Gaspar Ruiz (Condenado a muerte por desertor) (Spanish Edition)

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  1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Juan Pizarro, not satisfied with this partial success, made a bold dash at the entrance into the fortress. Beneath this outwork the crafty Indians had recently dug a deep pitfall. But, unfortunately for them, as they came flying in from the pursuit of the Spaniards, they fell one upon another, heaped together in such a manner that " they filled up with their own bodies that which their own hands had made.

His men recovered, and bore ofE the body of their commander, in which life was not extinct, though the wound was of a fatal nature, for Juan Pizarro never rose from his couch again. After this great check, Gonzalo Pizarro, on whom the command had now devolved, did what he could to reanimate his men; but his efforts were of no avail. The numbers of the enemy brought to bear upon the points of attack continued to increase, and the Spaniards were obliged to draw. The whole of the day, therefore, was spent in making scaling-ladders by all who could be spared for that service.

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They were not many who could be spared, for the enemy gave Gonzalo Pizarro and Fernando Ponce no rest all day, endeavoring to force the strong position which these commanders occupied. The In- dians in the fortress did all they could by words and signs to animate their friends, even calling by name upon particular chiefs to come to the rescue; but the Spaniards maintained their positions.

That day Fernando Pizarro was to be seen every where throughout the Spanish quarters. The contest grew so furious and the shouts so loud the Indians, like all partially civilized people, were great shouters in war , that it seemed "as if the whole world was there in fiercest conflict. Knowing that the fortress was besieged, and being as well aware as Pizarro how important the possession of that strong-hold was, he sent a re-enforcement of five thousand of his best soldiers.

In the city itself the. This was an oversight on the part of the Indian generals. More pressure on the Spanish posts in the grand square would have compelled the withdrawal of some of the Spaniards engaged in in- vesting the fortress ; and when the contending par- ties are greatly imequal in point of numbers, to mul- tiply the points of attack is a mode of warfare which must teU disastrously against the less numerous party.

The day went on without either side having gained or lost much. But the Spaniards had maintained their positions while the scaling-ladders were being made. These being finished, Fernando Pizarro and the foot-soldiers commenced their attack at the hour of vespers. This was an excellent disposition of the troops. Fernando and his men pressed up to the walls with the utmost fury and determination. The conflict had now lasted about thirty hours, and the re-enforcements of Indians had not succeeded in making their way into the fortress.

The succor most wanted there was fresh anmaunition. Stones and darts began to grow scarce among the be- sieged ; and Villaoma, seeing the fury of his new ene- mies, resolved to fly. Communicating his intentions to some of his friends, with them he made his way out of the fortress at the part which looked toward the river. The ground there was very precipitous. Taking this secret route, Villaoma and his friends made good their flight, without being perceived by the Spaniards; and when beyond the walls of the fortress, Villaoma collected and drew off the division of his army which consisted of the Ohinchasuyan In- dians.

From thence the recreant high-priest went to his master the Inca, who, when he heard the ill news, was ready to die of grief.

Crónica en Corea: Habla el desertor norcoreano

At the time Villaoma fled, the fortress was not al- together lost. In it there remained an Indian chief of great estimation among his people, one of those who had drunk out of the golden vases, and witi whom were all. The whole night through these devoted men maintained their position.

Fernando Pizarro's efforts throughout those eventful hours were such as desperation only could inspire ; and as the day dawn- ed, he had the satisfaction of perceiving that the de- fense of the Indians began to slacken ; not that their brave hearts were daunted, but that the magazine of stoneiB and arrows was fairly exhausted. The fate of the beleaguered Indians was now clear to all beholders, to none clearer than to themselves ; still this nameless captain gave no signs of surrender. Traversing all parts of the fortress with a club in his hand, wherever he saw one of his war- riors who was giving way, he struck him down, and hurled his body upon the besiegers.

He himself had two arrows in him, of which he took no more account The Fortress Taken. Seeing at last that it was not an Indian here and there who was giving way, but that the whole of his men were exhausted, and that the Spaniards were pressing up on the scal- ing-ladders at all points, he perceived that the combat was hopeless. One weapon alone remained to him, his club. The hero of the Indians having thus perished, no pretense of farther resistance could be made.

Fernando Pizarro and his men made good their entrance, and disgraced their victory by putting the besieged to the sword, who were in number above fifteen hundred. SUCH was the dismay occasioned among the Peru- vians by the captm-e of the fortress that they de- serted their positions near the city, and retired to their encampments, which were well fortified. Fernando Pizarro sallied forth the next morning, and attacked and routed the Indians from the Chinchasuyo dis- trict The day after he made an onslaught with equal success upon those of Collasuyo.

The succeed- ing day this iron man marched out against the In- dians of Condesuyo. On each occasion the Span- iards, having open ground for their cavalry to act upon, were entirely triumphant, and the slaughter of the Peruvians must have been immense. These trans- actions took place at the end of May, It might now be imagined that the Spaniards in Cusco would be allowed to have some repose after the unwearied exertions they had made in the defense of the place, and the chastisement, as they would have called it, of the Indians.

But the provident mind of Ferdinand Pizarro thought othervflse.

