Notre Dame de Paris (Oeuvres Complètes de Victor Hugo t. 3) (French Edition)

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The opposing political and religious views of Hugo's parents reflected the forces that would battle for supremacy in France throughout his life: Hugo's father was a high-ranking officer in Napoleon's army until he failed in Spain one of the reasons why his name is not present on the Arc de Triomphe. Since Hugo's father was an officer, the family moved frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels. On a childhood family trip to Naples , Hugo saw the vast Alpine passes and the snowy peaks, the magnificently blue Mediterranean, and Rome during its festivities.

They stayed in Naples for a few months and then headed back to Paris. Thereafter she dominated Hugo's education and upbringing. As a result, Hugo's early work in poetry and fiction reflect her passionate devotion to both King and Faith. It was only later, during the events leading up to France's Revolution , that he would begin to rebel against his Catholic Royalist education and instead champion Republicanism and Freethought.

On 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier , pulled down by her heavy skirts when a boat overturned. Her young husband also died trying to save her. I will see that instant until I die, that instant—too much for tears!

I don't have her any more! He wrote many poems afterwards about his daughter's life and death, and at least one biographer claims he never completely recovered from it. After leaving France, Hugo lived in Brussels briefly in , before moving to the Channel Islands , first to Jersey — and then to the smaller island of Guernsey in , where he stayed until Napoleon III's fall from power in Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in , under which Hugo could have safely returned to France, the author stayed in exile, only returning when Napoleon III was forced from power as a result of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War in After the Siege of Paris from to , Hugo lived again in Guernsey from to , before finally returning to France for the remainder of his life.

Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage Han d'Islande , , and his second three years later Bug-Jargal , In his youth, Hugo resolved to be " Chateaubriand or nothing", and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor in many ways. Like Chateaubriand , Hugo furthered the cause of Romanticism, became involved in politics though mostly as a champion of Republicanism , and was forced into exile due to his political stances. The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age.

Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervour and fluency, the collection that followed four years later in Odes et Ballades revealed Hugo to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative song. Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction was first published in February by Charles Gosselin without the author's name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work.

Claude Gueux , a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France. Hugo became the figurehead of the Romantic literary movement with the plays Cromwell and Hernani One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame , which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved. On one of the pages of his notes about the prison, he wrote in large block letters a possible name for his hero: Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel, as evidenced in a letter he wrote to his publisher, Albert Lacroix, on 23 March , "My conviction is that this book is going to be one of the peaks, if not the crowning point of my work.

The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. It also initially published only the first part of the novel "Fantine" , which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society.

The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel; Taine found it insincere, Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity, Gustave Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness", the Goncourt brothers lambasted its artificiality, and Baudelaire — despite giving favourable reviews in newspapers — castigated it in private as "repulsive and inept". Today, the novel remains his most enduringly popular work. It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema, television, and stage shows.

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An apocryphal tale [10] about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking? The publisher replied with a single! Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey , where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo tells of a man who attempts to win the approval of his beloved's father by rescuing his ship, intentionally marooned by its captain who hopes to escape with a treasure of money it is transporting, through an exhausting battle of human engineering against the force of the sea and a battle against an almost mythical beast of the sea, a giant squid.

Superficially an adventure, one of Hugo's biographers calls it a "metaphor for the 19th century—technical progress, creative genius and hard work overcoming the immanent evil of the material world. The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid pieuvre , also sometimes applied to octopus was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book.

Agnès Spiquel - "Notre-Dame de Paris : l'amour, la mort, l'Histoire (Paris 1482)"

Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit The Man Who Laughs , which was published in and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. His last novel, Quatre-vingt-treize Ninety-Three , published in , dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels.

He was elevated to the peerage by King Louis-Philippe in and entered the Higher Chamber as a pair de France , where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice , and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland. In , he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty. Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children. Hugo's advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally.

When Louis Napoleon Napoleon III seized complete power in , establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. He relocated to Brussels , then Jersey , from which he was expelled for supporting a Jersey newspaper that had criticised Queen Victoria and finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port , Guernsey , where he would live in exile from October until The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there.

Like most of his contemporaries, Victor Hugo held colonialist views towards Africans. In a speech delivered on 18 May , he declared that the Mediterranean Sea formed a natural divide between " ultimate civilisation and […] utter barbarism," adding "God offers Africa to Europe.

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Take it," in order to civilise its indigenous inhabitants. This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained strangely silent on the Algerian issue. He knew about the atrocities committed by the French Army during the French conquest of Algeria as evidenced by his diary [15] but he never denounced them publicly. A modern reader may also feel puzzled, to say the least, at the meaning of these lines from the conclusion to Le Rhin, chapter 17, [16] published in , twelve years after French troops landed near Algiers.

What France lacks in Algiers is a little barbarity. The first thing that strikes savages is not reason but strength. What France lacks, England has it; Russia too. Algeria too harshly conquered, and, as in the case of India by the English, with more barbarism than civilization.

