Basics in Dermatological Laser Applications: 42 (Current Problems in Dermatology)
Moreover, Goldman investigated the use of Argon laser in the treatment of vascular malformations, and the use of Carbon dioxide laser for the photo-excision of skin lesions [ 12 ]. In , Mester, having discovered the positive effects of low-energy red laser on hair growth in rats, decided to use the same system to stimulate the healing of pressure ulcers. Only a year later, Dougherty experimented with the use of laser in activating photosensitive substances which were able to bind and destroy cancer cells selectively. This was the origin of photodynamic therapy.
In the same period, Goldman was still studying the effects of different lasers in the treatment of dermatological diseases, underlying the importance of protection measures and suggesting the idea of the laser as a diagnostic tool [ 13 ]. In , he also introduced the neo dymium: YAG laser in the treatment of vascular lesions. In the mid-seventies, the Italian Sesti started on investigating non-surgical lasers in wound healing; in , his team treated successfully a case of a pressure sore. Nevertheless, was only in that laser therapy has been deeply revolutionized by the selective photo-thermolysis theory, postulated by Rox Anderson and John Parrish: Only three years later, Oshiro Atsumi described the use of non-surgical lasers and their mechanisms of action.
In the same time, Passerella was studying the laser effects on mitochondria. In , the Food and Drug Administration FDA drew the first guidelines for the use of lasers in various vascular and dermatological lesions. From that era, FDA updates them each year. The eighties are also characterised by the first use of a photo-acoustic laser in the treatment of penis plastic calcifications, and by the introduction of the lasers-sclerotherapy for the management of telangiectasias of the lower limbs.
Finally, the nineties has been characterised by an increasing of study and case reports of laser resurfacing Gregory and others , laser hair removal and laser rejuvenation. By the first researches of Goldman, modern dermatology may have at the disposal of a wide range of laser equipment, often very similar to each other, which can treat, many cutaneous diseases with absolute efficacy and safety [ 15 ].
Among the dermatologic lasers, the surgical ones are the more commonly used Tab. Due to its specific wavelength nm and to its variable nature and duration of output continuous, pulsed , CO 2 laser may be useful for the treatment of different skin or mucosal diseases Table 3 [ 16 - 18 ]. Others fundamental dermatologic lasers are the vascular ones, maybe the devices which have most benefited from the continuous technological progress. Even if different types of laser are available for the treatment of different vascular lesions Table 5 [ 20 - 22 ], the DYE laser Wavelength: Finally, there are the dermatologic lasers useful for aesthetic purposes, such as devices for removal of benign pigmented lesions, hair removal, tattoo removal and patients resurfacing Table 6 [ 23 - 26 ].
Maybe, this area of laser therapy is the one who most had benefit by the introduction of Q-switched devices. Q-switched lasers produce very short pulses nanoseconds with high peak powers megawatts , allowing better and faster clinical results. Among the first group of devices there is the Xenon Chloride excimer laser wavelength: Among the second group, the Nd: YAG laser is an excellent example of how the technological progress may lead to a wider area of clinical uses, such as the lipolysis and the treatment of onychomycosis [ 32 - 34 ].
This research did not receive any financial support. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jul Serena Gianfaldoni 1 University G. Massimo Fioranelli 4 G. Maria Grazia Roccia 5 University B. Roberto Gianfaldoni 1 University G. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The authors discuss a brief history of lasers and their use in dermatology. Only two weeks later, Gould and Schawlow built their ruby lasers. Table 1 Milestones in the Lasers development. Sorokin and Mirek J. Stevenson Uranium laser Leo F. Johnson and Kurt Nassau Neodymium-doped solid state laser J.
McClung and Robert W. Geusic and Richard G. Popov Excimer laser Charles H. Henry Quantum well laser John M.
Madey Free-electron laser FEL. Sivco, Carlo Sirtori, Albert L. Hutchinson and Alfred Y. Cho Semiconductor laser that can simultaneously emit light at multiple widely separated wavelengths Wolfgang Ketterle Pulsed atom laser Shuji Nakamura, Steven P. DenBaars and James S. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Surgical lasers. CO 2 laser Erbium laser Holmium laser. Table 3 Clinical indications for CO 2 laser.
Seborrheic keratoses Actinic cheilitis Actinic keratoses Epidermal nevi Scars Sebaceous adenomas Balanite xerotica obliterans Warts Basal cell epithelioma Erythroplasia of Queyrat Stains melanin Neurofibromas Oral papillomatosis Resurfacing and Rejuvenation Rhinophyma glandular type Syringomas Trichoepitheliomas Xanthelasmas Condrodermatite nodular helix Skin resurfacing and renjuvenation. Table 4 Clinical indications for Er: Table 5 Vascular lasers.
Laser Characteristics Clinical indications DYE laser Liquid solution with a particular pigment Rhodamine contained in a cylindrical cell Pws; facial telangiectasias; spider veins; pyogenic granulomas; Rosacea; pecilodermia of Civatte; cutaneous vascular ectasia Nd: Table 6 Dermatological lasers for aesthetics purpose. YAG nm Tattoo removal Nd: YAG nm black or dark blue tattoo or nm red, violet, pink and brown tattoo , Ruby black, dark blue, green tattoo , Alexandrite black, blue and green tattoo Not ablative resurfacing DYE laser, CO 2 Q-switched laser.
Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung. Kopfermann H, Ladenburg R. Emission mechanism of a gas discharge. Amplification of microwave radiation by substances not in thermal equilibrium. Application of molecular beams to the radio spectroscopic study of the rotation spectra of molecules. Zh Eksp Theo Fiz. The Maser —new type of microwave amplifier, frequency standard, and spectrometer.