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Calling all his men together, he thus addressed them: Wherefore, he said, they must make up their minds to be prepared for tie worst. To use his own words, " they must make their hearts broad enough for every thing that might occur to them. Gonzalo Pizarro had hardly returned to Cusco when the Lidians recommenced their siege. It seems that these unwise warriors had desisted from their attack, not from ill success only, but from being called away by certain religious ceremonies.

The Indians, having completed their sacrificial cer- emonies, recommenced the siege of Cusco, but under very different auspices to those of their former enter- prise. The Spaniards now not only occupied the fortress, but had extended their works beyond the city, and the Indians were not able to gain an en- trance into any part of it.

This second and futile siege lasted twenty days, when it was time again for the Indians to withdraw in order to make their im- perative sacrifices. Still they were not daimted in their main purpose of investing Cusco ; and when the Spaniards withdrew into their quarters, the Indians reconmienced the siege. Fernando Pizarro now took a terrible resolve. He was not a cruel man, and, in- deed, was noted for his kindness to the Indians. Cmd JSkpedient of Fernando.

Oh no, there's been an error

In one of these skir- mishes, at no great distance from Cusco, he put to flight some Indians, who left on the ground two bun- dles, which were secured and carried back to the city, and which, when opened, caused the greatest distress and grief throughout the garrison, for in one of them were found six heads of Spaniards, and in the other a great number of torn letters. Among these letters there was one, nearly uninjured, from the Empress, in which she informed the colony of the victory which the Emperor had obtained over the galleys of Tunis, fighting against Barbarossa and the Turks who were with him.

Ffemando Pizarro, seeking truth in a way but too familiar in that age, put some of his captives to the torture, and extracted from them the information that large succor had been sent from Los Keyes, but that the various parties of Spaniards who had thus been sent to their assistance had all been intercepted and slain on their way to Cusco, and that the Lica had as trophies two hundred heads of Christians, and one hundred and fifty skins of horses. These tor- tured Indians also said that the governor, with all his people, had embarked from Los Keyes and deserted the country.

This last information was not true, but it was very possible that the Lidians believed it to be so, for Los Keyes, as well as Cusco, had been invest- ed, and in great peril. On hearing this bad news, a deep despondency fell upon the Spanish garrison at Cusco. Fernando Pi- zarro, whom nothing daunted, thus sought to reani- mate his men. CaUing them together, he said, " No- ble and very valorous gentlemen, I am exceedingly astonished, and with great reason, that where there are persons who so much esteem honor, they should in any way show weakness at a time when they have need for the greatest hardihood.

Then, in the spirit of an exalted chivalry, he added 4liat they ought to be glad Critical Position of the Sjpaniards. Much, he said, as he was indebted to his brother, he was not sorry that he should not partici- pate in the victory which he himself still intended to achieve in keeping these provinces.

They had pro- visions for a year and a half ; they must take care to sow more grain ; " and then," he said, " I think we can hold this city for six years, and I shall be glad if in all that time we receive no succor. Considering what had taken place at Los Eeyes, which has now to be narrated, the report among the Indians of the flight of the marquis was not an un- reasonable one. Fernando Pizarro, at the beginning of the Indian revolt, had taken care to inform his brother at Los Keyes of the peril which threatened him at Cusco.

The marquis had sent a body of men under Gonzalo de Tapia, who had been cut off ; and the loss sustained by the Spaniards, in this and other attempts of the same kind, amounted to four princi- pal captains, two hundred men, and a great number of horses. When the bad news of these troops hav- ing been cut off reached Pizarro at Los Eeyes, and when he received no news whatever from his brothers at Cusco, he concluded that they were in great straits. The marquis felt his position to be most critical. He summoned back one of his principal captains, Alonzo de Alvarado, whom he had sent to conquer the prov- ince of Chachapoyas.

He also wrote to Panama, Nicaragua, Guatemala, New Spain, and to the Auddr encia in Hispaniola, informing the Spanish authori- ties of the state in which he was placed, and praying for instant succor. In the letter which he wrote to Alvarado at Guatemala he said that if that governor 56 The Design of Teyyupangui. Hero they remained for five or six days ; and it may serve to show the won- derful temerity of the Spaniards, that it was serious- ly debated among them whether they should not be- come the besiegers and invest the Indians in their rocky citadel.

They resolved to prepare shields of a peculiar construction, to protect themselves from the stones that would be thrown by the Indians ; but these shields, when made, were found to be too heavy for the purpose, and so the Indians were suffered to com- fnence the attack. Their general, Teyyupangui, resolved to take the city, or to perish in the attempt. Calling together his men, he said, " I intend to force my way into that town to-day, and to kill all the Spaniards who are in it.

Then we will take their wives, with whom we will marry and have children fitted for war. Those who go with me are to go upon this condition, that if I die they shall all die, and if I fly they shall all fly. Pizarro made his prep- arations. The Indians advanced toward the town, and forced their way over the walls and into the Siege afJLoa Beyea rcmed. But, aa the ground was level, the Spanish cavaliers were enabled to act with all the tremendous superiority which their arms, their horses, and their armor gave them.

