. The building was built between and , although justice had been administered earlier in another building at the same place called the Casa Cuadra since shortly after the reconquest of the city in The building has been renovated several times.
It is considered the prototype of the Andalusian palace. The writer Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in Seville between and Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In , discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed him in the Royal Prison of Seville for a short time. Rinconete y Cortadillo , a popular comedy among his works, features two young vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis.
In the 17th century Seville fell into a deep economic and urban decline as a consequence of the general economic crisis that struck Europe and Spain in particular. By there were 45 monasteries for monks and 28 convents for women in the city—with all the major orders, Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians and Jesuits, represented in them. The devastation caused by the plague of is depicted in an anonymous canvas in the Hospital del Pozo Santo. Seville's population was halved, a heavy blow to the local economy.
Discontent spread in the social fabric of Sevillian life, especially among the poor, who rioted in over the scarcity and high price of bread. In the 18th century, the new Bourbon kings reduced the power of Seville and the Casa de Contratacion. The economic decline of this period was not accompanied by a corresponding decline of the arts. During the reign of the Habsburg king Philip IV in the 17th century — , there were effectively only two patrons of art in Spain—the church and the king with his court.
The Baroque period of art emphasised exaggerated motion and clear detail to produce drama, exuberance, and grandeur. The popularity of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Catholic Church, which had decided, in response to the Protestant Reformation, that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. He studied under Francisco de Herrera till he was twelve, and then was apprenticed to his future father-in-law Francisco Pacheco , an active artist and teacher, for six years. By the time he went to Madrid in his position and reputation were assured.
The Apotheosis of St. It was only in , late in his life, that he moved to Madrid in search of work. Murillo — was born in Seville and lived there this first twenty-six years. He spent two periods of a few years in Madrid, but lived and worked mostly in Seville. He began his art studies under Juan del Castillo , and became familiar with Flemish painting ; the great commercial importance of Seville at the time ensured that he was also exposed to influences from other regions. As his painting developed, his works evolved towards the polished style that suited the bourgeois and aristocratic tastes of the time, demonstrated especially in his religious works.
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In , he returned to Seville, where he died twenty-two years later. Here he was one of the founders of the Academia de Bellas Artes Academy of Art , sharing its direction, in , with the architect Francisco Herrera the Younger. This was his period of greatest activity, and he received numerous important commissions. He studied under Antonio del Castillo. Murillo was the preeminent Sevillian painter of the time and was chosen as president of the academy. He died in Seville. The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla houses a choice selection of works by artists from the Golden Age of Sevillian painting during the 17th century, including masterpieces by the above-mentioned masters.
The greatest and most characteristic sculptor of the school of Seville, he produced many important altarpieces and sculptures for numerous places in Spain and the Americas. Juan de Mesa — was the creator of several of the effigies that are still used in the processions of Semana Santa , including the Cristo del Amor , Jesus del Gran Poder and Cristo de la Buena Muerte. Some of Seville's grandest churches were built in the Baroque period, several of them with retables altar-pieces created by accomplished artists; many of the traditional rituals and customs of Holy Week still observed in Seville, including the display of venerated images, date from this time.
The pasos at the centre of each procession are images or sets of images placed atop a movable float of wood. If a brotherhood has three pasos , the first one would be a sculpted scene of the Passion, or an allegorical scene, known as a misterio mystery ; the second an image of Christ; and the third an image of the Virgin Mary, known as a dolorosa. Telmo, the patron saint of sailors, as its seat.
This emblem of Seville's civil architecture of the period has since been used for various purposes. It was the residence of the Dukes of Montpensier in the 19th century. In May , at the beginning of the century of enlightenment and scientific discovery, the Royal Society of Philosophy and Medicine of Seville was founded in Seville, the first of its kind in Spain.
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Since the s it has been the seat of the rectorate of the University of Seville. Prior to that, it was, as its name indicates, a tobacco factory—the most prominent such institution in Europe, and a lineal descendant of Europe's first tobacco factory, which was located nearby. By a Royal Order in the former tobacco factory was transferred to its current location on land adjacent to the Palace of San Telmo, just outside the Puerta de Jerez a gate in the city walls.
Construction began in , and proceeded intermittently for the next 30 years. It was designed by military engineers from Spain and the Low Countries.
History of Seville
The Royal Tobacco Factory is a remarkable example of 18th century industrial architecture, and one of the oldest buildings of its type in Europe. The building covers a roughly rectangular area of by metres by feet , with slight protrusions at the corners. The only building in Spain that covers a larger surface area is the monastery-palace of El Escorial , which is by metres by feet. There are also motifs reminiscent of the works of the architects Sebastiano Serlio and Palladio.
It remains one of the largest and most architecturally distinguished industrial buildings ever built in that country, and one of the oldest such buildings to survive. The year in Seville saw an epidemic of yellow fever which spread over the entire city in four months, wiping out a third of the population. Soon discovering how weak the city's defences were, the new Junta absconded as well on 28 January. Anti-Napoleon sentiment was still widespread and the mob remained defiant yet disorganised.
