The Spirit of Qualitative Research Lecture Ten: Our Lady of Chinatown

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  1. Methodology
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Such research is significant in determining the influence of literature on children, who rely on multicultural stories to develop their own cultural identity. In relation to intergenerational conflict, I document the representation of filial piety and acculturative strategies in a selection of Chinese-North American immigrant texts.

Methodology

Theoretical Framework and Methodology Theoretical Framework In my construction of a theoretical framework, I draw on the cultural and psychological concept of acculturation while also referring to Critical Race Theory. I begin by explaining the acculturative fourfold model and transition to discussing the notions of counterstorytelling and voice-of-colour in Critical Race Theory. Sam and John W. They argue that, in comparison to assimilation, acculturation is a more generic term which acknowledges the reciprocity through which cultural groups influence each other.

His paradigm is referred to as the fourfold model by scholars such 34 as Floyd W. Critical Race Theory CRT , particularly the concepts of counterstorytelling and voice-of-colour, plays an important role in my research. Brooks states that CRT comprises various race-based theories and values that question legal traditions Arguing on the principle that people of colour are adversely affected by their race, CRT seeks to achieve racial equality by deconstructing aspects of legal order that disregard minority group members Rather than addressing issues related to cultural transition at the level of the individual, CRT focuses on racism and its influence on minority members.

An Introduction that CRT has spread beyond the field of legal studies into areas such as education, ethnic studies, and American studies 3. Gloria Ladson-Billings and William F. Firstly, CRT encourages counterstories, which authenticate the lives of minority groups by exploring the enduring influence of racism Secondly, it positions racism as the centre of literary analysis, especially for historical novels.

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Finally, CRT is a contemporary framework that acknowledges the past-present racial linkages. McNair also mentions the notion of counterstorytelling that subverts dominant constructions of social reality. She states that ultimately, both literature and CRT are committed to re-envisioning and changing the status quo of the social order Solorzano and Tara J. The group is not limited only to those who experience racial discrimination, but may also refer to minorities such as the poor or homosexuals.

Counterstories can appear in the forms of stories, parables, chronicles, or narratives For instance, Black slaves have written stories about their pain and oppression through songs, letters, and verses Delgado points out that counterstorytelling ultimately seeks to reallocate power by challenging the status quo and deconstructing conventional prejudice Counterstories are broadly defined and may appear in different formats including immigrant literature, which focuses on the experience of a group that is still seeking a place in the mainstream society. In a similar way that counterstorytelling is therapeutic to minority group members, novel-writing is a cathartic experience for immigrant authors.

In Critical Race Theory: An Introduction, Delgado and Stefancic state that writers of colour, with their historical background and experiences with oppression, can communicate matters that the whites are unlikely to address with the same authenticity 9. Although immigrant literature written by non-native writers should also be acknowledged for they may be less prone to present a biased viewpoint , many respected critics support the argument of voice-of-colour. Perry Nodelman and Mavis Reimer also claim that books by native writers have a greater likelihood of an authentic representation of minority groups To keep my research focused, I include works by immigrant writers.

The concept of acculturation forms the foundation of my research while providing a critical framework for my content analysis. I also draw on the notions of voice-of- colour and counterstorytelling from CRT to shape the theoretical lens through which I analyze my texts. In addition, I employ post-colonial terms as outlined in Literature Review to discuss my texts when appropriate. While the Chinese-North Americans are not colonized, I believe post-colonial theory can be used to view immigrant literature, which is a form of neo-colonial or diasporic writings McGillis xxiv, xxvi.

Methodology I interrogate my primary texts using a combination of qualitative content analysis, a minimal amount of descriptive quantitative content analysis, and close reading. Content analysis aims to minimize personal bias by recording information using a coding system with well-defined parameters. Ideally, a reliable system should produce consistent results regardless of the researcher. An Introduction to Its Methodology, Klaus Krippendorff claims that this methodology can be applied to the humanities field which essentially involves symbols and messages as well as their functions and effects 9.

In other words, specific themes in a book can be regarded as codes in content analysis. Specifically for this research study, content analysis provides an orderly system to record elements of filial piety as well as the acculturation strategies employed by characters. I approached my texts using a qualitative content analysis to document how characters view their heritage values in the host country. Compared to a quantitative approach, qualitative content analysis offers an inductive tool that can be applied to this research.


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Hsiu-Fang Hsieh and Sarah E. To ensure an objective yet flexible study, I adopted a qualitative content analysis approach to provide rich data about how people interpret the world.


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  • The procedure of the study is as followed: First, I designed two coding schemes in response to my research questions based on existing scholarly resources and theoretical frameworks. The first scheme focuses on filial piety while the second one centres on 39 acculturation strategies. Each scheme includes a coding manual which explains the indicators to be identified, and a coding table for documentation. Details of the schemes can be found in the next section. Second, I examined each primary text for any indicators of the schemes and recorded the findings in Appendices B and C, giving specific examples in note forms or in quotations.