Their success was instantaneous. Unfortunately for the Indians, Teyyupangui, and the principal men who surrounded him, were slain in this first encounter. The loss of their general entirely dispirited the Indian forces. The Spaniards, following up their advantage, drove the enemy back to the foot of the sierra from whence they came ; and when the governor, on the succeed- ing night, would have pursued his original plan of storming the heights where the Indians had taken refuge, he received inteUigenoe that they had broken up their camp and fled.

This was the end of the siege of Los Eeyes. That town being now free from its besiegers, and Alonzo de Alvarado having obeyed the summons which had been sent to him, and having arrived at Los Eeyes, the governor began to take immediate steps for the relief of his brother at Cusco. The forces, however, which he had at his command were very inadequate for that purpose. The number that he could spare amounted only to a hundred horse- men and one himdred and fifty foot-soldiers.

With these, however, Alonzo de Alvarado was ordered to march to the province of Xauxa, and there to chas- tise the Indians who had cut oft the forces that had been previously sent to Cusco ; but the Spanish com- mander was not to move on to Cusco imtil he should receive re-enforcements.

This captain left Los Eeyes about the month of October, He had soon a hostile body of Indians to encounter, whom he put to flight, and made his way without f artlier opposition to C2 58 Cradty of the JSpaniards. He sought, by submitting his prisoners to torture, to discover from them what was the condition of Fernando Pizarro and the Spaniards at Cusco. Meanwhile Fernando Pizarro, supposing himself to be alone in the country, and becoming, if possible, more resolute and daring on that account, did not cease to send out expeditions for the purpose of at- tacking the Indians and of obtaining provisions.

Oc- casionally he was in greater peril than ever, but his bravery and his address always preserved hinu In one of these expeditions, the Spaniards having cap- tured some Indians and brought them within the town, they resorted to the cruel expedient of cutting ofE the right hands of no less than four hundred of them, and sending these poor maimed creatures to the Inca. Fae tanto'el temor que desto los demas cobraron que todas las goamiciones que estayan en esta Comarca se deshicieron. A more formidable enemy was soon to enter on the scene.

Rumors began to arise about this time that Almagro was returning from Chili. This was first communicated by the Indian captives, and some credit was given to their intelligence, because, whenever the revolted Indians fell in with the Span- iards, they threatened them, saying that the Adehmta- do was coming ; that he was their friend, and intend- ed to kill all the Spaniards of Cusco. These sayings and reports were current for two months, and at last there arrived certain intelligence of the fact that the Adelantado, with five hundred Spaniards, was within seven leagues' distance of the city of Cusco.

The reason of his coming, the mode of his coming, his intention with regard to the Pizarros, and the con- sequences of his return, form a narrative that was of the utmost significance for the whole of Spanish America. In the history of En- gland, the battle of Hastings was by no means conclu- sive as regards the Norman Conquest ; and the con- quered Anglo-Saxons, under the gallant Hereward, maintained a most obstinate and dangerous resistance to the Norman troops.

The internal dissensions of the Peruvians, which were at their height when Pi- zarro first arrived in the country, must be considered as having furnished no slight aid to the Spaniards ; and, in the absence of such dissensions, the conquest might have been deferred for many years. Each year the Peruvians would have attained more skill in resisting horsemen ; and, as it has been observed be- fore, horses were the chief means of conquest which the Spaniards possessed.

The transport of these an- imals in the small vessels of those days must always have been difficult and expensive, and many years might have' elapsed before a body of two thousand Spanish horse could have entered Peru, especially if the invasion had not at first been brilliantly success- ful. How completely the Peruvians were dismayed by horses may be inferred from the fact that, when they had these animals in their power, they put them to death instead of attempting to make use of them. THE career of Almagro was so singular and so dis- astrous that it needs all the explanation that can be given to it.

Almagro hiniSelf was in a position not above his ambition, but far above his capacity. In such a case it is always well to look to the coim- selors by whom a man is surrounded. One was Diego de Alvarado, a per- son of the utmost nobility of nature, and, at the same time, delicacy of character. Gabcilaso describes him as " a knight, very knightly in aU respects.

The conduct of the governor varied according to the advice which he listened to from one or other of these widely-different counselors. They seem also, which makes the career more strangely fluctuating, to have prevailed with the governor at very short intervals of time. The mild counsels of Alvarado were listened to in the morning; and some unscrupulous deed, prompted probably by Orgofiez, was transacted in the evening. The return of Almagro from Chili was not much to be wondered at.

From the first landing of Pizarro to the taking of Cusco, the advance of the Spaniards had been little other than a triumphant march. Con- querors had been borne along in hammocks on the shoulders of obsequious Indians to rifle temples plated with gold ; but the advance into Chili was an enter- prise of a different kind. Almagro and his men went by the sierras and returned by the plains. In both journeys they had great hardships to suffer. In the " snowy passes" men and horses had been frozen to death, and on their return by the plain they had been obliged to traverse a horrible region, called the desert of Atacama, which could only be passed with the greatest diflSculty.

On what pretext did they return, as there were no new circumstances to justify such a course? The dispatches from Spain, appointing Almagro governor of New Toledo, only reached him after he had com- menced his journey into Chili ; but he had been in- f onned of their contents before, and he had taken that solemn oath, when the Host was broken by the two governors, in perfect cognizance of his rights.

