Histoire des parcs nationaux: Comment prendre soin de la nature ? (French Edition)

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  1. Prendre soin de la nature ordinaire - Author Catherine Mougenot - irogyrikewyx.tk
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Prendre soin de la nature ordinaire - Author Catherine Mougenot - irogyrikewyx.tk

The types of activity, the intensity of use or the number of users are, however, three variables that are difficult to constantly evaluate and therefore to take into account in management indicators for tourist numbers. The discourse by the managers and the inhabitants shows that it is not only a mechanical product resulting from a relationship between numbers of visitors and natural resources; while observation by eco-controllers and research are necessary to evaluate it, the quantified data — when they exist — are insufficient.

The risk notably that related to fire gives these postures a very variable importance. This importance is even diametrically opposed between Gavarnie and Sainte-Victoire, which probably mark both ends of the scale concept quite well integrated at Sainte-Victoire and ignored at Gavarnie. It is continually debated in the political arena to require the participation of the stakeholders, in particular the local authorities, rarely the population, and even more rarely visitors. Finally, the interviews with the site managers showed that, for many of them, changing the access and conditions of visiting the site was sometimes difficult to envisage.

It can be deduced that the calculation, interpretation and application of a maximum load capacity for a site is primarily based on a desire for regulation on the part of the local actors — provided that they have been informed of what could happen if they do not make choices prospective hypotheses. This was rare in the cases studied the Dune of Pilat is an example of the slow pace of taking into account the risks associated with poorly controlled numbers of visitors.

Prendre soin de la nature ordinaire

It has been found that value judgements concerning the acceptable level of change to be introduced into practices reflect both positions of political philosophy the limiting of access being an unpopular measure and emotional positions, based as much on experience as on the economy. This is one of the major issues of flow management as the needs with respect to public action are already changing along with uses and their perception. Many opportunities exist to innovate and invent new business models and enable funding for better flow management.

The difficulties in increasing economic benefits in these areas thanks to the digital revolution are certainly numerous risks of very complex technical systems, the stranglehold of some private operators, a greater split between the areas that have the means to monitor these developments and those that do not. We can note considerable delays in the implementation of digital strategies in the outstanding natural areas studied, contrary to the case in smart cities.

Indeed, the latter work to make their mobility smart via big data Berlin, Barcelona, Paris, London, and even the Songdo International Business District that increasingly collect and process data on numbers of visitors in a continuous, automated and shared way. This is done via the development of e-roaming orientation tables with touch screens, etc. The implementation of protective measures and quotas regarding numbers of visitors is part of the constrained context characterized by local pressures to urbanize or equip the site, protection measures challenged by certain actors, the vulnerability of sites confronted with natural hazards marine erosion, forest fires, erosion due to torrential rains, avalanches, floods, etc.

Sites are therefore places subject to intervention logics with differentiated objectives, places that are continually changing under the effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. How do the users of these sites visitors, local inhabitants, and even shopkeepers position themselves with respect to these developments?

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Are they aware of the transformations experienced in these sites? What is their opinion of these transformations? More generally, what is their conception of what is desirable or, on the contrary, undesirable in these outstanding areas? The second objective of this research was to access knowledge — even partial — of perceptions, representations and uses of the natural area.

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In addition, a survey of shopkeepers from three sites with a commercial offer in the immediate vicinity of the protected natural area Dune of Pilat, Gavarnie and Pointe du Raz was conducted between June and July These surveys were therefore deliberately different from the periodic surveys of tourist numbers in protected natural areas, which mainly aim to better understand the profile of the visitors gender, age, socio-professional category, visit habits and modes, arrival time, time spent on site , the means of access to the site and the reasons for the visit activities undertaken.

These surveys also purposed to understand the perceptions, representations and uses of the natural area in order to inform public action, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the completed or planned developments, and to determine what was considered desirable or, on the contrary, undesirable, useless or unsuitable. A questionnaire survey method was chosen in order to question a fairly large number of visitors and, above all, to be able to conduct statistical processing of the results facilitating their comparative perspective three sites.

The associated questionnaire was structured around three main themes: However, this request for nature is not without ambiguity since the investigation revealed that it was accompanied, in all of the sites, by a need for access, safety, maintenance and cleanliness A need therefore for facilities, but discreet, light and especially integrated into the landscape.

It is therefore finally a certain notion of nature that is reflected through the analysis of the survey results: Natural areas offering free and open access to all individuals, regardless of age, gender, social status, profession or religious affiliation, etc. Most of the visitors were delighted with their visit: However, the factors identified as problematic were indeed related to the issue of flow management: This very high overall level of satisfaction also concerned the facilities present on the site reception, parking, signs, etc.


The massive numbers of tourists, while perceived as manna from heaven for the shopkeepers interviewed, were judged negatively by many visitors and were among the least appreciated aspects of the visit. However, the principle of regulating the visits was rather badly received. The shopkeepers had the impression that their interests were not taken into account by the site managers. They considered themselves as not only economic actors but also ambassadors of the natural site, highlighting their role in the welcoming of and provision of information to visitors as well as their contribution to the social development of the site.

As such, they lamented the fact that their voices were not sufficiently heard by the managing bodies. Indeed, local inhabitants can and want to get involved in tourism in their region, while start-ups could invent new services to respond to needs that are currently unmet. These logics tend to accelerate the reconfiguration of tourism strategies for outstanding natural areas — organized until very recently along local institutional perimeters only — around a wider, more diversified offer integrating a porosity with neighbouring regions.

The experience of peaks in numbers of visitors that are difficult to manage has led site managers to determine the maximum permissible number of visits for a typical day. While all parties assume that the increase in the number of users leads to a reduction in the quality of service received by each of these users, the need to assess the relationship between user satisfaction and visitor numbers has not been implemented in any site of the sample. Firstly, the ecological dimension concerning the maximum number of visitors that the destination can accommodate below the stress conditions for the natural environment and monuments Newsome et al.

Secondly, the economic dimension of the maximum number of visitors that can be accommodated while guaranteeing a constant quality of their experience Canestrelli and Costa, without jeopardizing the tourism product, its cost and its profitability. And finally, a dimension less often taken into account, that of the comfortable nature of and positive experience generated by the discovery image and reputation , a dimension of representation that is nevertheless extremely important in determining a positive experience on the part of the visitor and thus a good reputation and positive tourism impacts.

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