    To facilitate comparison between texts, I also employed descriptive content analysis to note the frequency in which indicators appear in the texts in Tables 4. Third, I employed a close reading of the primary texts based on the findings in the tables. The combination of modified qualitative content analysis and close reading offers a reliable framework to develop an understanding of the depiction of family values and acculturation strategies in Chinese-North American immigrant novels. These two approaches complement each other and allow me the flexibility necessary to record and interpret concepts that are difficult to quantify.

    Content Analysis Coding Scheme The coding scheme addressing my research question on filial piety is developed from Classic of Filial Piety and two filial piety scales. Classic of Filial Piety, published in approximately BC, records the conversation between Master Kong the founder of Confucianism and his students. Both scales include 22 to 25 items, each of which is a statement e. Participants of the two research studies were required to rate themselves on the items on a 6-point scale. A higher total score in the scale reflects a stronger reported level of filial piety for an individual.

    Some items are scored in the opposite direction. For the purposes of my research, I derived four major codes from the items of the scales as well as quotations from Classic of Filial Piety. The coding scheme is as follows: The supporting and opposing examples for each code are listed in the table. The examples are briefly described with the inclusion of direct quotes when appropriate. The codes are explained below with quotes from Classic of Filial Piety, items on the filial piety scales, and my elaboration with supporting citations.

    Therefore respect the father and the sons are happy. Sons and daughters may protest against being unreasonably scolded by their parents N 2. No matter how their parents conduct themselves, sons and daughters must respect them. Sons and daughters do not necessarily have to seek parental advice and may make their own decisions N.

    As a son or daughter, one must obey one's parents no matter what. I obey my parents under all circumstances. I do what my parents want me to do. Respecting parents is a significant aspect of filial piety. Chen argues that formulating items in the reverse direction limits the impact of an acquiescence response set Spreading one's fame to glorify one's parents should not be the most important reason for getting ahead N.

    I strive for excellence in order not to disappoint my parents. One of the highest ends of filial piety is to honour the family name. Success often takes the form of academic achievement as education has always been greatly emphasized in China. On the other hand, Master Kong says that disgracing the family is considered an immoral, severe offense that harms the whole society After children have grown up, all the money they earn through their own labor belongs to themselves, even though their parents are still living N.

    When my parents are tired, I help them with housework and cooking. When I start to work, I contribute financially to my parents. As long as my parents are alive, I do not leave them to live overseas for a long period of time. Children should try their best to fulfill the material and mental needs of their parents.

    Self-Cultivation Classic of Filial Piety: The main reason for sons and daughters not to do dangerous things is to avoid getting their parents worried. I take care of my body in order not to worry my parents. To avoid my parents worrying about me, I never do dangerous things.

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    A filial child is expected to take good care of his or her body because it is a gift from the parents. By monitoring themselves in the correct way, the child keeps the parents from worrying. In order to explore my second research question regarding acculturation strategies, I developed a coding scheme on the basis of John W.

    The table is as follows: Acculturation Strategies Acculturation Strategies Protagonist Parents 1 Assimilation 2 Separation 3 Integration 4 Marginalization I noted any thoughts, behaviours, or dialogues that reflect the acculturation strategies of the protagonists and their parents. I also looked for possible shifts from one strategy to another. Separation occurs when individuals preserve their culture of origin and avoid contact with the new culture.

    Integration is employed when individuals retain their native culture while immersing in other cultures. Marginalization occurs when individuals maintain neither their root culture nor the dominant host culture. For example, individuals employing the strategy of assimilation often view the foreign culture as superior to the heritage culture, and others who integrate perceive both cultures in a positive light.

    Conclusion Through the theoretical frameworks of acculturation and Critical Race Theory, I investigate the representation of filial piety and the depiction of the relationship between family values and acculturation in my primary texts. Acculturation is a significant component in my research as it forms the basis of my research question about the effect of acculturation strategies on family values.

    Next, I apply the CRT notion of voice-of- colour to my selection of primary texts as well as the discussion of counterstorytelling to illustrate the importance of immigrant literature. I interrogate my texts using a combination of qualitative content analysis and close reading. Content analysis provides me a systematic format to document observable manifestations of family values and acculturation strategies.

    The coding systems are developed according to John W. The data gathered are recorded in table formats in the appendices. Next, I draw from the data collected to present a close reading of my novels. As such, I hope my research can build on the examination of Chinese- North American immigrant literature and provide additional awareness of the authenticity and comprehensiveness of existing texts.

    Tables in Appendix B summarize examples of the indicators, documenting the presence both positive and negative of filial piety, or equally its absence. Each table focuses on one primary text. The indicators were applied to a close reading of the four primary texts in order to identify and analyze different aspects of filial piety. Introduction The integration of Chinese immigrants into North American society often entails the re-establishment and modification of heritage culture and virtues such as filial piety.