It is very likely that the question of the limits pf his government was often renewed and discussed by his men and his officers in the course of their march and over their watch-fires, and, being discussed with all the passion and prejudice of estger partisans, it is very probable that there was not a man in Almagro's little army who did not think that Cusco fell within the limits of his commander's government. Their misery doubtless sharpened their prejudices, and Al- magro's weary, frostbitten men must have sighed for the palatial splendors and luxuries of Cusco, which they had foolishly given up, as they would have said, to these Pizarros.

Even the mines of Fotosi, had they been aware of their existence, would hardly have proved a sufficient inducement to detain Almagro's men in Chili. But PotoBi was as yet undiscovered, ' and Cusco was well known to every individual in the army. A greater man than Almagro might have carried his companions onward, but Almagro was chiefly great in bestowing largesses, and Chili af- forded no scope for such a commander.

It must not be supposed that the question of the limits to Pizarro's government was an easy one, and that it was merely passion and prejudice which de- cided in the minds of Almagro's followers that Cusco fell within the province of New Toledo. There were several ways of reckoning the two hundred and seven- ty-five leagues which had been assigned to Pizarro.

They might be measured along the royal road. In short, it was a question quite suflSciently dubious in itself to admit of prejudice coming in on both sides with all the appearance of judicial impartiality. However that may "be, Ahnagro and his men took the fatal step of returning to maintain their supposed rights, which step a nicer sense of honor would have told them that they had, whether wisely or not, aban- doned when they quitted Cusco.

What efEect their approach must have had upon Fernando Pizarro and Ms immediate adherents may be easily imagined. For many months he and his men had scarcely known what it was to have two days of rest. The efforts of the Indians were now slackening; and just at this moment there arrived an enemy who was to replace the softly-clad and poorly- armed Indians by men with arms, spirit, and accoutre- ments equal to tihiose of the Spaniards of Cusco, and in numbers greatly superior.

The first movement, however, of the mariscal was not directed against the Spaniards in Cusco. Pre- viously to attacking them he strove to come to terms with their enemy, the Inca Manco. Had he succeed- ed in this politic design, he would then have been able to combine the Inca's forces with his own, and would also have had the appearance of having inter- vened to settle the war between the Indians and the Spaniards.

This plan, however, failed. Meanwhile Fernando Pizarro had made several attempts to nego- 66 Fernando negotiates with the Mariscai. He endeavored, by meBsengers, to lay before the mariscal some of the motives which should regu- late his conduct at this crisis, saying how much it would be for the service of God that peace should be maintained between them: He offered Almagro to receive him in the city with all honor, saying that Almagro's own quarters were prepared for himj but, before aU things, Fernando Pizarro urged that a messenger might be sent to the marquis in order that he might come and settle matters amicably, and that meanwhile the ma- riscal should enter the town with all his attendants.

To this message an evasive reply was sent by Alma- gro, who, on a Monday, the 18tii of April, , made his appearance, with all his people, and pitched his camp at a league's distance from Cusco. Fernando Pizarro invited him again to enter the city as a friend. To this Almagro haughtily replied, " Tell Fernando Pizarro that I am not going to enter the city except as mine, or to lodge in any lodgings but those where he is," meaning that he would occupy the governor's apartments.

Fernando Pizarro sent another message, pointing out to Almagro the danger to be apprehended from the revolted Indians, and begging that there might be amity between ihem until the marquis should arrive. To this Almagro replied that he had authority from the king as gov- ernor, and that he was. Having said this, Almagro advanced nearer, encamp- ing within a crossbow shot of the city. Both sides now prepared for battle ; but Fernando Pizarro, whose prudence throughout tiiese transactions is very re- markable, called a council, and it was agreed by them The Mariscal agrees to a Trace.

As Fernando Pizarro had procured the powers and brought them from Spain, he knew very well what they contained ; but it was a reasonable request that the grounds upon which Al- magro sought to enter the town should be laid before the governing body. Almagro, especially if he listened at all to Diego de Alvarado, could not well refuse his assent to this proposition. Accordingly a truce was made for that day, and until the next at noon. Early on the ensu- ing morning Almagro sent his powers to be laid be- fore the Town Council, but he demanded that before they should be produced, Fernando Pizarro, as an in- terested party, should absent himself from the coun- cil.

Almagro ehould not give room for such a great scan- dal as forcing an entrance into the citj'-, which they declared would be the ruin of all parties. Fernando Pizarro gave sini- ilar orders for the defense of the city. At this last moment, however, the royal treasurer and a licentiate named Prado went out of the town to Almagro's camp to endeavor to bring the disputants to terms, and they succeeded in prevailing upon Almagro to extend tiie time of truce to the hour of vespers on the Wednesday in that same week, Almagro saying that he wished to prove how Cusco fell within his limits.

He would say that at this point of time Almagro was the strongest; that there was no use in waiting for any negotiation with the marquis ; that nothing would come from him but men and ammunition to assist his brother; that this was an affair which arms or stratagem must de- cide ; that many men in Cusco were adverse to Fer- nando Pizarro ; and that much good Spanish blood might be saved if an attack were to be made this very night upon the city. Moreover, their camp was deep in snow and mud, and altogether their position was very perilous. AlniagTO breaks the Truce.