Before being exiled he never denounced slavery, and no trace of its abolition is to be found in the 27 April entry of his detailed diary. On the other hand, Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist, diarist, and member of Parliament. The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution; several entries of Things Seen Choses vues , the diary he kept between and , convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence; [18] on 15 September , seven months after the Revolution of , he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded, "You have overthrown the throne.

His complete archives published by Pauvert show also that he wrote a letter asking the United States government, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spare John Brown's life, but the letter arrived after Brown was executed. Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in , Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government.

It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in , where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate. He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian Army in , famously eating animals given to him by the Paris Zoo. As the siege continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to "eating the unknown". During the Paris Commune — the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March and was toppled on 28 May — Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides.

On 9 April, he wrote in his diary, "In short, this Commune is as idiotic as the National Assembly is ferocious.

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From both sides, folly. Death to the scoundrel! Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war", [25] was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. He expounded his views on the subject in a speech he delivered during the International Peace Congress which took place in Paris in The conference helped establish Hugo as a prominent public speaker and sparked his international fame, and promoted the idea of the "United States of Europe" [26].

On 14 July he planted the "oak of the United States of Europe" in the garden of Hauteville House where he stayed during his exile on Guernsey from to However, in Pauvert 's published archives, he states strongly that "any work of art has two authors: When one of the authors dies, the rights should totally be granted back to the other, the people". Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. In his youth and under the influence of his mother, he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. From there he became a non-practicing Catholic and increasingly expressed anti-Catholic and anti-clerical views.

A census-taker asked Hugo in if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. After , Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Catholic Church. He felt the Church was indifferent to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy. Perhaps he also was upset by the frequency with which his work appeared on the Church's list of banned books. In his will, he made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral. Yet he believed in life after death and prayed every single morning and night, convinced as he wrote in The Man Who Laughs that "Thanksgiving has wings and flies to its right destination.

Your prayer knows its way better than you do". Hugo's rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada , about religious fanaticism , The Pope , anti-clerical , Religions and Religion , denying the usefulness of churches and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God and respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel. Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th century.

Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music of Gluck and Weber. Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Hector Berlioz and Franz Liszt. The latter played Beethoven in Hugo's home, and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that, thanks to Liszt's piano lessons, he learned how to play a favourite song on the piano — with only one finger. Hugo also worked with composer Louise Bertin , writing the libretto for her opera La Esmeralda , which was based on the character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame.

On the other hand, he had low esteem for Richard Wagner , whom he described as "a man of talent coupled with imbecility. Well over one thousand musical compositions have been inspired by Hugo's works from the 19th century until the present day. In particular, Hugo's plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama, attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas.

More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo's works and among them are Donizetti 's Lucrezia Borgia , Verdi 's Rigoletto and Ernani , and Ponchielli 's La Gioconda Today, Hugo's work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. Remarkably, not only Hugo's literary production has been the source of inspiration for musical works, but also his political writings have received attention from musicians and have been adapted to music.

When Hugo returned to Paris in , the country hailed him as a national hero. He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship , as shown by the notes he kept at the time. Throughout his life Hugo kept believing in unstoppable humanistic progress. In his last public address on 3 August he prophesied in an over-optimistic way, "In the twentieth century war will be dead, the scaffold will be dead, hatred will be dead, frontier boundaries will be dead, dogmas will be dead; man will live.

His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet , died in , only two years before his own death. Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. On 30 January , he was elected to the newly created Senate. This last phase of his political career was considered a failure. Hugo was a maverick and achieved little in the Senate. Hugo suffered a mild stroke on 27 June On 27 June, one of the largest parades in French history was held. The paraders marched for six hours past Hugo as he sat at the window at his house.

Le Matin published a slightly different version, "Here is the battle between day and night. Hugo's death from pneumonia on 22 May , at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. All his life he remained a defender of liberty, equality and fraternity as well as an adamant champion of French culture.

In , aged 75, he wrote, "I am not one of these sweet-tempered old men. I am still exasperated and violent. I shout and I feel indignant and I cry. Woe to anyone who harms France! I do declare I will die a fanatic patriot. Most large French towns and cities have a street named after him. Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres.


Non dico nemmeno "lo consiglio". Una persona l'ha trovato utile. Mentre nella mia prima lettura di tanto tempo fa mi interessai principalmente della vicenda, adesso apprezzo pienamente la magistrale descrizione che V. In lingua originale, poi, Del resto si sapeva che e' un capolavoro della letteratura. Davvero un bellissimo libro, scritto molto bene e che fa riflettere molto.

Victor Hugo

Non ho nient'altro da aggiungere. Basta stop chiuso ciao. Una persona l'ha trovato utile 2 persone l'hanno trovato utile. Vedi tutte le 12 recensioni. Visualizzare altre recensioni di questo articolo? Pubblicato il 26 gennaio Pubblicato il 30 maggio Pubblicato il 24 dicembre Pubblicato il 22 febbraio Commenti Se hai bisogno di aiuto o hai delle domande per il Servizio Clienti, contattaci.

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