Proposal for a new type solid-state maser. Infrared and optical masers. In order to successfully result in a complete conduction block, a fully transmural lesion must be created in the heart. When comparing the effects of different energy levels, studies have shown that the use of higher energy levels results in higher rates of PVI with lower AF recurrence rates and no compromise of the safety profile 45 , In neurological surgery, MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy MRgLITT is commonly used to treat refractory epilepsy, either as a means of ablating the epileptic foci, or as a disconnection tool.
MRgLITT combines a diode laser nm with imaging technology to provide intraoperative information that is necessary for controlling the amount of energy delivered 47 , A review conducted by Bandt et al. In addition to resective techniques for epilepsy management, there are disconnective treatment strategies that separate the epileptogenic brain from the nonepileptogenic brain by corpus callosotomy or hemispheretomy.
Journal Rankings on Dermatology
Since their development, the use of lasers in medicine has become extremely widespread and often imperative. From life-threatening diseases to psychologically stressful cosmetic defects, laser therapy has led to advancements in countless pathologies, ultimately benefiting both patients and physicians.
The evolution of laser technology thus far has led to the practice of minimally invasive procedures, shorter recovery times, and less risk to patient health. As laser technology continues to improve in precision and safety, their applications in medicine are sure to expand to continue providing safer outcomes, more optimal clearance of disease, and improved patient satisfaction. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Ann Transl Med v. Beina Azadgoli and Regina Y. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. I Conception and design: B Azadgoli; II Administrative support: None; III Provision of study materials or patients: None; IV Collection and assembly of data: B Azadgoli; V Data analysis and interpretation: None; VI Manuscript writing: All authors; VII Final approval of manuscript: Received Jul 21; Accepted Nov Copyright Annals of Translational Medicine. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract In modern medicine, lasers are increasingly utilized for treatment of a variety of pathologies as interest in less invasive treatment modalities intensifies. Lasers, laser lithotripsy, laser therapy.
The Evolution of Laser Technology in Dermatology
Table 1 The various lasers commonly used in medicine along with the wavelength at which they operate, their absorption chromophores, and their clinical applications. Open in a separate window. Laser physics A simple laser consists of a laser medium which determines the wavelength of the system enclosed between two parallel mirrors, one of which is partially reflecting and partially transmitting.
Laser-tissue interaction The effect that a laser has on a sample of tissue is dependent on both properties of the tissue as well as the laser. Clinical applications of lasers As minimally invasive techniques are continually being sought out for the treatment of different pathologic processes, the use of lasers has become increasingly popular in modern medicine. Lithotripsy Laser lithotripsy has been a widely accepted technique for the fragmentation of urinary and biliary stones for the past few decades Oncology Lasers are currently being safely used for the treatment of cancers arising in various organ systems.
Basics in dermatological laser applications.
Aesthetic and reconstructive surgery The unique ability of lasers to target specific structures and layers of tissue makes them a powerful tool in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery. Ablation of conductive pathways After it was discovered that the pulmonary veins PV are an important source of ectopic beats that lead to the paroxysms of atrial fibrillation AF , the development of catheter ablation devices was inspired for circumferential PV isolation PVI Discussion Since their development, the use of lasers in medicine has become extremely widespread and often imperative.
Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: Coherence in Spontaneous Radiation Processes. Phys Rev ; Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung. Phys Zeitschrift ; Stimulated optical radiation in ruby. Introduction, history of lasers and laser light production. Br Dent J ; The physics of surgical lasers.
Lasers Surg Med ; 1: Principles of lasers and biophotonic effects. Photomed Laser Surg ; Omi T, Numano K. Laser Ther ; The laser in neurological surgery. J Neurosurg ; Theoretical and experimental investigations prove Nd: YAG laser treatment to be safe. YAG laser in neurological surgery. Surg Neurol ; Lasers Surg Med ; 8: A perspective on laser lithotripsy: J Endourol ; YAG laser and pulsed dye laser: Lasers Surg Med ; Pulsed dye laser lithotripsy--currently applied to urologic and biliary calculi. J Clin Laser Med Surg ; 9: Lasers in Urologic Surgery.
Photosensitization method to improve lithotripsy with dye and alexandrite lasers. J Urol ; Fragmentation process of current laser lithotriptors. Pneumatic lithotripsy versus holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy for the treatment of single ureteral stones: Urol Int ; Curr Opin Urol ; Neurosurgery for brain tumors: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; Stereotactic laser ablation of high-grade gliomas. Endoscopic ablation therapy for gastrointestinal superficial neoplasia.
Dig Endosc ; New aspects of photodynamic therapy for central type early stage lung cancer. Pathologic analysis of photothermal and photomechanical effects of laser-tissue interactions. Photochem Photobiol ; Cell death pathways in photodynamic therapy of cancer. Cancers Basel ; 3: Abrahamse H, Hamblin MR. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.
Biochem J ; Chromophore-enhanced laser-tumor tissue photothermal interaction using an nm diode laser. Cancer Lett ; Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers. Facial Plast Surg ; Aslam A, Alster TS.
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Evolution of laser skin resurfacing: Dermatol Surg ; Majdabadi A, Abazari M. J Lasers Med Sci ; 6: YAG nm Laser Lipolysis. J Laser Heal Acad ; 4: Aesthet Surg J ; Mordon S, Plot E. Laser lipolysis versus traditional liposuction for fat removal. Expert Rev Med Devices ; 6: Lasers and optical technologies in facial plastic surgery.
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