The evil counsel prevailed, and it was resolved by Almagro to surprise the city. Fernando Pizarro, who was a perfect cavalier, was completely at his ease that night, expecting now that he and Almagro would be able to come to terms un- til he should have time to let the marquis know what was passing. As a man of honor, he made up his mind that he could not deliver up the fortress with- out his brother's permission. At midnight there was a disturbance in Almagro's camp, it being given out that the bridges which led to the city were broken down.

Immediately the soldiers shouted "Almagro, Almagro! Let the traitors die I" and they rushed over all the four bridges not one of which was broken down into the great square. Thence they spread themselves into the streets, Orgonez, with a large body of troops, making his way to the governor's apart- ments, still shouting " Almagro, Almagro!

He had time, however, to put on his armor. The greater part of his men fled, but fifteen remained with him and his brother Gonzalo. Fernando placed himself at one door, Gonzalo at another. The palace was " as large as a church," and the doorways were propor- tionately large, without doors to them. Still the brothers defended themselves with the utmost valor.

The building was set on fire. Of their fifteen com- rades, several were cut down fighting by their side, and it was not until the roof began to fall in upon these brave Pizarros, and until they were quite over- powered by numbers, that they were overcome and made prisoners. Almagro took formal possession of Cusco as its governor, and began to piersecute those who held with the Pizarros. This was Pedro de Lerma, who had expected to have the conduct of this expedition himself.

On their way to Cusco, Alonzo de Alvarado learned what had happen- ed there, and how the mariscal was now in possession of the city. This route Al- magro knew would lead into a defile, where the horse- men could only go one or two abreast, and where Al- magro hoped to place his men in such a position that they could disarm the others easily.

Almagro, finding that his artifices had failed, now sent an embassage, consisting of Diego de Alvarado, Gomez de Alvarado, and other persons, to treat with Alonzo de Alvarado. After the gross treachery practiced in the surprise of Cusco, Almagro could hardly expect the usual terms of courtesy and good faith to be kept with hijn. It was represented by the friends of the Pizarros to Alonzo de Alvarado that, being a relation of those Alvarados who had come to the camp, if he did not seize them, it would appear like a confederation on his part with the ene- mies of the marquis.

This seemed a just view of the case to Alonzo, and accordingly, though he showed much courtesy to these friends of Almagro, and beg- ged them to exctise him, he took away their arms and placed them in confinement. Almagro, receiving no answer to his embassage, moved out from Cusco to the bridge of Aban9ay, where Alonzo de Alvarado had taken up his position.

Almagro had not omitted, sinciB his occupation of Cusco, to attempt to come to terms with the Peru- vians. He had failed, however, in negotiating with Manco Inca, and had, in consequence, given the horla to Manco's brother Paullo, who now proved very ser- viceable to him ; for Paullo's Indians were able to communicate with Alvarado's camp, and, being less observed than Spaniards would have been, to convey letters to the discontented there. At this juncture, Alonzo de Alvarado sent fourteen horsemen to inform the marquis of all that had hap- pened ; and had these messengers waited, they would soon have had to convey worse intelligence.

This treachery of Pedro de Lerma was not long in coming to the ears of Alonzo de Alvarado, who ordered them to be apprehended; but the traitor. The military position, however, of Al- varado was strong. Thero was much negotiation between the hostile parties, but as it proved fruitless it need not be re- counted here. Alonzo de Alvarado, in the first in- stance, had demanded that the brothers Pizarro should be set at liberty. This was a demand not likely to be listened to by the Almagristas ; and, in fact, the state of affairs was such that there was nothing left but an appeal to arms.

Accordingly, an attack on Alvara- do's position was made at nightfall, when Almagro's artillery began to play upon it. The Indians under- Paullo also did good service on that side, for they made such use of their slings that Alvarado's men could not act except when protected by the bulwark. Moreover, the shouting of the Indians lasted all night, so that they kept Alvarado's.

Half an hour before daybreak the real attack com- menced on the part of the Almagristas, when three hundred horsemen threw themselves into the river and began to attempt the passage. They had no dif- ficulty in passing, for the treachery on the other side was flagrant. An historian, whose father was one of Alvarado's principal captains, and who was, there- fore, likely to have heard a true account of this bat- tle, says, " And because those men of Almagro, by reason of its being night, and their not knowing the ford; did not dare to enter injo the river, those on the other side entered to guide them.

The victory was complete. It was not without diiSSculty that they obtained what they asked, for the fierce Or- gonez, whose maxim was " that the dead dog neither barks nor bites," was desirous to put Alonzo de Al- varado to death, and was very much dissatisfied at be- ing prevented from ordering his instant execution. The plan of marching upon Los Eeyes was so far adopted that it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet that all should prepare themselves for the march.

There were, however, persons in Almagro's camp who had wives and families at Los Eeyes, and they did not approve of this proposal. After the matter had remained two days in doubt, it was re- solved to return to Cusco. Thus, in every way, Almagro's faction was triumphant. Fernando and Oonzalo mnst have heard in their prison the joyous return of those who had conquered tiieir friends ; and the marquis, who did not even yet know the worst, when he received the hews brought him by Alvara- do's fourteen horsemen, broke out into loud com- plaints of his fll fortune.

