Florence Nightingale

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  1. Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War
  2. Send me The National Archives’ newsletter
  3. Florence Nightingale
  4. Biography of Florence Nightingale | Florence Nightingale Museum London
  5. Nursing in peace and war

Who do you think the men in the picture are? Do you think this would this have been a comfortable place to stay? What do you think are the differences between this hospital and a modern one?

This report describes what happened in the hospital. Think about the nurses you have seen when you have visited a hospital or the doctor. Write down a list of all the things you have seen the nurses do, and what kind of people they are This source describes the work that Florence and her nurses did at the hospital at Scutari. This is a map of where the fighting took place. Look at the map of the war area and see if you can find the following: How do you think Florence and her nurses got to Scutari?

Do you think it would have been an easy journey? How long do you think it would have taken them to get there from England? This list is part of a booklet given to all the nurses who travelled to Scutari with Florence Nightingale. Think about the nurses you have seen again.

What kind of uniform do they wear?

Florence Nightingale and the Crimean War

Look at the document. Why do you think the nurses would need so many different types of clothing? How easy do you think it would have been to move around and work wearing these clothes? Now you are going to take part in a role-play. Glossary You may need to help with some of the language in this document: A wrapper is a type of dressing gown. A coarse fabric made from linen or cotton with a wool filling Alpaca: A glossy black woollen fabric Stays: Standard opening times Monday.

Featured Flickr image Patented textile pattern by Christopher Dresser. Florence was named after the city of her birth. After returning to England in , the Nightingales had a comfortable lifestyle, dividing their time between two homes, Lea Hurst in Derbyshire , located in central England, and Embley Park in warmer Hampshire , located in south-central England.

Embley Park, a large and comfortable estate, became the primary family residence, with the Nightingales taking trips to Lea Hurst in the summer and to London during the social season. Nightingale, the well-educated daughter of wealthy British parents, defied social conventions and decided to become a nurse. The nursing of strangers, either in hospitals or in their homes, was not then seen as a respectable career for well-bred ladies, who, if they wished….

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  • Florence Nightingale biography.

Florence was a precocious child intellectually. Her father took particular interest in her education, guiding her through history , philosophy , and literature. She excelled in mathematics and languages and was able to read and write French , German , Italian , Greek , and Latin at an early age. Never satisfied with the traditional female skills of home management, she preferred to read the great philosophers and to engage in serious political and social discourse with her father.

As part of a liberal Unitarian family, Florence found great comfort in her religious beliefs. Nursing seemed the suitable route to serve both God and humankind. Despite family reservations, Nightingale was eventually able to enroll at the Institution of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserswerth in Germany for two weeks of training in July and again for three months in July There she learned basic nursing skills, the importance of patient observation, and the value of good hospital organization.

In Nightingale sought to break free from her family environment.

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Through social connections, she became the superintendent of the Institution for Sick Gentlewomen governesses in Distressed Circumstances, in London, where she successfully displayed her skills as an administrator by improving nursing care, working conditions, and efficiency of the hospital. After one year she began to realize that her services would be more valuable in an institution that would allow her to train nurses.

However, politics, not nursing expertise, was to shape her next move. In October the Turkish Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia, following a series of disputes over holy places in Jerusalem and Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan. The British and the French, allies of Turkey, sought to curb Russian expansion. The status of the care of the wounded was reported to the London Times by the first modern war correspondent, British journalist William Howard Russell.

The newspaper reports stated that soldiers were treated by an incompetent and ineffective medical establishment and that the most basic supplies were not available for care. The British public raised an outcry over the treatment of the soldiers and demanded that the situation be drastically improved.

Sidney Herbert, secretary of state at war for the British government, wrote to Nightingale requesting that she lead a group of nurses to Scutari. Their letters crossed in the mail, but in the end their mutual requests were granted. Nightingale led an officially sanctioned party of 38 women, departing October 21, , and arriving in Scutari at the Barrack Hospital on November 5.

Not welcomed by the medical officers, Nightingale found conditions filthy, supplies inadequate, staff uncooperative, and overcrowding severe. Few nurses had access to the cholera wards, and Nightingale, who wanted to gain the confidence of army surgeons by waiting for official military orders for assistance, kept her party from the wards. In order to care for the soldiers properly, it was necessary that adequate supplies be obtained.

The wards were cleaned and basic care was provided by the nurses. Most important, Nightingale established standards of care, requiring such basic necessities as bathing, clean clothing and dressings, and adequate food. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra 's. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War.

The god gave her the gift of prophecy ; when she refused his advances, he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale's writing "a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf. In the poet Eleanor Ross Taylor wrote "Welcome Eumenides," a poem written in Nightingale's voice and quoting frequently from Nightingale's writings.


Eleanor Taylor has brought together the waste of women in society and the waste of men in wars and twisted them inseparably. Despite being named as a Unitarian in several older sources, Nightingale's own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative. She remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views.

