The Coffee Roasters Companion by Scott Rao (2014-05-04)

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By Frank on Sep 06, This is an enlightening guidebook to the best practices for roasting. Scott certainly knows roasting and much of this book is geared for the professional roaster. I am not a professional and as a home roaster feel that my Hottop drum roaster offers the minimum specifications to take advantage of most of what Scott is saying. Back to the "enlightening" part, I've only roasted a couple of hundred batches and couldn't really get a handle on the how and why of my roasting process until reading this book. Scott has offered "The Three Commandments of Roasting".

I've seen lots of debate about the "Commandments" on HomeBarista. Personally, a few foolproof guidelines are just what I needed. It changed my roasting approach dramatically and the truth of what Scott is saying is apparent in my every ristretto. That book and Randy Glass' blog, "Espresso! Now Scott's book has moved my comprehension of "third wave" roasting forward. My big complaint is the two or three times that the author says that something is "outside the scope of this book". I would also like to see more roast curves, and have them accompanied by cupping notes.

I am a new professional roaster, and this book has definitely moved my knowledge further, but I wouldn't call it my companion. This book will likely sit on the shelf until we need to hire a new employee. It's still a buy, even though my expectations were not met. By Bklavieri on Sep 12, This book has been an exceptional resource. The author has outlined and written this book in a logical, informative manner. The details in this book are what I have been looking for since we opened our doors. We have hired professional consultants and while that was a smart business move, The Coffee Roaster's Companion answers so many technical questions and has helped reinforce that we, as roasters, are on the right track.

Excellent book - highly recommend! By Spectre on Oct 01, Scott Rao takes what information home and commercial roasters have painstakingly learned over time through forums, advice from others, and personal experience and congeals it into this book. While aimed more at the commercial or artisan roaster, the principles still apply to home roasters.

If you love everything about coffee and home roast, or roast commercially, buy this book.

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There just may be some new insight gained from it. By Coffeeguru1 on Dec 02, A good introduction to coffee roasting for those using Probat style drum roasters. Roasters seeking new information, resources, etc will also be pleased. However, the price point for this work is too high given the content and hubris. Rao, at times, describes his quest to perfect roasting in a manner that places him in a lofty position.

A rant would describe such paragraphs. They are hard to ignore and remove the validity from the point he is trying to make. Nevertheless, some of his theories are sound but little information is provided as a fact check to support his experience and findings. Overall, it was an enjoyable read and could be beneficial to those seeking introductory knowledge. By Samuel Sturdivant on Oct 12, There is a lot of good information in here. You have to take some things with a grain of salt as there is a bit of relativity in tastes and the differences between machines.

I know several roasters who disagree on some specific points. Easily the best primer I've seen available for roasting before you start getting into the heavy science, vague philosophy, and relative opinions. Hawkings-snell on Oct 08, It has been suggested that polyploids manage harsh environments better than their diploid relatives but empirical data supporting this hypothesis are scarce, especially for trees.

Using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry, we examine the frequency of polyploids and diploids in a progeny trial testing four different populations of Acacia senegal, a species native to sub-Saharan regions of Africa. We compare growth between cytotypes and test whether polyploid seedlings grow better than diploids. Our results show that polyploids coexist with diploids in highly variable proportions among populations in Senegal. Acacia senegal genotypes were predominantly diploid and tetraploid, but triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, and octaploid forms were also found. We find that polyploids show faster growth than diploids under our test conditions: The results suggest that polyploid A.

The acacia ants revisited: Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach—ultraconserved element sequence capture—to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group and their associated Vachellia hostplants.

In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants. We confirm the existence of two separate lineages of obligate acacia ants that convergently occupied Vachellia and evolved plant-protecting behaviour, from timid ancestors inhabiting dead twigs in rainforest.

The more diverse of the two clades is inferred to have arisen in the Late Miocene in northern Mesoamerica, and subsequently expanded its range throughout much of Central America. The other lineage is estimated to have originated in southern Mesoamerica about 3 Myr later, apparently piggy-backing on the pre-existing mutualism.

Comparative studies of the two lineages of mutualists should provide insight into the essential features binding this mutualism. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia. Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification.

This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species.

Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period.

Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia.

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Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia. Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A.

Mixed planting retarded the A. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A.


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In the 6 years old 1: Mixed planting with 2: Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp. Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas.

Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C c , increases in metabolites and decreases in metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia , significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and transhydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites e.

The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp.

Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. We studied the effect of A.

We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study. Parent tree effects on reestablishment of Acacia koa in abandoned pasture and the influence of initial density on stand development. Increasingly private landholders in Hawaii are considering native forest restoration for their lands, and some public agencies have already started such work. Initial efforts have focused on reestablishing Acacia koa to recover alien-grass-dominated sites. Understory structure in a year-old Acacia koa forest and 2-year growth responses to silvicultural treatments.

Restoration of degraded Acacia koa forests in Hawaii often involves mechanical scarification to stimulate germination of seed buried in the soil and to suppress vegetation that competes with shade intolerant A. Resulting even-age stands are gradually colonized by other plant species, but understory Influence of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional properties of water chestnut Trapa bispinosa starch.

This study was performed to determine the effect of xanthan, guar, CMC and gum acacia on functional and pasting properties of starch isolated from water chestnut Trapa bispinosa. The addition of hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the solubility of water chestnut starch WCS while reduced swelling power and freeze-thaw stability. The hydrophilic tendency of WCS was increased by xanthan gum; however, with addition of gum acacia it decreased significantly.

Guar gum was found to be effective in increasing the clarity of water chestnut starch paste. The setback was accelerated in the presence of xanthan gum but gum acacia delayed this effect during the cooling of the starch paste. Only xanthan gum was found to be effective in increasing breakdown showing good paste stability of WCS.

Inoculating Acacia koa with Bradyrhizobium and applying fertilizer in the nursery: Restoration of Acacia koa A. Gray koa forests on degraded sites in Hawaii is important for conservation of rare, endemic plants and animals and is often accomplished by planting nursery-grown seedlings. To be successful after outplanting, koa seedlings must access sufficient nutrients from the soil and outcompete other vegetation. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands.

This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal Mixing of acacia bark and palm shells to increase caloric value of palm shells white charcoal briquette. Indonesia is greatly rich in biomass resources. On the other hand waste palm shells have been partly utilized as boiler fuel oil plant as much as This study aims to determine the effect of mixing an acacia bark with palm shells to increase the calorific value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes.

As well as white charcoal briquettes control without any acacia bark. And the results of briquettes analysis in calorific value. The results showed that the caloric value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes increased from Geoecosystem-related dynamics of Acacia populations in the Israeli hyper-arid Arava Valley.

Similar to other Middle-Eastern and North-African drylands, Acacia populations across the hyper-arid Arava Valley of Israel have experienced dramatic phonological changes during the last few decades. These changes have been expressed with high mortality rates and low recruitment rates. Species of the Acacia trees across the region include the A. We studied the recruitment and decay rate of seedlings. Also, data showed that the main impediment to recruitment and survival of seedlings was insufficient access to soil-water, resulting in their mortality due to drying.

Another, secondary impediment was imposed by erosional and depositional processes under heavy floods, resulting in the elimination or burial of seedlings. Modeling of results revealed that the drying of seedlings is defined with a constant mortality rate, which fits an exponential decay function. At the same time, seedling mortality due to fluvial processes is defined with a mortality rate that grows with time, which fits a Gaussian decay function. Also, we investigated the effect of latitude, basin size, and microhabitat on vitality of existing trees.

Results showed negative effect of latitude on tree mortality, fitting with the generally greater precipitation rates in the northern- than in the southern- Arava Valley. At the same time, no effect on tree mortality was recorded for basin size, proposing that in such extreme drylands, runoff ratio becomes more non-linear with increasing watershed size because of the greater dominance of ephemeral stream transmission losses, as well as due to the partial storm area coverage.

Nor did the location in microhabitat across the valley floor affect tree mortality rate, highlighting the bimodal effect of greater access to flood water, potentially increasing survivability of old trees, but at the same time, imposing. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands.

The Coffee Roaster's Companion by Scott Rao (2014-05-04)

The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place.

To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer cm at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter OM were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk.

Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees.

Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. Various kinetic models such as Power function model, Schott model and Higuchi model were applied to interpret the release data. Schott model was found to be most fitted. The Doxycycline loaded hydrogels were tested for their antibacterial action against E.

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Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes. Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species-- Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl 0, 50, and mM for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways.

Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. Under salt stress, the root: W S and root mass ratio W R: W RS increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. Water absorption and method improvement concerning electrical conductivity testing Acacia mangium Fabaceae seeds.