He sent orders at once to Alvarado not to move on to Cusco ; but, before his messengers had left Los Eeyes, the fatal battle of Abangay had taken place. When Pizarro heard of this, he resolved to send an embassage to treat with Almagro. When these important personages had arrived at Cusco, they found that they could make no way in their mission.

Almagro said that he would not give up a hand-breadth of the land which his majesty had conferred upon him, and that he was determined to go to Los Eeyes and take possession of that city. But Almagro made light of this authority. The exhortations of Gaspar de Espinosa met with no better fate ; and yet, if tiiere were any one to whom Almagro might be expected to listen, it was this li- centiate.

He had been a partner in the original en- terprise of Pizarro and Almagro. He was a man of great experience in coloiiial afiairs. He had been judge in Vasco Nufiez's case, and was not likely to underrate the evils arising from the infraction of au- thority. There is this to be said in defense of Almagro's conduct, that it was im- possible for him now to do any thing which was not full of danger and diflSculty.


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Finally, he resolved to move forward to Los Eeyes, carrying Fernando Pi- zarro with him, and leaving Gonzalo Pizarro and Alonzo de Alvarado, with many other prisoners, at Cusco, in the charge of a numerous body of guards. Fernando Pizarro was watched by twenty horsemen on the march, whose sole duty it waa to have charge of his person; and he was not allowed to wear spurs.

When Almagro and his men entered the valley of Lanasca, news reached him that Gonzalo Pizarrp and the other prisoners had bribed their guards, and had escaped. Never was the life of Fernando Pizarro in greater danger. Orgofiez might now add to his prov- erb "that the dead need no guards;" but Diego de Alvarado's milder council prevailed, and Fernando Pizarro was borne in the cavalcade of Almagro to Chincha. There Almagro halted, and founded a new town, which was called after his own name. Meanwhile a favorable turn had taken place in the fortunes of the Marquis Pizarro, who was at Los Eeyes, surrounded by auxiliaries, who had come to him from the diflEerent quarters to which he had ap- pealed for assistance.

These last obtained a special mention at this timey be- cause, from recent improvements in their arms and in the mode of handling them, they had become a more formidable kind of force than they had hitherto been. Almagro, having been informed of the nature and the number of Pizarro's forces, abandoned at once hifi plan of attacking Los Eeyes.

Lideed, he sought to strengthen his own position in the valley of Chin- cha by digging pitfalls and raising bulwarks ; and, in order to prevent any surprise, he stationed parties of the friendly Lidians under Paxdlo at the several en- trances to the valley, in order that no Spaniards might come into or go out of that district without his knowledge. Pizarro's moderation and prudence were not abated by his growing strength in men and arms. Almagro, notwithstanding his recent suc- cesses, was in a humbler mood than when he refused the prudent mediation of the Licentiate Espinosa.

Finally, therefore, it was agreed on both sides tiat the 80 Meeting of. Pizarro cmd Almagro, Provincial Bobadilla, of the Order of Mercy, should be appointed as judge in the case, who, with the as- sistance of "pilots," should fix the limits of the re- spective governments of New Castile and New To- ledo, The fiery Orgonez did not at all approve of this arbitration, and his reason for disapproving of the person to whom the arbitration was intrusted is very singular.

Thither he summoned both governors to appear before him, each to be attended by twelve horsemen only. Both governors prepared to come ; but, as might be expected, the gravest suspicions oc- cupied the minds of their respective partisans. Aft- er the marquis had set out, his brother Gonzalo was induced by PizaiTo's followers to advance with the army in the direction of Mala. The treachery of Almagro, by which lie had gained an entrance into Cusco, and his sending forged letters to Alonzo de Alvarado, had put him, as it were, beyond the pale of confidence.

It was said that Francisco de Godoy, one of Pizarro's captains, had given notice to Alma- gro of some intended; treachery by singing the first words of a romanciUo, which ran thus — "Tiempo es, caballero,. The minds of both factions were in a morbid state of suspiciousness. It was, therefore, of no avail for the marquis to send, as he did next day, to tell the mariscal that the army had moved without his leave, and that Almagro should return to com- plete the agreement which they had commenced on the previous day, for the mariscal would not resume the interview.

When this sentence was communicated to the ma- riscal, he declared that he would not abide by it, and his men maintained that it was a most unrighteous judgment. It was so much, however, for the interest of both parties that some amicable conclusion should be ar- rived at, that negotiations were again commenced. The good Diego de Alvarado was consulted, and his voice was, as it always had been, for measures of peace. Finally, a treaty was concluded, of which the principal stipulations were, that Fernando Pizarro should be liberated, and that Chincha should be evac- uated; that Cusco should be put in deposit until the king should decide upon the disputed question, that city remaining in the same state in which it was when Almagro entered it, having the same alcaldes and regidors, and the repoHimientoa which had then been in existence continuing to belong to their own- ers ; also, that Almagro and his people should con- quer the country in one direction, Pizarro and his in die other.

Lastly, that Pizarro should give Almagro a ship, which ship, notwithstanding the above, should be allowed to enter the port of Zangala or Chincha, wherever the vessel might happen to touch. Alma- gro's messengers, having settled these terms on behalf of their master, returned to his camp. Castile who had never seen a lance, and knew not what suffering was, to enjoy those conquests which they had gained with their blood. To prevent this, he had determined to set Ferdinand Pizarro at liberty, that he might go to Spain to present himself before the Emperor.