Influenced from an early age by the Wesleyan tradition , Nightingale felt that genuine religion should manifest in active care and love for others. Suggestions for Thought , her own theodicy , which develops her heterodox ideas. Nightingale questioned the goodness of a God who would condemn souls to hell, and was a believer in universal reconciliation — the concept that even those who die without being saved will eventually make it to Heaven.

For example, a dying young prostitute being tended by Nightingale was concerned she was going to hell, and said to her "Pray God, that you may never be in the despair I am in at this time". The nurse replied "Oh, my girl, are you not now more merciful than the God you think you are going to? Yet the real God is far more merciful than any human creature ever was or can ever imagine. Despite her intense personal devotion to Christ, Nightingale believed for much of her life that the pagan and eastern religions had also contained genuine revelation.

She was a strong opponent of discrimination both against Christians of different denominations, and against those of non-Christian religions. Nightingale believed religion helped provide people with the fortitude for arduous good work, and would ensure the nurses in her care attended religious services. However she was often critical of organised religion. She disliked the role the 19th century Church of England would sometimes play in worsening the oppression of the poor. Nightingale argued that secular hospitals usually provided better care than their religious counterparts.

While she held that the ideal health professional should be inspired by a religious as well as professional motive, she said that in practice many religiously motivated health workers were concerned chiefly in securing their own salvation, and that this motivation was inferior to the professional desire to deliver the best possible care.

Nightingale's lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. In , the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal , which is awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service. The Nightingale Pledge is a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath which nurses recite at their pinning ceremony at the end of training. Created in and named after Nightingale as the founder of modern nursing, the pledge is a statement of the ethics and principles of the nursing profession.

NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health. As of , the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 25, signatories from countries. During the Vietnam War , Nightingale inspired many US Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work.

Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish , who has assembled an extensive website in her honour. The Agostino Gemelli Medical School [87] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale's contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name "Bedside Florence" to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the "Nightingale Quarter". A pub named after her stands close to the DRI. A stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the DRI chapel in the late s.

When the chapel was demolished the window was removed and installed in the replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. The work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Nightingale herself. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in attended the rededication service in October Upon the centenary of Nightingale's death in , and to commemorate her connection with Malvern , the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit [95] with a school poster competition to promote some events.

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself in May , she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident.

Florence Nightingale

Following this, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed during the Second World War. Florence Nightingale's voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from preserved in the British Library Sound Archive.

The recording, made in aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund and available to hear online, says:. When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. God bless my dear old comrades of Balaclava and bring them safe to shore. It did not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey 's biography of her in Eminent Victorians. In , a stage musical play representation of Nightingale entitled The Voyage of the Lass was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines.

In , a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross , starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale, was released, followed in by another silent film, Florence Nightingale , featuring Elisabeth Risdon. Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary — the BBC's Florence Nightingale , featuring Laura Fraser , [] emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4's Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea , she is portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole's efforts.

As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital, holding her lamp. Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of her, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May , was discovered in and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in In , Edward Tyas Cook was authorised by Nightingale's executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in Nightingale was also the subject of one of Lytton Strachey 's four mercilessly provocative biographical essays, Eminent Victorians.

Biography of Florence Nightingale | Florence Nightingale Museum London

Strachey regarded Nightingale as an intense, driven woman who was both personally intolerable and admirable in her achievements. Cecil Woodham-Smith , like Strachey, relied heavily on Cook's Life in her biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In , Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon and from archival documents from about archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale to date.

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. Washington National Cathedral celebrates Nightingale's accomplishments with a double-lancet stained glass window featuring six scenes from her life, designed by artist Joseph G. Reynolds and installed in A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava. Nightingale's moccasins that she wore in the Crimean War.

A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an lithograph by William Simpson. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Florence Nightingale disambiguation. For the film, see The Lady with a Lamp. Florence , Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Mayfair , London , England. Recorded to wax cylinder on 30 July , to raise money for veterans of the Charge of the Light Brigade. Retrieved 6 July First published London, Nightingale, Florence; McDonald, Lynn Biblical Annotations, Sermons and Journal Notes". Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Essays, Letters and Journal Notes".

Nursing in peace and war

Privately printed by Nightingale in Una and the Lion. First few pages missing. Title page is present. George Routledge and Sons, Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 13 February Medical Women and Victorian Fiction. University of Missouri Press. Atlas of Military History. Exploring the Italian birthplace of Florence Nightingale".

Retrieved 16 March Florence Nightingale on Mysticism and Eastern Religions. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 17 May European Crossroads and Faultlines. Amsterdam and New York: Women and the Catholic Church. Retrieved 18 April Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. Retrieved 13 March The Life of Florence Nightingale. What it is and what it is not. May 12th International Awareness Day.