    In Confucianism, Paul R. He claims that filial piety is considered the cornerstone of moral training and virtuous government in Chinese culture. These elements, as explained in the 47 methodology chapter, are the basis of Coding Scheme 1 for the examination of indicators of filial piety in the primary texts. The parent-child relationship is a major theme of all four primary texts. The first book surrounds the American-born Donald, who despises anything Chinese—including his father, a famous chef and opera performer.

    Examination of these parent-child relationships will be conducted in this chapter to explore the roles of filial piety in Chinese-North American immigrant literature. This chapter presents the positive and negative evidence of filial piety under the categories of the four indicators. Full details of the indicators are documented in Tables in Appendix B in note forms or in quotations.

    It is important to note that the descriptive quantitative data may not reveal the full picture of filial piety in the novels. Higher occurrence of indicators does not necessarily imply a stronger endorsement of filial piety. Thus, the analysis is mainly based on the qualitative 48 data in Appendix B, with the quantitative data in Table 4. Manifestations of respect can be measured in several ways. Indeed, they are expected to obey their parents unquestioningly Ho ; Chen, Bond, and Tang More importantly, Kong insists that even when disagreement is inevitable for moral reasons, children should still address their parents in a gentle and respectful manner.

    This mentality is reflected in the filial piety scales, where a respectful attitude towards parents should be maintained at all 49 times Ho ; Chen, Bond, and Tang As shown in Table 4. First, Bing is conscious of his filial duty to be respectful and obedient to his father. He dares not betray his fear of ghosts out of concern that that he will be considered disrespectful. Yet, Bing is rebellious mainly in his thoughts.

    In this case, his fear of the ghost overcomes his resolution to treat his father with regard. Although both characters recognize the filial obligation to be respectful, their relationship shifts from one-sided to mutually respectful by the end of the story. It is only then that Bing deliberately voices his dissatisfaction: So show your son proper respect! When Joan disobeys, her mother accuses her of being worse than a dog Joan refuses to consent to what she perceives as unreasonable commands from her mother.

    You treat me like. As well, Joan is irritated when her mother expects absolute reverence and submission from her without appreciating her efforts. The discrepancy in values between the two characters creates friction, misunderstanding, and disappointment in the parent-child relationship. On the surface, Donald is more indifferent than respectful towards his parents. In fact, Donald asks himself: Upon first examination, Donald seems to go against the Confucian teaching to respect his parents in his attempts to separate himself from them.

    A good example of this occurs in the novel when his father provides insight on the role of the Chinese during the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad in Following this interaction, Donald comes to have greater appreciation and respect for his father. Moreover, Donald is mostly obedient, which is one of the core elements in respect.

    As Donald never feels guilty for challenging his parents in this disrespectful manner, it is possible that the positive examples he demonstrated are not deliberate attempts to be filial. While Donald exhibits ambiguous feelings about the value of respect, the fact that his parents never criticize his disrespectful attitude suggests that the obligation to regard parents is not greatly emphasized in this family.

    In general, Mary maintains a comfortable relationship with her parents and does not feel particularly obligated to comply with their wishes as does Joan in The Star Fisher. There are also a number of occasions when Mary disobeys her parents. For example, she hides a kitten in the basement even though she knows that her parents will disapprove Additionally, she lies to her mother about the missing milk that she feeds the kitten Instead of feeling guilty or ashamed of her falsehood, Mary is more anxious to please her classmate Holly by adopting the kitten.

    Nonetheless, 54 Mary recognizes her prejudice towards her family by the end of the novel and understands their restrictions in learning American customs. Even though she has not reached the level of reverence for her parents, Mary learns to appreciate her imperfect family. Respect is reflected not only in the form of outward obedience, but the attitudes and thoughts the protagonists harbour towards their parents.

    As neither Donald nor Mary feel burdened to be respectful, it is likely that their parents do not stress this filial virtue. Furthermore, the social contexts of the stories may affect the preservation of heritage values in immigrant families. Through the portrayal of respect, the authors demonstrate ambivalent attitudes towards this aspect of filial piety. Nonetheless, the spirit of respect retains a position in the Chinese-North American immigrant families as portrayed in the texts.

    In fact, attaining achievement is a filial act because it honours and spreads the family name. Thus, appropriately devoted children should keep their parents in mind when striving for excellence Ho According to Table 4. Bing protects the reputation of his father by presenting a favourable image of himself in the Chinese community. He pretends not to believe in ghosts 44 and forges the courage to work in the haunted house This incident demonstrates the importance of honouring the family name in the perception of Bing as a dutiful son.

