Coordinated Specialty Care CSC has been found to be especially effective in improving outcomes for people after they experience their first episode of psychosis. Coordinated Specialty Care involves a team of providers who work with the individual using shared decision making to implement a multi-faceted program aimed at helping the individual to recover. The CSC team also works closely with the individual's primary care provider.
Medications are often used to help control the symptoms of schizophrenia. They help to reduce the biochemical imbalances that cause schizophrenia and decrease the likelihood of relapse. Like all medications, however, anti-psychotic medications should be taken only under the supervision of a mental health professional. Atypical or "New Generation" antipsychotics are less likely to cause some of the severe side effects associated with typical antipsychotics i.
A third, smaller category of drugs used to treat schizophrenia is known as "miscellaneous antipsychotic agents. They range from mild side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, drowsiness and dizziness which usually disappear after a few weeks to more serious side effects such as trouble with muscle control, pacing, tremors and facial ticks.
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Here are some key points about schizophrenia. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Schizophrenia most commonly strikes between the ages of 16 and 30 , and males tend to show symptoms at a slightly younger age than females. In many cases, the disorder develops so slowly that the individual does not know that they have had it for many years.
However, in other cases, it can strike suddenly and develop quickly. Schizophrenia affects approximately 1 percent of all adults, globally. Experts say schizophrenia is probably many illnesses masquerading as one. A sizable proportion of people with schizophrenia have to rely on others because they are unable to hold a job or care for themselves. Some patients may present clear symptoms, but on other occasions, they may seem fine until they start explaining what they are truly thinking. The effects of schizophrenia reach far beyond the patient - families, friends, and society are affected too.
Experts believe several factors are generally involved in contributing to the onset of schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that genetic and environmental factors act together to bring about schizophrenia. The condition has an inherited element, but environmental triggers also significantly influence it. Below is a list of the factors that are thought to contribute towards the onset of schizophrenia:. If there is no history of schizophrenia in a family, the chances of developing it are less than 1 percent.
However, that risk rises to 10 percent if a parent was diagnosed. Experts believe that an imbalance of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, is involved in the onset of schizophrenia. Other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin , may also be involved. There is no evidence to prove or even indicate that family relationships might cause schizophrenia, however, some patients with the illness believe family tension triggers relapses. Although there is no definite proof, many suspect trauma before birth and viral infections may contribute to the development of the disease.
Stressful experiences often precede the emergence of schizophrenia. Before any acute symptoms are apparent, people with schizophrenia habitually become bad-tempered, anxious, and unfocused. This can trigger relationship problems, divorce, and unemployment. These factors are often blamed for the onset of the disease, when really it was the other way round - the disease caused the crisis.
Therefore, it is extremely difficult to know whether schizophrenia caused certain stresses or occurred as a result of them. Marijuana and LSD are known to cause schizophrenia relapses. Additionally, for people with a predisposition to a psychotic illness such as schizophrenia, usage of cannabis may trigger the first episode. Some researchers believe that certain prescription drugs, such as steroids and stimulants, can cause psychosis.
With proper treatment, patients can lead productive lives. Treatment can help relieve many of the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the majority of patients with the disorder have to cope with the symptoms for life. A number of psychosocial interventions may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia including: Schizophrenia has great human and economic costs. Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability , with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness.
There is a higher than average suicide rate associated with schizophrenia.
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Schizophrenia and smoking have shown a strong association in studies worldwide. Schizophrenia affects around 0. Despite the prior belief that schizophrenia occurs at similar rates worldwide, its frequency varies across the world,   within countries,  and at the local and neighborhood level.
In , the World Health Organization found the percentage of people affected and the number of new cases that develop each year is roughly similar around the world, with age-standardized prevalence per , ranging from in Africa to in Japan and Oceania for men, and from in Africa to in Southeastern Europe for women. In the early 20th century, the psychiatrist Kurt Schneider listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders.
These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms. They include delusions of being controlled by an external force, the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind, the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people, and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices.
A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between and found that they allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms should be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems. The history of schizophrenia is complex and does not lend itself easily to a linear narrative. A detailed case report in concerning James Tilly Matthews , and accounts by Philippe Pinel published in , are often regarded as the earliest cases of the illness in the medical and psychiatric literature.
In Emil Kraepelin borrowed the term from Schule and Pick and in introduced a broad new distinction in the classification of mental disorders between dementia praecox and mood disorder termed manic depression and including both unipolar and bipolar depression. However, this account ignores the fact that there is little to connect Morel's descriptive use of the term and the independent development of the dementia praecox disease concept at the end of the nineteenth century.
American and British interpretations of Bleuler led to the claim that he described its main symptoms as four A ' s: Treatment was revolutionized in the mids with the development and introduction of chlorpromazine. In the early s, the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were the subject of a number of controversies which eventually led to the operational criteria used today. David Rosenhan 's study, published in the journal Science under the title " On being sane in insane places ", concluded that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the US was often subjective and unreliable.
The term schizophrenia is commonly misunderstood to mean that affected persons have a "split personality". Although some people diagnosed with schizophrenia may hear voices and may experience the voices as distinct personalities, schizophrenia does not involve a person changing among distinct, multiple personalities; the confusion arises in part due to the literal interpretation of Bleuler's term "schizophrenia" Bleuler originally associated schizophrenia with dissociation, and included split personality in his category of schizophrenia.
Individuals with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia, are at a significantly greater risk of being victims of both violent and non-violent crime.
Media coverage relating to violent acts by individuals with schizophrenia reinforces public perception of an association between schizophrenia and violence. Research has found a tentative benefit in using minocycline to treat schizophrenia.
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- Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia.
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Various agents have been explored for possible benefits in this area. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Schizophrenia disambiguation. Mental disorder characterized by abnormal behavior and failure to understand reality. Basic symptoms of schizophrenia.
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