Eodrigo Orgofiez was furious on hearing this in- telligence. He declared that he had no faith what- ever in the contract being kept " Never," he said, " were excuses wanting to the perfidious to prevent their fulfilling what they had promised. But Almagro and the friends of peace were not to be deterred from their resolve. Accordingly the mariscal, proceeding to the place of Fernando Pizarro's confinement, or- dered him to be released. Immediately they em- braced ; and, after an interchange of courtesies, the mariscal said that, forgetting the past, he should hold it for good that henceforward there should be peace and quietness among them all.

Fernando Pizarro re- plied veiy graciously, declaring that it would not be his fault if it were not so, for it was what he most desired, and immediately he to6k a solemn oath pledging himself to fulfill what had been agreed upon. When he had given these securities, the ma- 84 The Boydl Order from Spain. All the chief men of the army then vis- ited him. Afterward they accompanied him about half a league from the camp, and then, with great demonstrations of amity, took their leave.

There must now have been thorough trust for the time on the part of Almagro, for he sent, in company with Fernando Pizarro, his son Dion de Almagro, com- monly called el mogOy " the youth," together with the Alvarados, and other cavaliers of his party. These were all very well received by the marquis, who lav- ished courtesies and gifts upon them, paying particu- lar attention to Almagro's son.

After these princi- pal persons had returned to the camp of Almagro, it was broken up, and his army marched to the valley of Zangala, where he began to found a town, instead of the one which he had founded at Chincha, and which he was bound by the treaty to evacuate. At this point of time, when, to aU appearances, there was some hope o peace, at least for the Span- ish colonists in Peru, if not for the Indians, there sud- denly arrived a messenger: The messenger's name was Pedro de Angurez, and the day on which he arrived was the very day on which - Fernando Pizarro had been set at liberty.

Este dia llego el capitan Pedro Anzares con una provision de V. The Royal Order from, Spain. On the road to Ohincha the marquis's troops found the wells filled up, which they attributed to the mariscal's men. When Pizarro had arrived at Chincha, he sent to Almagro to notify the royal or- ders to him, to which the mariscal replied that these orders were in his favor, for from where he was to Chincha he had conquered and peopled the country, and, accordingly, he it was who was within the limits of his own government, and he begged that Pizarro would move out of it.

There is no doubt that both sides now believed themselves to be wronged and affronted. Orgofiez and his party, no doubt, clamored loudly about the perfidy of the Pizarros. No sooner had a treaty been settled than these Pizarros hastened to recommence hostilities. This came of injudicious clemency. On the other side, the conduct of the Almagristas was stigmatized by Pizarro's partisans in the harshest terms. The word they used was " tyranny," taken in the old Greek sense of the unlawful seizure of sover- eignty ; and, to punish such tyranny, the whole of Pizarro's army moved forward.

The mariscal, being made aware of this by his spies, withdrew to Guay- tara, a pass in the sierra so difficult that to surmount it was considered equivalent to passing a great river three times. Pizarro's troops followed the Alma- gristas. On our side, then, we have justice ; on that of Almagro is covet- ousness. Then, in a grand, chivaJrous way, for Fer- nando Pizarro's words are always full of dignity, he continued, " I know well that it is a great error on my part, where there are so many cavaliers and men zeal- ous in the service of their prince, to put before them the obligation which they have to serve him, since I can not magnify it so much as I know that, in the breasts of all, there is the wish to show it by deeds ; so, with that confidence,!

If any of you has need of arms or horses, let him tell me, and I will cause him to be provided with them according to his needs; for," as he delicately added, " as you come from afar, senores, you may be wanting in some things. Its inspiriting influ- ence, the pressure from want of subsistence for the camp of Pizarro was almost without provisions , and the fear that Almagro might move by the coast upon Los Eeyes and take it suddenly, combined to make Pizarro's army resolve to take the pass of Guaytdra, which was admirably defended by nature, by Alma- gro's Indian auxiliaries, and l y a strong body of Al- magro's own troops, occupying the heights.

At Guay- tdra itself the main body of Aimagro's army was post- 88 Fernando takes the Pass of Guaytdra.

When the spies gave notice to the Ahnagristas that Pizarro's army was coming, it was but a subject of jesting for them, as they looked upon their own position as impregnable. Fernando Pizarro, however probably the greatest captain of his time in this kind of warfare , looked only to where the difficulty was greatest, and where, therefore, the care of the enemy would be least, and this was where the body of Spanish troops was posted on the height.

At the foot of it they dismounted, and they had now a league of moun- tain to ascend — all of it sheer ascent. Moreover, Al magro's captain was informed of their enterprise the Almagristas were much better served by spies than the other party , and he and his men waited for Fer- nando Pizarro, considering him to be a lost man.

The marquis staid at the foot of the sierra, intending to follow if Fernando Pizarro should gain the pass. And the pass was gained. With darkness alone to aid them, heavily encumbered with arms and armor, being obliged sometimes to climb the more precipi- tous parts on their hands and knees, the Indians hurl- ing down great stones upon them, sometimes sinking in the sand in such a way that instead of moving for- ward they slid down again, they still contrived to reach the summit.