    Joan and her mother in The Star Fisher view protecting the reputation of the family as one of the responsibilities of children. They believe that children should conduct themselves in a way that the family name will not be disgraced. Joan is more determined to protect the family name than her younger sister Emily, who chews her sandwich with loud crunching noises 62 and scavenges food from her new friends As such, Joan may feel that she has a greater responsibility to protect the family name.

    When no one bids on her pie, she nudges her husband to buy the pie to avoid humiliation for the family The virtue of honouring the family name is subverted in the contemporary texts, Donald Duk and Yang the Third and Her Impossible Family. The negative examples in Appendix B, Tables 3 and 4 show that this filial element is reversed in the parent-child relationship. Instead of pleasing their parents, Donald and Mary constantly wish that their parents can behave better in front of their peers. Donald feels ashamed when his mother cannot understand Mrs. She is extremely embarrassed when her mother exhibits manners that she feels are culturally inappropriate in North American society.

    McNair argues that CRT provides a lens to identify the misrepresentations about race that seems to reinforce white supremacy instead of refuting stereotypes 9. She is extremely eager to fit into the new cultural system. Because of her racism, Mary demonstrates a reversed filial attitude and hopes that her parents can change their Chinese ways—unconventional in the mainstream society— so as to secure friendships with her classmates.

    In fact, Mary is less than grateful when her mother apologizes for letting her down While the filial value of glorifying parents remains instilled within the families of the two historical texts, it is subverted within those in the contemporary texts. Once again, the distinction may be caused by the social conditions of the stories.

    It is reasonable that immigrant families in earlier years maintained a stronger connection to their root culture and its values whereas families in more recent years are more open-minded to foreign cultures in the increasingly globalized world. The Critical Race framework is appropriate 59 in the comparison of the historical and contemporary texts in this study.

    At the same time, she claims that CRT takes a contemporary approach by acknowledging past-present racial linkages 9. Despite the differences among the historical and contemporary novels, this aspect of filial piety remains mostly consistent within each novel. In other words, the protagonists hold a similar stance to that of their parents.

    Bringing a contemporary outlook to this principle, Ho and Chen, Bond, and Tang claim that a filial child should support his or her parents financially, live close to them so as to take care of them, and assist them in daily chores Ho ; Chen, Bond, and Tang As recorded in Table 4. Despite the contempt Bing feels for his father, his willingness to provide for his father exhibits his adherence to this Confucian obligation.

    Indeed, Bing overcomes two of his greatest fears in order to protect his father. Furthermore, Bing demonstrates filial attitude through his sense of duty to support his family financially. His readiness to take on the responsibilities of his family reflects the deep-rooted filial belief in his mind. He feels obligated to take care of his seniors even though he is only fourteen years old. Another interesting observation is that Bing does not display positive examples of service until the second half of the story. In comparison, his father rarely reveals the belief that his son should serve him unconditionally.

    I can take care of myself. Stay out of my affairs! Has he begun to deny old Chinese values and subscribe to new Western ones? By portraying a gap in the values held by the two characters in the filial aspect of service, Yee illustrates how disparity in values may hinder understanding and create disappointment in the father-son relationship. Of the four primary texts, The Star Fisher contains the largest number of examples of service as represented by both Joan and her mother. She carries out domestic chores, acts as the translator for her parents 4, 27, , and takes up the role of a mother to her younger sister because their parents do not speak English 8, When fulfilling her duties, Joan displays mixed feelings about serving her parents.

    She is frustrated that her parents fail to compliment or acknowledge her efforts in the way her 62 teachers do. While she perceives herself as lenient according to Chinese standards, she is aware that by American standards she is strict. As she points out to Joan: Its absence, however, can be considered in several ways. Firstly, the lack of concrete filial examples reinforces the image of Donald, a foreign-born youth who is deeply assimilated into American culture and refuses to acknowledge his Chinese heritage.

    His experience shows the potential influence of the immigrant experience on young people, who are developing their sense of identities. This opens a possibility that Chinese immigrant parents do not necessarily impose pressure on their children to follow their 63 root culture in the new country. As the child of an immigrant father and a fourth- generation Chinese-American mother, Chin may be aware of the different attitudes immigrant parents have towards Chinese values. Instead of performing concrete chores, Mary serves her parents in less tangible ways such as aiding their transition into the new environment and improving their reputations.

    Furthermore, in the face of criticism, Mary defends her family against Holly and her mother Mrs. When you [Holly] picked up your viola for the first time, you probably played a few sour notes. Apart from the above few examples, Mary does not perform typical duties of a filial child such as providing financial support or shouldering domestic responsibilities.

    A straightforward explanation can be that immigrant parents in the earlier days were more concerned with this filial element and they passed it on to their children. However, one must also consider the situations of the four immigrant families portrayed in the novels. It may be natural, therefore, for the young protagonists to step up and assist their parents. Without urgent financial needs, Donald and Mary may not feel as obligated to support their families as Bing and Joan do.

