A la muerte de Torrijos y sus compañeros (Spanish Edition)
Jose de Espronceda y Delgado
When he was 15 years old his membership in a secret society of young liberals, Los Numantinos, led to imprisonment and exile. Espronceda was active in the revolution in Paris and afterward made an abortive attempt to start a rebellion in northern Spain. Representing the Liberal Party, he served a short period in the Spanish parliament. He died of diphtheria in Madrid, May 23, Espronceda's short but eventful life gave him little opportunity for extensive writing.
His works consist principally of two long poems, El Estudiante de Salamanca and El Diablo mundo , unfinished , and a series of shorter ones. El Estudiante de Salamanca is a synthesis of Espronceda's poetic themes and is fully representative of the whole Spanish Romantic movement. The representations of Isabel's daughter, Juana la Loca, confirm our understanding of an immediate decline in the female place in politics, and the end of the Castillian royal line.
In contrast to portrayals of her mother, Juana was employed to drive home the idea of female fragility and inability to show strong leadership, and used as an attack on Isabel II. Pradilla, in Juana La Loca , depicts a forlorn woman in mourning for her husband. A humble fire features as a smouldering symbol, a metaphor for the fading remains of a dynasty, contrasting with the blazing Numancia in Estaca's picture, particularly apposite in view of the fact that Isabel II, had been removed from power by then.
This time the Christian symbol, the chapel, is distant and tiny in the background.
irogyrikewyx.tk » Gen. Jose Maria Torrijos y Uriarte and his liberal followers
Juana betrays her gender's weakness as she is engulfed by the flames and the wind threatens to extinguish the candles. Whilst, under Juana's heir Carlos V, Spain's empire expanded both in Europe and in South America, it also lost any remaining elements of Christian morality, best summed up by Bernal Diaz's comment, "we came to serve God and our Majesty. Liberal distaste for colonial exploitation had been evident from the moment Spain celebrated her independence from French rule, and in Isabel II had attempted, and failed, to reassert Spain's influence in its former South American empire by occupying the Chincha Islands in the Hispano-Sudamericana War with Peru and Chile.
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As the century progressed, we can see a clear shift in attitude towards the remaining colonies. There is an unmissable irony in history and art being used to form an identity in Spain while the nation was losing prestige and territory, and "the close of the era of successful national liberation movements in the Americas coincided rather closely with the onset of the age of nationalism in Europe.
Gisbert Pérez, Antonio
The movement would inspire comparable Comunero risings in Paraguay in and in the early 18th century, and in Nueva Granada in A visual establishment of the parallel and ongoing fight for independence in South America towards the last decades of the century was provided by a number of paintings by Filipino artist Juan Luna Y Novicio, which suggest the artists in the colonies had been aware of the mother country's fight for independence from the French earlier in the century, and are almost a map in themselves of Spain's diminishing presence there.
This time Cleopatra is covered up, and the centrepiece of the painting is the attendant woman's reaction and her unmistakeable skin tone and dynamic presence, which denote perfectly the changing perspective from the diminishing colonies, that power, or perhaps the Mother Country, was ephemeral, and could therefore be defeated. Indigenous symbols predominate in the painting, a testament to the end of imperial authority. Anderson argues that, in the colonies, "the growth of creole communities.
Very revealing in Luna's work is the arrangement of women as both moribund and active characters, victims still, but here used, we can suppose, as a justified emotional response to horror. There are no men in the composition, and this time female hysteria is not the result of doomed or inappropriate love, but a metaphor, the consequence of a wider political scenario being delineated. We witness, then, from the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the decadence and the theme of empire's end, supplanting the previous images of conquest and expansion.
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The growing rebellion leading to the final loss of Philippines is evidenced in another Juan Luna painting. The title alone of Spolarium is redolent of ruination, and the slain bodies and horrified expressions in the painting belie the brutality of the Roman Empire. The Phillipine journalist Graciano Lopez Jaena described as the work as "the living image of the Filipino people sighing its misfortune. Because the Philippines is nothing more than a real Spoliarium with all its horrors.
The echoes of the break up of ancient Rome are unavoidable, and the dissolution of empires is surely what Luna sought to suggest, inverting the premise that, in J H Eliot's words, "the Roman Empire became a model and a point of reference for the 16th century Castillian. Jose Maria Torrijos y Uriarte and his liberal followers December 11th, Headsman On this date in , one of the great Spanish liberal officers was shot along with dozens of comrades attempting to spark a revolution.
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