It was an arduous task for Fer- nando Pizarro, a heavy man with ponderous armor, totally unaccustomed to go on foot; but his exertions were so strenuous as to astonish all beholders. It happened that five or six of Pizarro's soldiers gained the height at the same moment. They shouted " Viva el Eey 1" with such vigor that the enemy, supposmg the whole of the army was upon them, were panic- Snow Sickness. To show the difficult na- ture of this pass, it may be mentioned that it was midday before the whole three hundred reached the summit.

Fernando Pizarro was greatly delighted with the success of his enterprise, and held it to be a happy omen for the future. The marquis, with the rest of the troops, were now able at their ease to sur- mount the pass. Almagro and his troops retreated, and Pizarro's forces moved onward in an irregular and disjointed manner, being informed that Almagro was making his way to Cusco. After a few days' march they arrived at the highest point of a barren waste, where it rained and snowed much, and the. Now it happened that on that very night the Al- magristas were much nearer to Pizarro's men than these imagined.

Indeed, Almagro's camp was not more than a league off, and he was very much bent upon making an attack upon Pizarro's forces. As day broke, Pizarro's army saw the situation in which they were, and Fernando Pizarro, whose valor never left his wisdom far behind, counseled instant retreat. The marquis listened to his brother's advice, and the army retreated to the valley of lea to recruit themselves.

Then the principal captains besought Pizarro to re- turn to Los Eeyes, as, on account of his age, they said he was unfit to endure the labors of such a campaign. The governor consented ; and, leaving Fernando Pi- zarro as his representative, returned to Los Eeyes. Marching to the valley of Lanasca, he halted there, and reviewed his men. He f omid that they amounted to six hundred and fifty, two hundred and eighty of them being horse- men, and the rest pikemen, arquebusiers, and cross- bow-men.

Good soldiers were not to be judged by whether they had horses or not, but by their own valor. Each man should be rewarded ac- cording to his services: Fernando Pizarro was personally not much loved. Almagro retired to Cusco, where he made the most vigorous preparations to witistand. In Cusco nothing was heard but the sound of trumpets summoning to reviews, and the hammering of silver on the anvil, for of that metal it was that they made their corslets, morions, and arm-pieces, which, using double the quantity of silver that they would have used of iron, they render- ed as strong "as if they had come from Milan.

Meanwhile Fernando Pizarro was advancing slow- Jy to Cusco, being so watchful against any surprise of the enemy that his men marched in their armor. He, too, went armed, and with his lance in liis hand. They had to make long circuits, for it was winter, and tlie rivers being swollen, they were obliged to ford them high up in the course of tixeir streams.

Fernando Pi- zarro strictly forbade his men to rob or distress the natives, and having chastised some of those who had offended in this way, many of his followers were much displeased, and remained behind, hidden in the In- dian villages which the army passed through. When informed of this, Pizarro merely replied that he could not consent to the Indians being robbed ; that who- ever wished to follow him must do it upon that con- dition, and not for the sake of one hundred or two hundred defaulters would he desist from his enter- prise.

Having arrived at a place called Acha, he Orgofiez goes out tofighi Pizcmro. Afterward he proceeded to a spot where there were three roads, and, to deceive the enemy's scouts, he pretended to pitch his tent there. Then, when information had been carried to Orgofiez, who hastened to occupy a certain pass, Fernando Pi- zarro suddenly ordered the tents to be struck, march- ed the whole night, and occupied the pass at which the enemy had thought to stop him.

Almagro's cap- tains now changed their plan of remaining in the city. Their men were better armed than Pizarro's, their horses were fresh, and they knew of the numerous desertions from Pizarro's camp which had taken place during his march. After a review, in which the men were found to be in the highest order, Almagro's forces marched out of the city to battle, in number about six hundred and eighty, three hundred of them being horsemen. It appears, however, that some of the foot-soldiers went with an ill will, for the city was not altogether of Almagro's faction, and eighty of these men.

Before Orgofiez left Ousco to take the command, he went on his knees in Almagro's presence, and spoke thus: He may permit that I should not come alive out of the battle; but if the contrary is true, may it please Him that you should gain the victory, as we all desire. He embraced, with many tears, his bold champion Orgofiez, who then quitted the dty. Orgoflez was instantly made ftware by his sconts that Fernando Pizarro had pitched his camp near the salt-pits, and he moved his own camp to a spot three quarters of a league from the city, between a sierra and the river.

His infantry he put under the shelter of some ruined houses which were there, flanking their position by some artillery which he had in very serviceable order. The Indians, commanded by the Inca Paullo, to the number of fifteen thousand, were placed on a de- clivity close to the royal road. Orgofiez himself oc- cupied the plain with all his cavalry, who wore white vests over their armor.

The disposition was very skillful. The royal road was between the infantry and the cavalry, and Orgofiez reckoned that if Pi- zarro's army came by that road, it being very narrow by reason of the salt-pits which were on one side and on the other, he could easily destroy them. Fernando Pizarro also made his preparation for battle. He did this not only that he might be known by his own men, but by those of the opposite side, to whom, it is said, he sent notice of his dress. He had re- ceived indignities when in prison, and was anxious to meet his personal enemies in the field.

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