    The attitude adopted by the dominant society towards minorities greatly affects their environment and experience. Thus, examining the filial value of service in the primary texts sheds light on the hardship and racial prejudice faced by Chinese immigrants in the early 20 th century. The purpose of Self-Cultivation is to prevent parents from worrying. As shown in the indicator of Self-Cultivation in Table 4. Indeed, the only positive example takes place in The Star Fisher.

    In this situation, Joan conceals her troubles at school from her mother in order to save her from worrying: Although Self-Cultivation is an imperative aspect of filial piety, it does not play a significant role in the primary texts. Bing returns to the haunted house even after many others run away from the house for their own safety Disregarding his personal safety, he also steals a missing skull from the basement of the hospital to reunite it with its body in the graveyard Without any textual indications of their knowledge of this tenet, it is possible that they do not consciously oppose the concept of Self-Cultivation.

    It may not occur to them that by exposing themselves to danger, they unintentionally disregard the importance their parents place on the value of Self-Cultivation. The value of Self-Cultivation is the element with the least evidence in these novels, despite the fact that it has priority as a core filial value according to Master Kong. While this absence of evidence pertaining to Self-Cultivation in the four novels might imply that the authors are unaware of the value, voice-of-colour suggests this might not be the case because writers of colour are likely to write with higher cultural authenticity Delgado and Stefancic 9.

    This theory holds that minority authors create accurate portrayals of under-represented cultures because of their first-hand experience of racial oppression as well as their familiarity with the particular culture 9. Based on this proposition, the Chinese-North American authors of the primary texts are likely familiar with the spirit of Self-Cultivation in filial piety and offer authentic representations of cultural attitudes. Instead of concluding that Self-Cultivation is insignificant in the Chinese-North American community, one might conclude that Self-Cultivation is given a lower priority by the authors in the creation of the primary texts, which may not be able to cover every value in detail.

    Summary Examining specific indicators of filial piety in the primary texts, it is possible to conclude that traditional Chinese family values are modified and adopted in different extents in the parent-child relationship of Chinese-North American immigrants. Historical characters such as Bing and Joan obey regardless of disrespectful thoughts, which mirrors the traditional filial belief that respect entails obedience Ho ; Chen, Bond, and Tang For Mary, obedience is not an essential demonstration of respect.

    For instance, Joan and Donald, both second-generation Chinese-Americans, explicitly express their frustration to their parents while the other protagonists tend to keep insolent thoughts to themselves. Born in the United States, Donald and Joan would be more familiar with the western structure of an equal parent-child relationship. It is also possible that being American-born increases their acculturative stress that is channelled towards their parents. There is a disparity between the presence of the indicator of Glory to Family in the historical and contemporary texts.

    In the historical texts, parents expect their children 68 to honour the family name. Conversely, the contemporary parents do not display such attitudes. Given the similar view of Glory to Family shared by the parents and child in each text, it can be assumed that the virtue of honouring the family name is passed on from parents to children, thereby suggesting the significance of parental influence even in a bicultural environment Evident in most texts except Donald Duk, the indicator of Serve and Provide for Parents is highly regarded in the primary texts.

    Both Bing and Joan in the historical texts exhibit a strong sense of filial duty to serve their parents. Their awareness of the necessity to assist their parents is perhaps logical given the intense racial discrimination as well as limited economic opportunities in the early 20 th century.

    As such, an examination of traditional family values sheds light on the racial discrimination in Chinese-North American history. In the traditional Chinese family hierarchy, males typically shoulder the financial burden whereas females take care of the household. The two historical novels 69 reflect this traditional hierarchy as Bing takes up an unpleasant job whereas Joan never considers employment outside the home.

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    Nevertheless, Joan also acts as an interpreter for her parents in addition to domestic chores. As her filial duty is no longer confined to the domestic sphere, Joan is empowered by the immigration experience. While acknowledging the influence of gender on exhibitions of filial piety, the authors expand the role of a filial daughter beyond the boundaries of traditional Chinese family structure, which in turn suggests the development of a more equal gender status in Chinese-North American families.

    The most prominent feature of the indicator of Self-Cultivation is its lack of evidence in the primary texts. Giving a lower priority to this particular indicator, the four immigrant writers appear to endorse only selected aspects of filial piety. According to the theory of voice-of-colour, minority writers are likely to provide an authentic view of their culture. The omission of Self-Cultivation in fictional stories, therefore, suggests that this core element of filial piety may be devalued in the Chinese-North American community as well.

    An examination of the primary texts reveals a diverse adoption of filial piety, a core Chinese family value, among the fictional depiction of families of Chinese-North American immigrants. In addition to the immigration experience, social and historical contexts, gender, and immigration status also play a role in contributing to the adoption of filial piety in the parent-child relationship as interpreted by the authors. By presenting the 70 varied and complex experiences of Chinese immigrants, the texts reject the essentialist belief that members of an ethnic group share similar characteristics and celebrate individual differences and uniqueness among minority groups.