When the vanguard of the French troops appeared on 29 January they were fired upon, but the municipal corporation of Seville negotiated a surrender to avoid bloodshed. Between and Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in Seville, most of the urban planning policy and architectural modifications of the city being made by him and his collaborator Jose Manuel Arjona y Cuba.
In the government created the administrative province of Seville. This led to the installation of multiple ovens on the facility the site continued to produce tiles until , when the factory was transferred to the municipality of Santiponce to allow for development of the island for the Universal Exhibition of In the years that Queen Isabel II ruled as an adult, the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in the city's history.
The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana bridge, dates from this period.
The residence of the Dukes of Montpensier in the Palacio de San Telmo was so extravagant it was said to be vying for second Court of the kingdom. During this period street lighting was expanded in the municipality and most of the streets were paved. By the second half of the 19th century Seville began an expansion supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward and southward. The Sevillana de Electricidad Company was created in to provide electric power throughout the municipality,  and in the Plaza de Armas railway station was inaugurated.
Preparations and construction began in for the Ibero-American Exposition of , a world's fair held in Seville from 9 May until 21 June A majority of the buildings were built to remain permanently after the closing of the exposition. Many of the foreign buildings, including the United States exhibition building, were to be used as consulates after the closing of the exhibits. By the opening of the exposition all of the buildings were complete, although many were no longer new. Not long before the opening, the Spanish government also began a modernization of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the mediaeval streets to allow for the movement of automobiles.
Spain spent millions of pesetas in developing its exhibits for the fair and constructed elaborate buildings to hold them. The exhibits were designed to show the social and economic progress of Spain as well as expressing its culture. In the centre is a large fountain. By the walls of the Plaza are many tiled alcoves, each representing a different province of Spain. In the country-wide municipal elections held on 12 April the Republican leftist parties won in the principal Spanish cities.
The convulsions of the Spanish Civil War were fully felt in the Andalusian capital, where since February the military had been planning a coup. Seville then became a rearguard city, acting as a bridgehead for the occupation of the rest of the peninsula by the Army of Africa, being the most populous of all the cities occupied by the partisan army. Altogether some 8, civilians were shot by the Nationalists in Seville during the course of the war.
The mayors of the city during this period were directly appointed by the Minister of the Interior, usually those nominated by these military, political and religious authorities. Under Francisco Franco's rule Spain was officially neutral in World War II although it did collaborate with the Axis powers ,    and like the rest of the country, Seville remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. One of the most significant events of this period occurred on 13 March with the explosion of the gunpowder stored in the magazine of Santa Barbara, located in the Cerro del Aguila Eagle Hill , destroying ten surrounding blocks and damaging many more.
In , during the full autarky of Franco, the shipyard of Seville was opened, eventually employing more than 2, workers in the s despite the production of the larger vessels demanded by the maritime market being hindered by the shallowness of the Guadalquivir River. Before the existence of wetlands regulation in the Guadalquivir basin, Seville suffered regular heavy flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in November when the river Tamarguillo overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain in which three hundred litres of water per square metre fell in a short period.
Seville was consequently declared a disaster zone. In the large municipal residential sanitarium, Virgen del Rocio , originally called the Residencia Garcia Morato , was opened. On 3 April Spain held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different political parties were elected in Seville: He visited the city again 13 June , for the International Eucharistic Congress.
In , the Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville, on the occasion of which the local communications network infrastructure was greatly improved: The Seville airport, the Aeropuerto de Sevilla , was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect Rafael Moneo , and various other improvements were made. The monumental Puente del Alamillo Alamillo Bridge over the Guadalquivir, designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava , was built to allow access to the island of La Cartuja, site of the massive exposition, as was the Puente de la Barqueta Barqueta Bridge designed by Juan J.
Arenas and Marcos J. Some of the installations remaining after the exposition at the massive site on La Cartuja island were converted into the largest technology park in Andalusia: Throughout the decade there were several attacks in Seville by the Basque separatist group ETA resulting in deaths. These killings provoked great consternation in the city and led to massive demonstrations against ETA violence.
In he was again invested as mayor, winning this time as the candidate with the most popular votes but not an absolute majority, and in this case supported by the councilors of the United Left. The outcome of the elections in May validated the progressive pact of the PSOE-IU , surpassing the number of votes submitted by the People's Party PP or the Andalusian Party PA , leaving the latter without representation in the council and the PP with the most votes of all the parties represented in the Consistorio.
The meeting was protested with a series of actions and peaceful mass demonstrations by alternative and anti-capitalist political action groups. In , construction of Line 1 of the Metro de Sevilla was reinitiated, having been canceled in due to technical difficulties in the subsurface excavation, with cracks appearing in several historic buildings in the city.