Acacia is an important forest species of rapid growth whose seeds have tegument dormancy. In this work it was intended to characterize water absorption pattern after seed dormancy break, and to determine the amount of water, container size and the need of breaking the tegument dormancy, as to perform electrical conductivity test in small and large seeds of Acacia mangium Fabaceae.

The seeds were collected from 10, 8 and 6 years old trees established in poor yielding-capacity soils on savannah areas of Roraima, Brazil; seeds were classified in six lots concerning to seed size and tree age. Imbibition was verified by seed weighing at different times 0, 2, 5, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and hours. The electrical conductivity test consisted of three experiments, distinguished by the amount of water used and by the container size in which seeds were immersed. Small seeds presented increased in electrical conductivity and water absorption until hours when compared to large seeds.

The immersion of seeds of A. The ratio of electrolytes by seed mass, after 24 hours of immersion in water, turns electrical conductivity test more accurate concerning A. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Fabaceae , synonym Acacia saligna Labill. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz. Phenylethyl salicylate 8; The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds.

Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce Lactuca sativa L. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce.


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Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Multiple reaction monitoring MRM with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested.

The lowest levels were in A. Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal L. Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal. Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes nodA and nodC. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity ARA , and specific acetylene reduction activity SARA of plants.

However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis PCA. This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia , and F.

Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown.

In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Individual based, long term monitoring of acacia trees in hyper arid zone: Integration of a field survey and a remote sensing approach. Vegetation in hyper arid zones is very sparse as is. Monitoring vegetation changes in hyper arid zones is important because any reduction in the vegetation cover in these areas can lead to a considerable reduction in the carrying capacity of the ecological system. This study focuses on the impact of climate fluctuations on the acacia population in the southern Arava valley, Israel.

The period of this survey includes a sequence of dry years with no flashfloods in most of the plots that ended in two years with vast floods. Arid zone acacia trees play a significant role in the desert ecosystem by moderating the extreme environmental conditions including radiation, temperature, humidity and precipitation. The trees also provide nutrients for the desert dwellers. Long term monitoring of the acacia tree population in this area can provide insights into long term impacts of climate fluctuations on ecosystems in arid zones. Since , a continuous yearly based survey on the three species of acacia population in seven different plots is conducted in the southern Arava established by Shalmon, ecologist of the Israel nature and parks authority.

The seven plots representing different ecosystems and hydrological regimes. A yearly based population monitoring enabled us to determine the mortality and recruitment rate of the acacia populations as well as growing rates of individual trees. This survey provides a unique database of the acacia population dynamics during a sequence of dry years that ended in a vast flood event during the winter of A lack of quantitative, nondestructive methods to estimate and monitor stress status of the acacia trees, led us to integrate remote sensing tools ground and air-based along with conventional field measurements in order to develop a long term monitoring of acacia.

Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica Lam. Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia GA and the seeds of M. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation.

They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography. Acacia senegal L Willd. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity.

We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics.

A putative geographical pattern of A. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells. An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles ZnONPs possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa. Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis Forsk. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability SWA were monitored.

In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between and mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l dm sapwood area -2 day -1 was recorded at the end of the wet season.

Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed 1 the existence of living roots at 25 m and 2 that the availability of soil water was low However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons.

We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting. Effects of Gelam and Acacia honey acute administration on some biochemical parameters of Sprague Dawley rats. Background Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Scientific evidence for its efficacy is widely studied, but systemic safety studies are still lacking.

It is essential to study the impact of consumption of honey on the health and proper development of the consumer. Methods An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline , with minor modifications. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study.

Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Clinical biochemistry, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Since ancient times, honey has been used for medicinal purposes in many cultures; it is one of the oldest and most enduring substances used in wound management. Therefore, the present study was designed to observe the effects of acute administration 14 days of Gelam honey GH , a wild harvesting honey and Acacia honey AH , a beekeeping honey, on male and female Sprague Dawley SD rats.

An acute oral study was performed following OECD test guideline , with minor modifications. Animals were observed for the next 14 days. Rats fed with honey did not exhibit any abnormal signs or deaths. Results showed a decrease in weight gain and energy efficiency, but significantly increased in total food intake and total calories in female rats fed with GH, compared to control p Hypoglycemic effects of Acacia nilotica in type II diabetes: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder throughout the world which can negatively affect the function of various body organs.