    Acculturation Strategies Chapter Overview Examining the acculturation strategies pursued by the characters of the four primary texts, this chapter explores how these strategies contribute to the parent-child relationships and the presence or absence of Chinese family values. Evidence of the strategies was collected via Coding Scheme 2 derived from John W. Each table documents examples in a text in which the protagonist and his or her parents demonstrate the use of an acculturation strategy.

    The four strategies are 1 Assimilation, 2 Separation, 3 Integration, and 4 Marginalization. The results were then applied to a close reading of the texts to explore the influence of acculturation strategies within the fictional immigrant families.

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    Introduction Immigrants go through a process of acculturation when they move from one culture into another. Living Successfully in Two Cultures. Four acculturation styles are 72 observed: Assimilation occurs when individuals adopt foreign cultures and reject their original culture. Separation refers to the process in which individuals hold on to their original culture and avoid new cultures.

    Integration involves individuals who seek to participate in the larger society while maintaining their original culture. Marginalization is employed when individuals reject both their root and foreign cultures. Berry claims that individuals usually exhibit a pattern in their behaviours and attitudes that is consistent to a particular strategy in their everyday social encounters The fourfold model forms the basis of Coding Scheme 2 for the examination of acculturation strategies demonstrated in the primary texts This chapter examines the primary texts on a book-by-book approach.

    Each text is examined by comparing the major strategies pursued by the characters in response to acculturation, thereby exploring how acculturative styles affect the parent-child relationship and family values. Full details of the indicators are presented in Tables of Appendix C in note form or in quotations. As in the chapter on filial piety, the descriptive quantitative data in Table 5. The numerical findings, however, may not reveal the full picture of acculturation strategies in the novels.

    Bing most frequently seeks a strategy of separation. He is involved in eight examples of separation, three examples of assimilation, as well as one example each of integration and marginalization. He repeatedly recalls his life back in China, from the scent of the farmland to the way his mother picks her fingernails clean with a hairpin and scrubs her feet Yee 8. The manner in which Bing recalls every detail reveals how he treasures and longs for his old life.

    This belief is shown in his thoughts: If only I were back in China! Grandmother and Mother would go to the temple and pray. And the ancient gods and spirits would protect me. There is no one here I can rely on. Evidently, Bing holds a positive attitude towards China and views it as a better place than Canada, and follows traditional Chinese cultural norms and beliefs. He also burns a paper model of the house—a Chinese ritual to respect the dead—in an effort to appease the ghost of a deceased Canadian , This event can be seen as significant, as Bing bridges the two cultures by bringing a Chinese traditional ceremony into a Western context.

    In fact, his success is acknowledged by his Canadian employer, Mrs. Bentley, who travels a long distance to Chinatown to thank Bing. In addition, Bing wishes the Chinese patrol can protect him outside of Chinatown. They think that too many Chinese live here. He is cautious to leave Chinatown 75 because of his unfortunate experience of being harassed by two drunks.

    This assumption reflects a victim mentality in which he views ethnicity as the cause of unequal treatments. In this way, Bing attempts to distance himself from the stereotypical Chinese image and seeks to assimilate. Bing is also disappointed in the passivity of Chinese men in response to racial prejudice in Canada: His observation is a case of assimilation as he measures the Chinese according to North American culture. At the same time, Bing is constantly reminded by others that he is not fully Chinese, but a Chinese-Canadian. At times, bias against Chinese-Canadian youth drives Bing to experience marginalization as he feels excluded from both cultural 76 groups.

    At the end of the novel, Bing demonstrates an integration strategy when his employer Mrs. Bentley saves him from the gangsters. This thought implies that Bing has become more open-minded and positive towards the host society he once considered dangerous and foreign. He is moving towards a strategy of integration in which he feels comfortable in both places. All in all, Bing pursues a number of strategies in response to the larger society, which in turn complicates his attitude towards his heritage country and Chinese father.

    He stays in Chinatown most of the time and never interacts with a foreigner in a pleasant manner. He divides the two cultures in his mind and thus utilizes separation to detach himself from people outside Chinatown. His occupation as a bone collector who ships skeletons of deceased Chinese back to their hometown for burial also indicates that his loyalty belongs back in China 7. Evidently, he perceives their everyday problems through the lens of prejudice. He presumes that the Chinese are victims of the dominant culture, which reinforces his refusal to interact with other cultural groups.

    His behaviour resonates with the strategy of separation and explains his reliance on filial piety in his relationship with Bing. Both Bing and his father employ separation as their main acculturation strategy. Sharing a similar attitude towards Chinese and Canadian cultures, they experience less conflict regarding their orientation in response to acculturation. A difference between the two characters is that Bing also demonstrates examples of other strategies whereas his father relies solely on the separation strategy. Nevertheless, acculturation does not appear to be a major source of conflict in the parent-child relationship in the novel.

    As the only Chinese family in town, the Lees are labelled as outsiders and have to battle against discrimination to keep up the family laundry business. They do not seek assimilation or marginalization within their new West Virginia community. At times, Joan sheds her heritage culture and seeks to identify with the Americans. Yet, her outlook shifts to separation from time to time.

    In those examples, Joan identifies with the Chinese. She also acknowledges that Chinese is an integral part of her family: Even though Joan is born in the United States and can recall factual details of the country, she is oblivious to a number of American cultural practices. While Joan finds American culture foreign at times, she also feels distant towards Chinese culture because of her American-born background. Her guilt illustrates her lack of belonging to either world. To which group do I belong? With one foot in China and one in the United States, Joan struggles to fit into either group and is constantly discouraged in the acculturation process.

    Later in the novel, Joan gains a lesson on integration from her classmate Bernice, who is bullied not for her racial background, but for being the child of actors. Here, Joan recognizes her own prejudice against others and learns to overcome her prejudgment. This openness and curiosity to something new or different is extended to ethnicity in the novel. Even after they have settled in the United States for over fifteen years, her parents avoid the host culture and remain faithful to Chinese traditions in many ways.

    Their Chinese practices range from preferences for Chinese newspapers 4 , 81 insistence on their children speaking Chinese at home 4 , the use of the Chinese calendar , to the continuous reliance on Chinese values in teaching their children 48 and dealing with strangers 27, Their reluctance to adopt foreign customs creates misunderstanding and tension in their daily life. The distrust of strangers almost ruins their friendship with Miss Lucy, who later plays a crucial role in introducing the Lees into the community. Acculturation strategies affect the parent-child relationship in The Star Fisher in several ways.

    Secondly, the acculturative stress Joan experiences makes it difficult for her to maintain a filial attitude. The two disagree because they uphold different value systems. Donald initially feels a strong attachment towards the United States, but his view changes when he begins having strange dreams about the railroad from the perspective of a Chinese worker. Struggling against his American upbringing and the prejudice to Chinese it entails, Donald finally learns to embrace his heritage culture and acquires a newly-found loyalty to China.

    As recorded in Table 5. Donald Duk displays two major strategies over the course of the novel, with a noticeable shift from an assimilation attitude to a separation approach. Initially, Donald clearly rejects his Chinese heritage. His assimilation strategy is clearly conveyed through his wish to replace his heritage culture with the host culture. However, Donald shifts from assimilation to separation once he begins dreaming about being a Chinese railroad worker in the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad.

    His dreams become a recurring motif, allowing him to connect with his heritage. Donald is furious when he learns that the Chinese contribution to the railroad is omitted from American history books. As he learns about the discrimination against the Chinese in the past, Donald adopts a separation strategy and tries to evade his American school and his white best friend, Arnold In the resolution of the novel, Donald is more inclined to seek integration and reconciles with his American friend Arnold instead of rejecting all white people This shows that he is no longer ashamed of his bi-cultural background.

    Yet, his final choice of acculturation strategy is not explicitly stated. It is therefore logical that he displays a combination of several acculturation strategies through his actions, thoughts, behaviours, and dreams. They are fluent in English, comfortable in North American culture, yet maintain strongly connected with their Chinese traditions. She is accustomed to 86 living with people from other cultures.

    And that makes them stronger than any of the American-born. In addition, King does not over-generalize racism. When Donald accuses all Americans of mistreating the Chinese, King corrects his son: King Duk distinguishes ethnicity from character, and teaches Donald to distinguish his real friend among the Americans Donald and his parents respond to acculturation with different strategies, leading to a gap that affects the parent-child dynamics in several manners.

    Firstly, their strategies contribute to the lack of filial expectations in the family. Donald, who is largely assimilated to the American culture, is unaware of the duties required as a filial son. His parents, who prefer integration, are open-minded towards other cultures and do not impose Chinese values on their children. As a result, the novel has the least number of 87 indicators of filial piety among the four texts. The absence of indicators reflects that filial piety is not a value expressed strongly by the author, suggesting that heritage culture may be absent as a result of acculturation.

    Secondly, misunderstandings and conflicts may occur when family members employ different acculturation strategies. At the same time, King Duk mocks his son who regards himself as an American: Conflicts arise between Donald and his father because of their varying approaches to acculturation. He pulls Donald back when the latter engages in extreme feelings of separation and teaches him to distinguish his allies among the white Furthermore, King Duk teaches Donald that as minorities, they have the responsibility to recover lost knowledge as a way of integrating and bridging the two cultures.