Due to their availability and few side effects, herbal medicines have been proposed as suitable alternatives in the management of diabetes.

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Previous studies have confirmed the anti diabetic properties of Acacia nilotica. The hypoglycemic effects of this plant have been attributed to its role in stimulating the islets of Langerhans to produce more insulin. The present paper describes a systematic review protocol for the assessment of the hypoglycemic effects of A. Randomized and non-randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, performed during will be included.

Well-known databases will be searched for selected key terms A. We believe that our findings will provide details about difficulties researchers face during the design of protocols or implementation of scientific studies. Ultimately, the publication of our findings will facilitate the development of effective treatment strategies to promote the health of people with type II DM. Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction. Many plant species attract ants onto their foliage with food rewards or nesting space.

However, ants can interfere with plant reproduction when they visit flowers. This study tests whether Acacia constricta separates visiting ant species temporally or spatially from newly opened inflorescences and pollinators.

The diurnal activity patterns of ants and A. In addition to being largely temporally separated, ants rarely visited open inflorescences. A floral ant repellent contributes to the spatial separation of ants and inflorescences. In a field experiment, ants of four species were given equal access to inflorescences in different developmental stages. On average, the frequency with which ants made initial, antennal contact with the floral stages did not differ, but ants significantly avoided secondary contact with newly opened inflorescences relative to buds and old inflorescences, and old inflorescences relative to buds.

Ants also avoided contact with pollen alone, indicating that pollen is at least one source of the repellent. The results suggest A. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.


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  • This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats consuming Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban. We described the effects of two East African browses, Acacia brevispica and Sesbania sesban, on nitrogen metabolism of sheep and goats. The browses were fed at three levels in combination with vetch Vicia dasycarpa and teff straw Eragrostis abyssinica. Fecal N was highest with diets including A. Nitrogen retention was highest for diets including S.

    Nitrogen retention was adequate for A. Four hypotheses describe possible effects of tannins on N metabolism: The effect of tannins in A. Antimicrobial and Toxicity Activities. Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Fabaceae is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay.

    The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between These results support the use of A. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds.

    Australian blackwood Acacia melanoxylon RBR is a valuable commercial timber that since has been incriminated as being injurious to health. In addition to toxic effects numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma have been observed in woodworkers. Several constituents have been identified in recent years, but none of them could be considered as aetiological factors. Sensitizing experiments performed with blackwood heartwood extracts corroborated the described sensitising properties.

    Chemical studies showed the occurrence of two or possibly three quinones that produced positive skin responses in the sensitised guinea pigs. The main contact allergens were isolated and identified by x-ray analysis. The first, a yellow quinone, was identified as 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone while the second, a red quinone, has the structure of 6-methoxymethyl-3,5-dihydrobenzofurano-4,7-dion and was named acamelin. Whereas 2, 6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone is already known from natural sources, acamelin is new and belongs to the rate group of naturally occurring furanoquinones.

    Though the obtained sensitising capacity of A melanoxylon RBR in respect of its quinones is not high, it should be considered as a possible source of allergic contact dermatitis, especially as greater amounts of Australian blackwood may enter European countries in the near future. Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. Jika berat sebenarnya adalah melebihi estimasi, biaya pengiriman tambahan diperlukan untuk dibayar segera untuk melanjutkan proses.

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    Please enter paste product links. EBAY Top us store. Blog Belanja Internasional Langkah 1. Go to the product price link.

    irogyrikewyx.tk: SCOTT RAO: Books

    Belanja Amazon Today Deals. Nikon Coolpix L Digital Camera. Garmin Quatix 5, 1. Bulova Men's 96A Dress Watch. Sold by Multiple seller. Sembunyikan harga Tampilkan detail harga. Total service fees and taxes. Total Biaya untuk Berat Estimasi 0. Harga Check Out sudah termasuk harga produk, biaya pengiriman internasional sesuai dengan berat estimasi yang ditampilkan , biaya pengiriman domestik, jasa weshop, dan biaya bea cukai. Jaringan kurir terpercaya Weshop.

    Estimasi pengiriman internasional dapat berbeda karena adanya beberapa alasan di luar kendali sebagai berikut: Weshop tidak menjamin ketepatan estimasi pengiriman internasional dalam kondisi-kondisi tersebut.