    History is war, not sport! He encourages Donald to speak up and reorient history. Donald Duk is an example of how counterstories present alternative realities of the world as claimed by Critical Race theorists. It discloses that American historical texts do not 88 necessarily record the full picture of events.

    As King Duk instructs Donald, it is crucial to revisit the Chinese participation in the transcontinental railroad in order to integrate the Chinese reality into the mainstream culture. While Mary tries her best to fit into the mainstream society, her family keeps embarrassing her with their Chinese ways.

    After the attempt to befriend her popular classmate Holly, Mary finally acknowledges that Chinese heritage is a core part of her identity and appreciates the diversity of the multicultural society in which she resides. By contrast, there are only three examples in which her parents seek a separation strategy. Throughout the novel, Mary is enthusiastic to imitate practices of the dominant culture in order to secure friendships and acquire a sense of belonging to the mainstream 89 society.

    Unlike her family members, Mary dislikes appearing different from the others. She is the only Yang member who selects an English name for herself since her Chinese name, Yingmei, is too hard for the Americans to remember In addition, Mary is greatly attracted to the host culture. Likewise, Mary tries to persuade Eldest Brother to join a sports team so that others will not call him a nerd Later in the novel, Mary begins to realize that being different is not necessarily unpleasant and thus learns to accept her Chinese identity.

    If Kim respected them 90 [her family] in spite of their differences, I should respect them, too. She understands that learning American customs does not mean she has to be ashamed of her family and change their ways Mary also acknowledges that Chinese is a core part of her identity that she cannot deny. But a part of me will always remember China. As such, the major acculturation strategy Mary appears to use shifts from that of assimilation to integration. Her reservation towards unfamiliar practices shows her inclination to keep her accustomed Chinese ways in the new society.

    An example is how she calls Mrs. Hanson old and fat, cultural- 91 specific mistakes made because of her continuous reliance on the Chinese idea of compliment. Her unwillingness to participate in the host culture is likely caused by fear and perplexity. She apologizes to her daughter for acting in a manner inappropriate in the United States: She is hesitant in acquiring the host culture and gravitates towards her root culture, thus demonstrating an adoption of a separation strategy.

    Mary adopts an assimilation strategy and is more anxious to acquire American culture than Chinese values. Even though her parents express an attitude of separation, they show a fear of another culture rather than a strong endorsement to their heritage culture. She is disappointed when her family does not act in the proper American way. Even after Mother apologizes for embarrassing Mary, Mary is unforgiving in her thoughts: In the second part, Mary starts to demonstrate an integration strategy by accepting the Chinese-ness in herself.

    Instead of being ashamed of Mother, Mary feels more ashamed of herself Summary An examination of the primary texts reveals how the acculturation strategies pursued by the characters play a number of roles in the parent-child relationship as well as in the endorsement of filial piety.

    Acculturation strategies contribute to the presence or absence of filial piety at two levels. At an individual level, characters seeking a strategy of separation generally reflect a higher degree of filial piety than those who pursue an assimilation strategy. Acculturation strategies also appear to affect the position of filial piety at the level of the family. Examining the four texts, characters demonstrating a more consistent acculturation strategy seem to have a great impact on the degree of filial piety in the family.

    This suggests that the strategies of acculturation followed by the characters not only influence characters on an individual 93 level, but also affect the overall family dynamics. By comparing the acculturation strategies pursued by protagonists and their parents, it is possible to conclude that an acculturation gap leads to increased conflicts within the parent-child relationship. Here, the acculturation gap causes misunderstanding, thus drawing Donald away from his parents.

    Joan, whose marginalization strategy indicates a rejection of both cultures, also clashes with her mother, whose separation strategy entails a strong reliance on Chinese traditional values in parenting. Generating disagreement and tension in the parent-child relationship, an acculturation gap creates greater challenges for protagonists to treat their parents with respect.

    As such, Chinese immigrant characters may find it harder to maintain traditional filial piety when their responses to acculturation differ from those of their parents. Payton testified that the DC-XA test vehicle had beencompletely rebuilt using new Politjcs technologies thatcould possibly be used in the X program. The DC-XA isexpected to begin flight testing soon. Other roles also change extensively. Participation by parents, students and other communitystakeholders on school councils implies a basic shift from advocating personal viewpoints toparticipating in a forum that must take a schoolwide view and address the concerns of manydifferent stakeholders.

    This will require considerable team building to develop trust andwillingness to work through differences and develop a consensus. Even the role of district staff changes from planning and overseeing various aspects of schoolfunctioning to becoming responsive service groups whose customers are the operating units inthe schools. Increasingly these groups will exist to support changes emanating from the schoolsrather than to initiatechange that will be rolled out to the schools.

    Post the response actionsfor reporting threats or acts of terrorism. Call or the localsheriff if suspicious activities occur. Plan for public notification. Practice response plans on a regular schedule.